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Molecular biology and its application in food biotechnology


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Molecular biology and its application in food biotechnology descript the rule of cell and DNA in bioprocess as basic of biotechnology.

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Molecular biology and its application in food biotechnology

  1. 1. Molecular biology application in food biotechnology Part 1 Basic of molecular biology Pramono, H.
  2. 2. outline • Organization of the cell • Chromosome and DNA • Central Dogma of Molecular Biology • Brief explanation of application of basic molecular biology
  3. 3. The tree of Live
  4. 4. Organization of Cell • It’s estimated that there are more than 10 million living organism in earth • They are different, each reproduces it self faithfully  progeny of same species • This phenomenon is called heredity  stored information in linear DNA form • Most living organism are single or multicellular – Prokaryotic cell – Eukaryotic cell
  5. 5. Inside the cell
  6. 6. Cell membrane • Consist of protein membrane, transmembrane, and phospholipid bilayer • Keep homeostatis of the cell
  7. 7. Cell wall
  8. 8. Organelles Organelles Function Ribosome Most abundant organelle, translation of mRNA Mitochondria Energy generating organelle in Eukaryotic cell Plasmid Small circular DNA fragment in bacteria or yeast, some specific function Chromosome Linear DNA for generating genetic information heredity Reticulum endoplasmic Post translational modification of protein Golgi complex Post translational modification and generate liposome to bring molecule exclude from the cell
  9. 9. Chromosome
  10. 10. DNA • Information always stored as code – Language: consist of alphabetic code and voice – Music in CD or Flash: data consist of 1 and 0 code – Live: DNA fragment called gene • DNA consist of phosphate, sugar, and nitrogen base  nucleotide • Double helix (Watson and Crick)
  11. 11. • Note: 5 (phosphate)-3 (OH)
  12. 12. Denaturation of DNA • Hidrogen bond between nitrogen base of DNA can denaturated when high temperature occurs • GC content impact Tm (melting point) of DNA • Denaturation of DNA or RNA can be deduced by λ260 – Double helix DNA A260 :1.0 – Single strand DNA A260 :1.37 – Free Nucleotide A260 :1.60
  13. 13. Tm • Tm important for application in PCR • Tm affected by – G-C content (3 hidrogen bond) – Ionic of solution (remember that DNA is negative charged) NaCl increase, Tm increase
  14. 14. Central Dogma
  15. 15. Replication • Replication is forming new DNA strand from old or parental DNA that exist inside the cell • Mechanism: – form DNA replication fork – Start from ORI (origin of replication) – 5-3 direction
  16. 16. Replication fork model
  17. 17. Transcription • Occurs by action of RNA polymerase in chromosome fragment called promoter • Splicing occurs in Eukaryotic mRNA processing • Cell produces several type of RNA – miRNA  microRNA – siRNA small interfering RNA – tRNA  transfer RNA – rRNA  ribosomal RNA – mRNA  messenger RNA
  18. 18. Promoter and Operon in Prokaryotic cell
  19. 19. Transcription in Eukaryotic cell
  20. 20. Splicing intron
  21. 21. Translation • Translate gene into protein for many purposes – Generating enzyme – Cellular signaling (ex: hormone) – Regulating metabolism and cell • Translate nucleotide  protein
  22. 22. Translation code
  23. 23. Brief Application • Organization of the cell: – Cell wall disruption by chloroform and enzyme • Chloroform disrupt cell membrane • Proteinase K degrade protein transmembrane • Lisozyme degrade cell wall (peptidoglycan) • Chromosome and DNA: – Isolation of chromosomal DNA, gene – Molecular detection – Transformation of DNA to other bacteria • Central Dogma of Molecular Biology: – Cloning and PCR – Expression of gene in model organism
  24. 24. Any question?