Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Micro sociology

566 views

Published on

kjjk

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Do This Simple 2-Minute Ritual To Loss 1 Pound Of Belly Fat Every 72 Hours ★★★ https://tinyurl.com/y6qaaou7
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Do This Simple 2-Minute Ritual To Loss 1 Pound Of Belly Fat Every 72 Hours ■■■ https://tinyurl.com/y6qaaou7
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Micro sociology

  1. 1. Micro sociology; it refers to the study of large scale social systems wich makes comparative analysisof societies. The classical sociologist of the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries made great efforts in developing {master social types} Classification of societies based on the of subsistence or types of technology  Hunting and gathering societies  pastoral societies  horticultural societies  Agricultural societies  lndustrail societies Industrial societies Industrialmodeof production began in England about 250 years ago. Industry literal meaning is a classification that refers to group of companies that are related in terms of their primary business activities. An industrialsociety is a systemin which large number of labor and machinery is involved in production of goods and services . In sociology, industrial society refers to a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Political of industrial societies: A societies polity is an institutionalized set of answers to questions about how it should be governed. The answers to these questions reflect a societys dominant ideology. The Democratic Trend Prior to the IR, nearly all large and powerful nations were monarchies governed by hereditary kings and emperors. Today, the older view of government has disappeared, especially in industrial societies.
  2. 2. This change not only includes the introduction of contested elections and the formation of political parties that mobilize the masses of people in support of _ particular leaders and policies, but most importantly the exercise of the powers of government to benefit the masses of ordinary people in countless ways Democracy as a Variable Governments differ by degree in their practice of democracy, and the degree of democracy in a given society often changes over time. Thus, we need to think of democracy as a variable like other societal characteristics, such as population size or economic productivity Mass Political Parties Thegrowthof democracyand theriseof industrialsocieties haveproduceda totally new kind of political organization,themasspolitical party,which servesto mobilize public opinion in supportof political programs and candidates. Party organizations differ in several respects but fall into 3 groups. 1.�������� Some, such as the Republican and Democratic in the US, are largely pragmatic brokerage-type parties. They have no strong ideological commitments and no well-defined political programs . 2.�������� In contrast to brokerage-type parties, many of which were formed in the 19th century, political parties in the 20th century have often had strong ideological commitments. 3.�������� Finally, religious groups in western Europe and Japan have formed of number of political parties Special Interest Groups The industrial democracies are made up of a great variety of groups, each with its own special interests. One of the more difficult problems facing democratic societies today is thatof protecting the interests ofsociety as a wholeagainst the claims and demands of these The Mass Media One of the most importantdevelopments of the industrial erea has been the emergence of the mass media as a major political force, not only in industrial societies, but in other societies as well. The rise of the media to their present position of influence and power is the result of a succession of technological breakthroughs. Although themedia elite lack the power themselves to enact
  3. 3. legislation, they are able, in large measure, to set the agenda for elected officials special interests Political Conflict and Stability Every social system generates internal conflict, and industrial societies are no exception. Nevertheless, their success in channeling such conflict into nonviolent forms is remarkable. There area number of reasons for the political stability of the western industrial democracies. First, their greater productivity and their higher standards of living give the majority of the population a vested interest in political stability. Although political conflicts are restrained in industrial societies, they are still presentin variousformsandinvolvea wide rangeof issues. Themostcommontype of conflict is between economic classes and, in most democratic nations, this has become the basic framework for partisan politics . The Growth of Government Apart from the rise of democracy, the most important political change associated with industrialization has been the growth of government. The rage of activities and the diversity of functions performed by government are far greater in modern industrial societies than in any other type of society. Many of the new functions of government arise because they are required by an industrial system . In the western industrial democracies, much of the growth of government reflects the influence of 2 important developments noted earlier: 1 the riseof democracy and (2) movement away frompure laissez-fairecapitalismtoward a mixed economy. THE TECHNOLOGICAL OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES The best way to appreciate the dramatic difference between an agrarian society and an industrial one is to look at the measurablechanges that have occurred as a result of the shift from the older technology to the new, and agricultural productivity is a good place to begin. The basic causeof this remarkabletrend has been the harnessing of new energy sources. Not only have energy sources changed, but the quantities used have multiplied enormously. In 1850, all the prime movers in the US had a capacity less than 10 million horsepower;todayitis about35billion�a 3,500-foldincreasein only a little more than a century, and a 350 fold increase in per capita terms. According to
  4. 4. recent figures, when all energy sources are totaled, the US consumed, in a single year, the equivalent of 8.5 tons of oil for every person in its population. This remarkable increase in the production and consumption of energy has been closely linked to enormous increases in the production and consumption of a wide variety of other things, such as iron and steel . ECONOMIES OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES In modern industrial societies the impact of technological innovation is usually registered first in their economies . The Urbanization of Production Prior to the IR, agriculture was the chief formof economic activity, production was centered in rural areas, and farmers were a substantial majority of the labor force. The IR changes all this as new machines required the development of factories and large concentrations of industrial workers. The effect of these changes has been to shift the locus of production in societies from rural areas to urban . Rise in Productivity in the Standard of Living The most striking characteristic of the economies of industrial societies is their remarkableproductivity. Because mostof this increase in productivity has not been consumed by population growth, there has been an enormous increasein the sizeof the economic surplus in every society.Becauseper capita income in Britain and the US are morethan 9 times what they were in 1830 and 1870, respectively, it has been possible for the incomes of elites and nonelites alike to increase. The Shift from Labor-Intensive to Capital-Intensive Industries The basisofthe enormousproductivityand affluenceofmodern industrialsocieties is their fantastic store of technological information. But most of this information would be useless unless itwere converted into capital goods. Withoutthe complex machines, factories,transportationfacilities, powerplants, and other capital goods essential to production in an industrialsociety, the output of its workers would not be much greater than that of workers in agrarian societies Changes in the Labor Force Shift from primary industries. Growth of white collar jobs.
  5. 5. Increased employment of women outside of households. Growth in the size of work organizations. Increase in occupational specialization. Formation of labor unions. Inistitutions of industrialsociety The characteristics most often used to define industrialsociety are 1 A changein the nature of the economy such that a very smallprimary sector can feed a population involved in the secondary and tertiary sectors. 2 The dominance of machine production within factories. The urbanization of society ; 4 The growth of mass literacy; 5 The application of scientific knowledge to production; 6 culture Culture of industrial societies depended the economic societies Territory of so societies Territory is a term for types of administrative division usually an area that under the jurisdiction of the state Advantages industrialsocieties increase free trade between nations Increasein capital allowing investors financethecountry Increase in environmentalprotections Dis advantageindustrial societies Norms and value take abackseat Turns human beaing into alienated beings Increasein problem of un employment Will effect the relation b}t the people with in the society
  6. 6. Conclusion Industrialsocieties are characterized by the emergence of industrialization as the primary means of labour;business and commerce. With improved technology labor in industrial societies has become more specialized in addition better working conditions and higher wages have resulted in porvedstandardsofliving for highlyskilledor educated workers. workers

×