QUALITY TOOLS & TECHNIQUES Q T TINTRODUCTION TO PROCESS & PROCESS MANAGEMENT By: - Hakeem–Ur–Rehman IQTM–PU 1
CHANGING SCOPE OF “QUALITY” TO ORGANIZATIONAL FROM PERFORMANCE Products, Processes,PRODUCT Systems, DepartmentsQUALITY
EVOLUTION OF QUALITY FIELD TQM+ – Wave II TQM – Wave I Lean Six Sigma HRM QA Six Sigma GROUP ISO9000 DYNAMICS QC Teams Knowledge SPC Mgt. OPR MGT. Efficiency Quality BPR IT Circles Inspection/ TPM Testing Metrology JIT/MRPProduct Insp. to Process to System to Culture to Performance Control (Opr Mgt ) Change 3
WHAT IS A PROCESS?A PROCESS is a logical, related, sequential (connected) set of activities that takes aninput from a “supplier”, adds value to it, and produces an output that goes to the“customer”. Process Inputs Outputs Flow units Goods (raw material, Resources: Labor & Capital Services customers) The Process View of an Organization An Input-Process-Output (IPO) diagram, also known as a general process diagram, provides a visual representation of a process by defining a process and demonstrating the relationships between input and output elements. The input and output variables are known as „factors‟ (X) and „responses‟ (Y) , respectively. INPUTS OUTPUTS Data Entry Method Time to complete a bill Amount of Personnel Training BILLING Number of errors / bill Method for obtaining bill PROCESS from information 4
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (FLOW CHART) A Flowchart is a diagram that uses graphic symbols to represent the nature and flow of the steps in a process / system. Deciding when & where to collect dataFEW SYMBOLS USED IN FLOW DIAGRAM Process Symbol “An Operation or Action step” Database Symbol “Electronically Stored Information” Terminator Symbol “Start or Stop Point in a process” Flow Line Inventory / Buffer “Raw Material / Finished Goods Storage” Decision Point Inventory / Buffer “Partial Finished Goods “Work In Process” Storage” Document Symbol “A Document or Report”
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (Cont….)1.What you THINK it is …2.What it ACTUALLY is…3. What it SHOULD be…
PROCESS MAPPING LEVELS LEVEL–1: The Macro Process Map, sometimes called a Management Level or viewpoint. LEVEL–2: The Process Map, sometimes called the worker level or viewpoint. This example is from the perspective of the pizza chef. LEVEL–3: The Micro Process Map, sometimes called the Improvement level or viewpoint. Similar to a level–2, it will show more steps and tasks and on it will be various performance data; yields, cycle time, value and non-value added time, defects, etc. 8
TYPES OF PROCESS MAPS THE LINEAR FLOW PROCESS MAPAs the name states, the diagram shows the process steps in a sequential flow,generally ordered from an upper left corner of the map towards the right side. THE DEPLOYMENT FLOW or SWIM LANE PROCESS MAPThe value of the swim lane map is that is shows you who or which department is responsible forthe steps in a process. This can provide powerful insights in the way a process performs. Atimeline can be added to show how long it takes each group to perform their work. Also eachtime work moves across a swim lane, there is a “Supplier – Customer” interaction. This isusually where bottlenecks and queues form. 9
TYPES OF PROCESS MAPS: SIPOC DIAGRAM Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers 2)a. What is the start of the process?6) Who are the 5) What are 3) What are 4) Who are theSuppliers of the the Inputs of 1) What is the the outputs of customers of the Inputs? the Process? process? the process? outputs? 2) b. What is the end of the process?
TYPES OF PROCESS MAPS: SIPOC DIAGRAM Example SIPOC Diagram of Husband making wife a cup of tea.
ORGANIZATION’S OUTPUT Vs OUTCOME OUTCOME Quality of SalesCOMPANY Quantum of Sales OUTPUT
Quality Objectives EXAMPLE OUTPUT OUTCOMEPOST OFFICE Number of Letters Delivery Rate Number of Post Offices Damage Rate Number of Transactions Transactions/day/personUNIVERSITY Number of Students Graduate Competency Rate Number of Teachers Job Placement Rate Number of Programs Difference in Market Salary Number of Branches % of Satisfied Graduates % of Satisfied EmployersPRODUCTION Number of items Produced % Defectives / RejectedDEPT. Types of Product Produced Cost of Production/item Number of items/unit timeTESTING Number of tests Measurement Error %DEPT. Types of Tests Delays of tests Cost of unit testHRD Number of persons hired Core Competence Number of Trainings Duration of vacant posts % of Poor Hiring