Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  2. 2. 1.0 MULTIMEDIA CONCEPT• Multimedia is presentation of information by using a combination of text, audio, graphic, video and animation.• Multimedia means more than the use of various media.
  3. 3. 1.2 THE USE OF MULTIMEDIA IN VARIOUS FIELDFIELD CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETYSource of Multimedia is use as common source ofreference reference. Encyclopedias, directories, dictionaries and electronic books are among common multimedia references.Education Learning has become more interesting and effective with educational programmes such as “edutainment” that is a combination of education and entertainment.Entertainment Beside that, multimedia is greatly used in entertainment industry. These industries produce computer games, and develop animations or special effects for cartoon and movies
  4. 4. FIELD CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETYScientific Multimedia applications are also widely used inresearch Scientific Research. For example, from research, new findings can help the researchers to improve the condition of sick peopleBusiness Multimedia applications are used in advertising products. Many companies nowadays develop and distribute catalogues in the form of a CD- ROM as it is more interesting to the consumersArt In art, artist use multimedia elements by combining drawing and animationMedicine In medicine, doctors can practice or be trained in performing high-risk surgery by using virtual surgery
  5. 5. FIELD CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETYEngineering In engineering, Computer-Aided Design or CAD is used. By using this application, engineers can view the design from many aspects and improve on it before production
  6. 6. INTERACTIVITY OF MULTIMEDIA• Interactivity refers to the interaction between user and a multimedia application. The user can use input devices such as keyboard, joystick or mouse to interact with the application through the computer.• 2 types of interactivity of multimedia: ▫ Linear interactivity ▫ Non-linear interactivity
  7. 7. Linear interactivity• The user interacts with the multimedia application without controlling the progress of the content. In the other words, the user is a passive receiver of the multimedia content most of the time. The linear content is usually arranged in sequence. An example of the multimedia linear content is a movie.
  8. 8. Non-linear interactivity• Allows the user to interact with the content according to what the user wants from the content. Multimedia become interactive when application gives the user control over what information is viewed and when it is viewed. Non-linear interactivity uses tools like hypertext to connect a word or a phrase to another screen and hypermedia to connects different media elements such as audio, animation and video.
  9. 9. Differences between Linear and non-linear multimediaLinear Different Non-linearinteractivity interactivityLinear interactivity Controlling sequence Non-lineardoes not allow the interactivity lets theuser to control the user control thesequence of the sequence of themultimedia content multimedia contentNot interactive Interactivity Interactivee.g. Examples e.g.i) Documentary i) Electronic bookii) Movie ii) Edutainmentiii)Video clip software iii)Electronic encyclopedia
  10. 10. Medium of delivery• Generally, there are two very common mediums used in delivering multimedia contents : web based multimedia and CD-based multimedia.
  11. 11. Web based multimedia deliveredmedia through web pages• Web-based multimedia is a combination of multimedia technology and Internet technology. With the advancement of both technologies (multimedia & internet), most web pages integrate elements like text, graphic, audio, video and animation. These dynamic elements make the process of distributing information through the internet more interesting and effective to the user.
  12. 12. CD based multimedia delivered multimediathrough compact discs.• CDs like CD-ROM have been used to store and deliver multimedia content.• The advantages stored information on CD rather than printed material such as book, encyclopedia, etc. i. We can get information faster ii. We can get information easily iii. The weight of CD is very light contrast to 26 volumes of Britannica encyclopedia.
  13. 13. Web based v/s CD-based Web-based Criteria CD-based Store low Resolution Store highresolution picture resolution picture and video and video (high end)Can be changed or Contents Can be deleted by permanently irresponsible stored and are not individuals changeable Information for Update Information on amultimedia can be multimedia can be updated easily quickly outdated
  14. 14. FILE FORMATSELEMENT STANDARD FILE FORMATText *.doc Microsoft Word Document *.txt Text file *.rtf Rich Text FileAudio *.wav wave form (Microsoft) *.midi musical instrument digital interface *.aiff audio interchange file format *.au audio (sun microsystem) *.wma windows media audio (Microsoft) *.mp3Graphic *.jpg Joint Photographic Expert Group *.gif Graphic Interchange Format *.tiff Tagged Image File Format *.bmp Bitmap *.png Portable Network Graphics *.psd The native Photoshop format
  15. 15. FILE FORMATS ELEMENT STANDARD FILE FORMATVideo *.avi Audio Video Interleaved develop by Microsoft *.mov Apple Quicktime Movie *.mpeg Moving Picture Expert Group Video file format for the Internet, develop by *.wmv MicrosoftAnimation *.swf Macromedia Flash *.gif Gif Animation *.swi Swish AnimationMultimedia *.au7 Macromedia Authoware 7Application *.fla Macromedia Flash 8 *.tbk SumTotal Toolbook Assistant 2004Web pages *.asp Activer Server Page *.php PHP Hypertext Processor *.htm Hypertext Markup Language *.jsp Java Server Page
  16. 16. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE THAT CAN BE USED TO PRODUCE MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTHARDWARE FUNCTIONScanner A scanner is a device that can convert text documents, drawing or photographs into digital filesVideo camera A digital video camera is a device that records video in digital signals, which can be stored in various forms of media, such as digital video tape, DVD-RAM and hard-diskCamera A digital camera is a device that captures the photo not on film, but in an electronic imaging sensor. The images are stored in a memory card such as xD card, SD etc.
  17. 17. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE THAT CAN BE USED TO PRODUCE MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTHARDWARE FUNCTIONScanner A scanner is a device that can convert text documents, drawing or photographs into digital filesVideo camera A digital video camera is a device that records video in digital signals, which can be stored in various forms of media, such as digital video tape, DVD-RAM and hard-diskCamera A digital camera is a device that captures the photo not on film, but in an electronic imaging sensor. The images are stored in a memory card such as xD card, SD etc.
  18. 18. HARDWARE FUNCTIONAudio devices Audio devices are devices that convert sound waves into electrical energy. The sounds are then changed into digital sound. Examples of devices used for recording sounds or audio are microphone, sound card, voice synthesizer and keyboard.Video capture Video capture device is a device that enablesdevices you connect a video camera to a computer. They help to transfer video from video camera to the computer so that the data can be edited or stored (manipulate). Examples of video captures devices are: 1. Video capture card 2. Fire wire 3. USB cable
  19. 19. EDITING SOFTWARE EDITING EXAMPLES SOFTWARE PROPRIETARY OPEN SOURCEText Editor 1. Notepad 1. OpenOffice Write 2. Microsoft Word 2. AbiWord 2007Graphic and Image 1. Adobe Photoshop 1. GIMPEditor 2. Adobe 2. Inkscape Illustrastor 3. Photoscape 3. Jasc Paint Shop 4. Paint.Net Pro 4. Corel DrawAudio Editor 1. Sound Forge 1. Audacity 2. Sound Recorder 2. Ardour 3. Adobe Audition
  20. 20. EDITING SOFTWARE PROPRIETARY OPEN SOURCEVideo Editor 1. Pinnacle studio 1. JahShaka 2. Adobe Premier 2. Cinelerra 3. Sony Vegas 4. Adobe After Effects 5. Ulead Video StudioAnimation Editor 1. Flash 1. Blender 2. Swish 3. 3D Studio Max 4. Maya 5. Lightwave 3D 6. Ulead 3D Studio
  21. 21. AUTHORING TOOLS• Authoring tools are software that we use to develop multimedia presentations or applications.• The authoring tools integrate multimedia elements (text, audio, graphic, video and animation) into a single presentation.• The concept are name according how multimedia elements are organised in certain object.
  22. 22. VARIOUS CONCEPTS IN AUTHORING TOOLSCONCEPT DEFINITIONTime Time frame concept authoring tools that organizes theframe multimedia elements or evens along a time line.concept Example of authoring tools using the time frame concept are Flash and Director. These two software can support multi platforms.Icon Icon concept authoring tools is a authoring tools thatconcept organizes the multimedia elements or event as icon. Examples authoring tools which use this concept are Authorware and IconAuthor. These two software support multi platforms.Card Card concept authoring tools that organizes the multimediaconcept elements or events as page of book or stack of card. Examples of the card concept in authoring tools are ToolBook, HyperCard and SuperCard.
  23. 23. WEB EDITORS• Web editor is a program that you use to create Web page.• A web page is written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) which is a set of „markup‟ symbols inserted into a file for a display on the World Wide Web (WWW) browser. The markup tells the web browser how to display a web page.• There are two types of web editors: ▫ Text-based ▫ What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG)
  24. 24. WEB DESCRIPTION EXAMPLESEDITORText-based A text-based web editor is a basic Notepad, PSPad, editor where you work with Notepad++ Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tags to create a web page. It can be used to change HTML source codes. Using a text-based web editor requires you to have HTML knowledge to get started.WYSIWYG WYSIWYG web editors provide an Microsoft editing interface that shows how the Frontpage, pages will be displayed in a web Macromedia browser. Using a WYSIWYG editor Dreamweaver, does not require any HTML KompoZer knowledge. It is easier for an average computer usage.
  25. 25. TEXT-BASED EDITOR v/s WYSIWYG EDITOR Text-based editor WYSIWYG editorLess user friendly More user friendly(difficult to use) (easy to use)Requires HTML knowledge No HTML knowledge neededDifficult to insert a specific Easy to insert a specific tagtag (manually) (automatically)Cannot visualize the design Easy to visualize the design
  26. 26. USER INTERFACE No. Principles 1 Consistency 2 Clarity 3 Context 4 Navigation 5 Search 6 Personalisation 7 Learnability 8 Flexibility
  27. 27. CONSISTENCY• Consistency mean the interface design is in harmony and the same applies to all screen in a software program.• Every user interface uses the same words or commands perform the same function
  28. 28. CLARITY• Clarity means clearness of labels on all icons to make the system easy to unedersatand.
  29. 29. CONTEXT• Context means every part of a lesson should be relevant to a particular title.
  30. 30. NAVIGATION• Navigation means users can move around the menus, help files or other screens in a system.
  31. 31. SEARCH• Search means the system enables users to search keywords or glossary. It should provide multiple ways for users to make queries by grouping or sorting.
  32. 32. PERSONALISATION• Personalisation means the users can make their own personal or individual learning.
  33. 33. LEARNABILITY• Learnability means the system provides support information and help files to make the system easy to understand.
  34. 34. FLEXIBILITY• Flexibility means a user has the authority to navigate through all the sections without any limitations.
  35. 35. DEVELOPMENT TEAM MEMBER• Project Manager• Subject Matter Expert• Instructional Designer• Graphic Artist• Audio-Video Technician• Programmer
  36. 36. PROJECT MANAGER• The project manager roles are1. To define the scope of the project and discuss with the client.2. Has to search for financial resources, equipment and facilities.3. Need to coordinate the production team.
  37. 37. SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT• The subject matter expert is to do research on the content of a multimedia program. He or she has to provide content for the multimedia program.
  38. 38. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER• The instructional designer‟s roles are1. To decide on the best educational strategies.2. And practices to present the information.
  39. 39. GRAPHIC ARTIST• The graphic artist‟s role is to develop the graphic elements of the program such as backgrounds, buttons, photo collages, 3D objects, logos and animation.
  40. 40. AUDIO-VIDEO TECHNICIAN• The audio technician is responsible for recording the voice. He edits the sound effects. He record and edits music.• The video technician is responsible for capturing, editing and digitizing the video.
  41. 41. PROGRAMMER• The programmer‟s role is to write the program code lines or scripts using the authoring tool.• He combines the multimedia elements into a multimedia program.
  42. 42. THE PHASES IN MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION• Analysis• Design• Implementation• Testing• Evaluation• Publishing
  43. 43. Analysis• Problem statement and proposal. During the analysis phase, the multimedia developers interview the clients to find out their needs and write the problem statement and a proposal.
  44. 44. Design• Flow chart and storyboard• The multimedia developer willi. Design a flow chart and storyboardii. Choose the colours and layout of each individual screen.iii. Determine the position of navigation button.
  45. 45. Implementation• Multimedia program. Once the storyboard is confirmed, the multimedia developers will start implementation phase. The implementation phase refers to the process of converting the design plan into a multimedia program. This is the phase where the multimedia program is produced.
  46. 46. Testing• Checklist. The multimedia developers will use a checklist to test the multimedia program. If there are any errors, the programmer will fix the program.
  47. 47. Evaluation• Evaluation form. In the evaluation phase, selected users will use an evaluation form to try out the program and give feedback.
  48. 48. PUBLISHING• Package the presentation using suitable software. Distribute the presentation for public viewing. It will be published to CD or website.