CHAPTER 1INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGYAND SOCIETY
DEFINITION OF ICTICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use electronics computers, communication devices and application software convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.
THE USAGE OF ICT INEVERYDAY LIFE Education Students use computer to research for teaching materials, participate in online forum and online conferences Banking Customers can make any transaction at 24 hours service centre Industry To help in product design by using CAD (Computer Aided Design) E-commerce To make buying and selling activities faster and more efficient through internet.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COMPUTERISED &NON-COMPUTERISED SYSTEM COMPUTERIZED NON-COMPUTERIZEDAll banking activities are All banking activities weredone by using computer done manually systemTransaction can be done Transaction can only be anywhere and anytime made during working hoursIt takes shorten time for It takes long time for any any banking process banking process More productive Less productive
THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF ICT ONSOCIETY Faster communication speed Lower communication cost People can share opinions and information through discussion groups and forums through Internet Paperless environment – information can be stored and retrieved through the digital medium instead of paper. Information can communication can be borderless through Internet
THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF ICT ONSOCIETY Borderless information at time can be negative because courage people to access pornography and violence web sites. Computers can harm users if they use for long hours frequently.
2.0 COMPUTER ETHICS AND LEGALISSUES Computer Ethics Is a system of moral standards or moral values used as a guideline for computer users. Code of Ethics Is a guidelines in ICT that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical Intellectual Property Is work created by inventors, authors and artists.
Privacy Refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them Computer crime Is any illegal acts involving computers Cyber Law Is any laws relating to protect the Internet and other online communication technologies
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ETHICS ANDLAWEthics LawAs a guideline to computer As a rule to controlusers computer usersComputer users are free Computer user must followto follow or ignore the code the regulations and lawof ethicsUniversal, can be applied Depend on country andanywhere, all over the state where the crime isworld committedTo produce ethical To prevent misuse ofcomputer users computersNo following ethics are No obeying laws are callcalled immoral crime
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWS Intellectual Property laws cover ideas, inventions, literary creations, unique names, business modals, industrial processes, computer program codes and many more. Four types of Intellectual Property are: Patents for inventions Trademarks for brand identity Design for product appearance Copyright for materials
CONTROVERSIALCONTENTS AND CONTROLPornography Slander
CONTROVERSIAL CONTENTS ANDCONTROL Pornography Pornography is any form of media or material that show erotic behavior and intended to cause sexual excitement. The effects of pornography on society are: Can lead to criminal acts such as exploitation of women. Can lead sexual addiction can develop lower moral values towards other people Can erode good religious, cultural, behaviors and beliefs
Slander Slander is a false spoken statement about someone, intended to damage his or her reputation. The effects of slander on society are: Can develop society that disregards on honesty and truth Can lead to bad habits of spreading rumors and untruth Can cause people to have negative attitudes towards another person
TOPICS THAT WE WILL LEARN FOR TODAY The process of filtering Cyber law
THE PROCESS OF FILTERING To control access to controversial contents. The method of choice to limit access on the Internet is to filter either by: Keyword blocking Site blocking Web rating system
KEYWORD BLOCKING This method uses a list of banned word or object terms such as xxx, sex and nude. As the page is downloading, the filter searches for any these words. If found, it will blocked the page completely, stop downloading the page, block the banned words and even shut down the browser.
SITE BLOCKING This method use software to list the web sites that will be blocked by using software. The software also prevents user from being access the web site on list.
WEB RATING SYSTEM Web sites are rating in terms of nudity, sex, violence and language. The web sites rates can be done by setting the browser to only accept pages with certain level of ratings.
CYBER LAW Cyber law is any laws relating to protect the Internet and other online communication technologies. Examples of cyber abuse on the users: Sending a computer virus via e-mail Harassment through e-mail Hacking into your school’s database to change your examination result Why we need cyber law: Cyber law are made to force people to be good To give protection against the misuse of computers and computer criminal activities
Malaysian Cyber Law Computer Crime Act 1997 Copyright (Amendment) Bill 1997 Digital Signature Act 1997 Telemedicine Bill 1997 Communication and Multimedia Act 1998 Digital Signature Regulations 1998
COMPUTER FRAUD Computer fraud is the crime of obtaining money by deceiving (to trick) people through the use of computers. There are many forms of computer frauds which include E-mail hoaxes (hoax – an attempt to make people believe something that is not true) Program fraud Investment scheme Sales promotions Claim of expertise on certain fields
COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT Copyright infringement is defined as a violation (an action to break the law) of the rights secured by a copyright. Copyright is the legal right to be the only producer or seller of a book, song and film. Infringement of copyright occurs when you break the copyright law such as copying movie, software or CD’s illegally – selling pirate software. Piracy is the crime of illegally copying and selling books, tapes, videos, computer programs.
COMPUTER THEFT Computer theft is defined as the unauthorized used of another person’s property. Example of computer theft are Transfer of payment to the wrong accounts Get online material with no cost Tap(memasuki) into data transmission line
COMPUTER ATTACKS Computer attack is defined as any activities taken to disrupt the equipments computer systems, change processing controls and corrupt data. Computer attack can be in the forms of: Physical attack An electronic attack A computer network attck
COMPUTER SECURITY Computer security means protecting our computer system and the information they contain against unwanted access, damage, destruction or modification. Computer security: Computer threats Security measures
MALICIOUS CODE Malicious code is a computer program that perform unauthorised processes on a computer or network. There are various kinds of malicious code. Virus Worm Logic bomb : Malicious code that goes off when a specific condition occurs. Example: time bomb. Trapdoor and backdoor : A feature in a program that allows someone to access the program with special privileges. Trojan horse: program that performs a useful task while the same time carry out some secret destructive act.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WORM &VIRUS WORM VIRUSOperates through the Spreads through anynetwork mediumSpread copies of itself Spread copies of itselfas a stand alone as a program thatprogram attaches to other program
A COMPUTER INFECTED BY A VIRUS,WORM OR TROJAN HORSE OFTEN HASONE OR MORE OF THE FOLLOWINGSYMPTOMS: Screen displays unusual message or image Music or unusual sound plays randomly Available memory is less than expected Existing programs and files disappear Files become corrupted
HACKING Hacking refer to unauthorized access to the computer system by a hacker. A hacker is a person who accesses a computer or network illegally. A cracker also is someone who accesses a computer or network illegally but has no intent of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action. Both hacker and cracker have advanced computer and network skills.
NATURE THREATS Computer are also threatened by natural or environmental disaster. Be it at home, stores, offices and also automobiles. Examples of natural and environmental disasters are flood, fire, earthquakes, storms, tornados, excessive heat and inadequate power.
THEFT Two type of theft (a) Computer is used to steal money, goods, information and resources. (b) Stealing of computers especially notebook and PDA. Three approaches to prevent theft: (a) Prevent access by using locks, smart card or password. (b) Prevent portability by restricting the hardware from being moved. (c) Detect and guard all exits and record any hardware.
SECURITY MEASURES Security measures are measures taken as a precaution against theft or espionage or sabotage or possible danger or failure. Usually we use antivirus, cryptography, firewall and data backup to protect sensitive information. Security procedures: Anti-virus Anti-spyware Firewall Backup Cryptography
ANTI-VIRUS Anti-virus is utility program that we use to protect a computer against viruses by identifying and removing computer viruses found in the computer memory, computer storage or incoming e-mails files. Examples: Norton antivirus, AVG, Kaspersky, Bitdefender and Nod32.
ANTI-SPYWARE Anti-spyware is a utility program that we use to protect the computers from spyware. Spyware is software or computer program that is designed secretly record and report an individual’s activities on the Internet. Spyware usually enters your system through the Internet, sometimes when you open e-mail or download software especially shareware and freeware. Examples : Spybot Search and Destroy, Ad-aware and Spyware Blaster.
FIREWALL Firewall is a piece of hardware or software which functions in a networked environment to prevent some communications forbidden by security policy. We use firewall to prevent hacking
BACKUP Backup is utility program that makes a copy of all files or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. Backup data is important when original data is corrupted.
CRYPTOGRAPHY Cryptography is a process of transforming plaintext into ciphertext then back again. Encryption is a process of converting plaintext into ciphertext. Decryption is the process of converting ciphertext into plaintext. We use cryptography to secure the information and prevent hacking or unauthorized access. Cipher = secret language Plaintext encrypt Ciphertext Plaintext decrypt Ciphertext
HUMAN ASPECT Refer to the user and also the intruder of a computer system. Human aspect security is the hardest aspects to give protection to. The most common problem of human aspect security is the lack of achieving a good information security procedure.