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Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Available online at www.tjeas.com
©2013 TJEAS Journal-2013-3-11/934-...
Tech J Engin & App Sci., 3 (11): 934-937, 2013
935
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In order to study the effect of salinity on the g...
Tech J Engin & App Sci., 3 (11): 934-937, 2013
936
0.87a
0.06a
3.75a
0.86a
3.72a
2.18a
5.90a
88.00a
2
0.77ab
0.03abc
1.80a...
Tech J Engin & App Sci., 3 (11): 934-937, 2013
937
Nabvie-Kallat SM, Sazvari GH, Mokhberdvaran F. 2010. The Effects of sal...
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934-937

  1. 1. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Available online at www.tjeas.com ©2013 TJEAS Journal-2013-3-11/934-937 ISSN 2051-0853 ©2013 TJEAS Effect of salinity stress on the germination of safflower seeds (Carthamuse tinctorius L. cv. Poymar) Hajar Khani Basiri1 , Ali Sepehri2 and Mohammad Sedghi3 1- MSc. Student in seed science and technology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili 2- Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu Ali Sina,, Hamedan, Iran 3- Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili Corresponding author Email: hkhanibasiri@yahoo.com ABSTRACT: Salinity decreases seed germination due to reduction of osmotic potential, production of toxic ions and changing in the equilibrium of nutrients. In order to study the effect of salinity from different salts (NaCl and CaCl2) on the germination of safflower (Carthamuse tinctorius L.) seeds two separate experiments conducted based on the completely randomized design at the laboratory conditions using seven concentrations of NaCl or CaCl2 as treatments with three replications. Salt concentrations were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 g lit -1 . Percent and rate of germination, length, fresh and dry weights of radicle and plumule were measured. Results showed that salinity decreased all the studied traits and radicle was more sensitive to salinity stress than plumule. Salinity resulted from NaCl had the greater negative effect on the seedling characteristics than CaCl2 salinity. Keywords: salinity, germination, safflower, seed INTRODUCTION Safflower (Carthamuse tinctorius L.) is an annual plant belongs to Asteraceae family. Seeds containing 35- 40% oil with high quality which makes it more valuable and economically important. About 20% of the lands of the planet are affected from the salinity of various solutions which encounter the plant growth and development with serious problems (Hajghani et al., 2008). Seed germination and seedling establishment are the two stages of plant life cycle that are more sensitive to salinity stress (Lianes et al., 2005). Seed germination and seedling establishment are very sensitive stages to drought and salinity stresses in barley and each plant be more tolerant in these stages can successfully pass the critical period of its life cycle (Etesamie and Galeshi., 2010). Haratie et al. (2012) demonstrated that salt stress decreases the production and total amount of lipids in the both part of safflower (root and stem). Ekiz and Yilmaz (2003) showed that salt stress increases the Na + concentration in the stems and roots of safflower and barley whereas decreases K + concentration. Plumule and radicel length and dry weight of seedling in Pisum sativum decreased with increasing in salinity severity (Okcu et al., 2005). Francois and Bernastein (1964) showed that tolerance of safflower to the salt stress at the germination stage is 50% lower than to comparative final stages. Salinity tolerance threshold in safflower is high (about 7.5 ds m -1 ), but the tolerance reduction initiates from 6.5 ds m -1 (Shannon, 1997). There are no changes in the number of grains per capitols in safflower under salinity stress, but number of capitols and grain weight is affected (Hans-Henning et al., 200). Salinity stress had the significant effect on the plumule and radicel length, final percentage and rate of germination and seedling vigor index of safflower and all traits decreased by increasing salinity (Mohammadzadeh et al., 2010). Harmful effect of salt stress on the whole growth stages of barley was reported by Naseer. (2001), but vegetative growth stage was more affected than anthesis and grain fiiling period. Ekiz and Yilmaz (2003) found that dry weight of barley seedling is a better parameter than length of seedling to evaluation of sensitivity to salinity stress. In another study rate and percentage of acacia seed germination decreased under saline conditions (Rehmans et al., 1996). Salinity caused significant reduction in seedling growth of safflower. Increasing in Na + and Cl - ions at the growth medium accompanied by reduction in K + and Ca 2+ cations in radicle and plumule tissues, chlorophyll content and carbon exchange rate (Siddiqi., 2010). The objectives of this study were to determining the salinity effect (resulting from NaCl and CaCl2) on the safflower seed growth parameters and introducing the best trait probably applicable in screening genotypes for salinity tolerance.
  2. 2. Tech J Engin & App Sci., 3 (11): 934-937, 2013 935 MATERIALS AND METHODS In order to study the effect of salinity on the germination of safflower seeds two experiments conducted separately based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were seven levels of NaCl and CaCl2 as 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g lit -1 . Safflower seeds were surface sterilized with 2.5% sodium hypo chlorite for 3 min and 25 seeds were placed on one layer of wattman paper no. 1 in 9 cm Petridishes. Then, 15 ml of salt solutions were added to each Petri and kept in a germinator at 25±1°C. Germinated seeds counted daily and seeds considered as germinated when 2 mm of radicle were emerged. Rate of germination calculated according to the formula proposed by Elis and Raberts. (1981) as below: Where GR is germination rate, Si, number of germinated seeds in each day, Di, counting day and N number of counting. Data were subjected to analysis of variance after normality test using SPSS and SAS packages and means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ANOVA tables (Tables 1 and 2) indicates the NaCl and CaCl2 levels had significant effect on the all studied traits. Comparison of means showed that all measured traits decreased by increasing salinity. The highest reduction in the quantity of traits observed at 12 g lit -1 of both salt solutions (Tables 3 and 4). These results are in consistence with the results of Dadkhah et al. (2006) who related it to the decrease in the water potential at the high salt concentrations. The longest plumule and radicle and the highest radicle dry weight observed with applying 2 g lit -1 of NaCl and CaCl2 (Tables 3 and 4) demonstrating an enhancement in the low stress conditions. The highest germination percentage and rate of germination related to the control treatments, but there was not a significant difference with 2 g lit -1 of two applied salts (Table 3 and 4). It seems that aerial parts of plants are more sensitive to the salt solutions and under salt stress conditions seeds should be planted in the lower depth. NaCl had the greater decreasing effects on the traits than CaCl2. Mohammadzadeh et al. (2010) reported such results. Nabavi Kallat et al. (2010) demonstrated that germination rate and plumule length affects from salt types and stress severity has the greater effect on germination rate and percentage and radicle length. Among salts, NaCl had the most negative effect on the measured characteristics. Demir-Kaya and Ipek (2003) reported that soil salinity decreased length and dry weight of plumule and radicle in safflower, significantly. Hajghani et al. (2008) showed that salt stress at the germination stage decreases the plumule and radicle length and dry weight of plumule, and among applied salt solutions, KCl had minimum negative effect on the length and weight of plumule and radicle in safflower. Table 1. Analysis of variance for the effect of NaCl on the germination traits of safflower Mean of squares Dry weightFresh weightLength GR (Seed day-1) GPDFS.O.V RadiclePlumuleRadiclePlumuleRadiclePlumule 0.442**0.001*7.531**0.258**6.518**1.547**11.52**1775.75**6Nacl 0.0260.01.4780.0420.6910.2950.5399.0514Erorr * and ** indicate the significant differences at 5 and 1 percent probability levels. DF: Degree of freedom; GP: Germination Percent; GR: Germination Rate. Table 2. Comparison of means for the effect of NaCl on the germination traits of safflower seeds Mean of square Dry weight (g)Fresh weight (g)Length (cm)GR (Seed day-1 ) GP (%)NaCl (g lit-1 ) RadiclePlumuleRadiclePlumuleRadiclePlumule 0.93a 0.032abc 3.88a 0.42b 3.41ab 1.27ab 5.86a 93.33a 0
  3. 3. Tech J Engin & App Sci., 3 (11): 934-937, 2013 936 0.87a 0.06a 3.75a 0.86a 3.72a 2.18a 5.90a 88.00a 2 0.77ab 0.03abc 1.80ab 0.54ab 1.96b 1.63ab 4.41b 87.70a 4 0.45b 0.04ab 1.59ab 0.39bc 1.24bc 0.84bc 4.05b 81.33a 6 0.52b 0.04ab 2.61a 0.58ab 2.22ab 1.16b 4.51b 88.00a 8 0.01c 0.02bc 0.02b 0.06bc 0.07c 0.33bc 1.74c 52.00b 10 0.0c 0.01c 0.0b 0.03c 0.0c 0.12c 0.76c 26.70c 12 GP: Germination Percent; GR: Germination Rate. In each column, means with the same letter are not different significantly at 5% probability level Table 3. Analysis of variance for the effect of CaCl2 on the germination traits of safflower Mean of square Dry weightFresh weightLength GRGPDF S.O.V RadiclePlumuleRadiclePlumuleRadiclePlumule 25.55**6.47**9.19**0.27**7.24**1.91**7.16**867.03**6Cacl2 0.00.00.780.020.710.350.5066.2914Eror * and ** indicating the significant differences at 5 and 1 percent probability levels. DF: Degree of freedom; GP: Germination Percent; GR: Germination Rate Table 4. Comparison of means for the effect of CaCl2 on the germination traits of safflower seeds Mean of square Dry weight (g)Fresh weight (g)Length (cm) GR (Seed day-1 ) GP (%) CaCl2 (g lit-1 ) RadiclePlumuleRadiclePlumuleRadiclePlumule 0.81a 0.04bc 3.92a 0.87a 3.35a 2.20a 5.85a 93.33a 0 0.77a 0.05a 3.79a 0.82ab 3.43a 2.27a 5.33ab 93.33a 2 0.77a 0.04ab 3.60ab 0.62ab 3.26a 2.13a 4.73ab 90.66a 4 0.42b 0.04ab 2.08b 0.61ab 1.97ab 1.48ab 4.22b 78.66a 6 0.22bc 0.04ab 1.04bc 0.56b 0.91bc 1.29ab 4.26b 81.33a 8 0.0c 0.02c 0.0c 0.14c 0.0c 0.45c 2.07c 56.00b 10 0.0c 0.02c 0.0c 0.11c 0.0c 0.40c 1.82c 53.33b 12 GP: Germination Percent; GR: Germination Rate. In each column, means with the same letter are not different significantly at 5% probability level REFERENCES Dadkhah AR. 2006. The effects of water potential on seed germination, rate of germination and seedling growth of four sugar beets genotypes named Madison, Pajohesh & Sazandegie. 70:88-93 (In Persian with English abstract). Demir-Kaya M, Ipek A. 2003. Effects of different soil salinity levels on germination and seedling growth of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Turk J Agric For 27: 221-227. Ekiz H, Yilmaz A. 2003. Determination of the salt tolerance of some barley genotypes and the characteristics affecting tolerance .Turk J Agric 27: 253-260. Etesami M, Galeshi S. 2008. An evaluation reaction of ten genotype of barley in salinity on germination and seedling growth (Hordeum vulgar. L) J Agric Sci Natur Resour 15(5): 39-46. Francois LE, Bernastein L. 1964. Salt tolerance of safflower. Agron J 59: 38-40. Hajghani M, Saffari, M, Maghsoudi Moud A. 2008. The effect of diffrent levels salinity (NaCl) on germination seedling growth of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars. J of Water & Soil Sci 12 (45): 449-458. Hans-Henning M, Blackshaw RE, Byers JR, Huang HC, Johnson DL, Keon R, Kubik J, McKenzie R, Otto B, Roth B, Stanford K. 2004 Safflower production on the Canadian prairies. Paper presented at symposium of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada. Lethbridge, Alberta. 43p. Lianes A, Reinoso, H, Luna V. 2005. Germination and early growth of Prosopis strombulifera seedlings in different saline solutions. World J Agric Sci 1(2): 120-128. Maghtoli M, Chaie-Chei MR. 1999. Study on the effect of salinity and salt types on germination and early seedling growth of sorghum. J Agric Sci Natur Resour 6: 33-40.. Mohammadzadeh A, Mohammadi, M, Keykha Akhar, M, Mohammadalipour, H, Keykha Akhar F. 2010. Investigate of effects of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorus L.). Paper presented at symposium of new achievements in the production of oil plants. Bojnourd, Iran.
  4. 4. Tech J Engin & App Sci., 3 (11): 934-937, 2013 937 Nabvie-Kallat SM, Sazvari GH, Mokhberdvaran F. 2010. The Effects of salt stress on germination characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Paper presented at symposium of new achievements in the production of oil plants. Bojnourd, Iran. Naseer SH. 2001. Response of barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) at various growth stages to salt stress. J Biological Sci 1(5):326- 329. Okcu G, Kaya, MD, Atak M. 2005. Effects of salt and drought stresses on germination and seedlinggrowth of pea (Pisum Sativum L.). Turk J Agric For 29:237-24. Rehmans SPJC, Harris-Bourne, WF, Wikin J. 1996. The effect of sodium chloride on germination and the potassium and calcium contents of Acacia seeds. Seed Sci & Technol 25: 45-57. SadatNoori SA, Foghi B, Golbashy M, Shariatmadari MH, Shafe M. 2009. Effect of salinity stress on the germination factors of safflower genotypes. Paper presented at 1 st symposium of oil seed crops. Isfahan, Iran. Shannon MC. 1997. Adaptation of plants to salinity. Adv Agron 60: 75-120. Siddiqi EH. 2010. Influence of salt stress on some physiological and biochemical attributes and oil composition of a potential oil seed crop safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). PhD Thesis,105-107.

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