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Curriculum specification F4

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Curriculum specification F4

  1. 1. LEARNING AREA: 1. INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICSLearning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary A student is able to:1.1Understanding Physics Observe everyday objects such • explain what physics is. as a table, a pencil, a mirror etc and discuss how they are related to physics concepts. View a video on natural • recognize the physics in phenomena and discuss how everyday objects and natural they are related to physics phenomena. concepts. Discuss fields of study in physics such as forces, motion, heat, light etc. A student is able to:1.2Understanding base Discuss base quantities and • explain what base quantities and Base quantities base quantities –quantities and derived derived quantities. derived quantities are. are: length (l), kuantiti asasquantities • list base quantities and their mass (m), time (t), From a text passage, identify units. temperature (T) derived quantities – physical quantities then classify • list some derived quantities and and current (I). kuantiti terbitan them into base quantities and their units. derived quantities. Suggested derived length – panjang quantities: force List the value of prefixes and (F), density (ρ) mass – jisim their abbreviations from nano to • express quantities using volume (V) and 16
  2. 2. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary giga, e.g. nano (10-9), nm prefixes. velocity (v). time – masa (nanometer). More complex temperature – suhu Discuss the use of scientific derived quantities notation to express large and may be discussed current – arus small numbers. • express quantities using when these scientific notation. quantities are force – daya Determine the base quantities introduced in their (and units) in a given derived related learning density – ketumpatan quantity (and unit) from the • express derived quantities as areas. related formula. well as their units in terms of volume – isipadu base quantities and base units. Solve problems that involve the velocity – halaju conversion of units. • solve problems involving conversion of units. scientific notation – bentuk piawai prefix - imbuhan A student is able to:1.3Understanding scalar Carry out activities to show that • define scalar and vectorand vector quantities some quantities can be defined quantities. by magnitude only whereas other quantities need to be defined by magnitude as well as direction. Compile a list of scalar and • give examples of scalar and vector quantities. vector quantities. 17
  3. 3. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary A student is able to:1.4Understanding Choose the appropriate • measure physical quantities accuracy – kejituanmeasurements instrument for a given using appropriate instruments. measurement. consistency – kepersisan Discuss consistency and • explain accuracy and accuracy using the distribution consistency. sensitivity – kepekaan of gunshots on a target as an example. error – ralat Discuss the sensitivity of various random - rawak instruments. • explain sensitivity. Demonstrate through examples systematic errors and random • explain types of experimental errors. Discuss what systematic error. and random errors are. Use appropriate techniques to reduce error in measurements • use appropriate techniques to such as repeating reduce errors. measurements to find the average and compensating for zero error. 18
  4. 4. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary A student is able to:1.5Analysing scientific Observe a situation and suggest • identify variables in a given Scientific skills areinvestigations questions suitable for a scientific situation. applied investigation. Discuss to: • identify a question suitable for throughout. a) identify a question suitable scientific investigation. for scientific investigation • form a hypothesis. b) identify all the variables • design and carry out a simple c) form a hypothesis experiment to test the d) plan the method of hypothesis. investigation including selection of apparatus and work procedures Carry out an experiment and: a) collect and tabulate data b) present data in a suitable • record and present data in a form suitable form. c) interpret the data and draw • interpret data to draw a conclusions conclusion. d) write a complete report • write a report of the investigation. 19
  5. 5. LEARNING AREA: 2. FORCES AND MOTIONLearning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary A student is able to:2.1Analysing linear motion Carry out activities to gain an • define distance and distance – jarak idea of: displacement average speed = a) distance and displacement. • define speed and velocity and total distance displacement – sesaran b) speed and velocity s time taken c) acceleration and state that average velocity, v = speed – laju deceleration t . velocity – halaju • define acceleration and Carry out activities using a data deceleration and state that acceleration – pecutan logger/graphing calculator/ ticker v−u timer to: a= deceleration – t a) identify when a body is at nyahpecutan rest, moving with uniform • calculate speed and velocity. velocity or non-uniform • calculate acceleration/ velocity deceleration. b) determine displacement, velocity and acceleration. Solve problems using the following equations of motion: a) v = u + at • solve problems on linear motion b) s = ut + ½ at2 with uniform acceleration using c) v2 = u2 + 2as i. v = u + at. ii.s = ut + ½ at2. iii.v2 = u2 + 2as. 20
  6. 6. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary A student is able to:2.2Analysing motion graphs Carry out activities using a data • plot and interpret displacement- Reminder: logger/graphing calculator/ticker time and velocity-time graphs. Velocity is timer to plot determined from a) displacement-time graphs the gradient of b) velocity-time graphs displacement-time • deduce from the shape of a graph. Describe and interpret: displacement-time graph when a a) displacement-time and body is: Acceleration is b) velocity-time graphs i. at rest. determined from ii. moving with uniform velocity. the gradient of iii. moving with non-uniform velocity-time velocity. graph. Determine distance, • determine distance, displacement, velocity and displacement and velocity from a Distance is acceleration from displacement- displacement-time graph. determined from time and velocity-time graphs. • deduce from the shape of a the area under a velocity-time graph when a body velocity-time is: graph. i. at rest. ii. moving with uniform velocity. iii.moving with uniform acceleration. • determine distance, displacement, velocity and acceleration from a velocity-time Solve problems on linear motion graph. with uniform acceleration 21
  7. 7. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary involving graphs. • solve problems on linear motion with uniform acceleration. A student is able to:2.3Understanding inertia Carry out activities/view • explain what inertia is. Newton’s First inertia - inersia computer simulations /situations Law of Motion to gain an idea on inertia. may be introduced here. Carry out activities to find out • relate mass to inertia. the relationship between inertia and mass. Research and report on • give examples of situations a) the positive effects of inertia involving inertia. b) ways to reduce the negative • suggest ways to reduce the effects of inertia negative effects of inertia. A student is able to:2.4Analysing momentum Carry out activities/view • define the momentum of an momentum – computer simulations to gain an object. momentum idea of momentum by comparing the effect of collision – pelanggaran stopping two objects: a) of the same mass moving at explosion – letupan different speeds b) of different masses moving conservation of linear at the same speed. momentum – keabadian • define momentum (p) as the momentum linear Discuss momentum as the product of mass (m) and velocity 22
  8. 8. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary product of mass and velocity. (v) i.e. p = mv. View computer simulations on • state the principle of collisions and explosions to gain conservation of momentum. an idea on the conservation of momentum. Conduct an experiment to show Reminder: that the total momentum of a Momentum as a closed system is a constant. vector quantity needs to be Carry out activities that emphasised in demonstrate the conservation of problem solving. momentum e.g. water rockets. Research and report on • describe applications of the applications of conservation conservation of momentum. of momentum such as in rockets or jet engines. Solve problems involving linear • solve problems involving momentum. momentum. A student is able to:2.5Understanding the With the aid of diagrams, • describe the effects of balanced When the forces balanced – seimbangeffects of a force describe the forces acting on an forces acting on an object. acting on an object object: • describe the effects of are balanced they unbalanced – tidak a) at rest unbalanced forces acting on an cancel each other seimbang b) moving at constant velocity object. out (nett force = 23
  9. 9. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary c) accelerating. 0). The object then nett force – daya bersih behaves as if Conduct experiments to find the • determine the relationship there is no force resultant – daya paduan relationship between: between force, mass and acting on it. a) acceleration and mass of an acceleration i.e. F = ma. object under constant force Newton’s Second b) acceleration and force for a Law of Motion constant mass. may be introduced here. Solve problems using F = ma. • solve problems using F = ma. A student is able to:2.6Analysing impulse and View computer simulations of • explain what an impulsive force impulse – impulsimpulsive force collisions and explosions to gain is. an idea on impulsive forces. • give examples of situations impulsive forces – daya involving impulsive forces. impuls Discuss • define impulse as a change in a) impulse as change in momentum, i.e. momentum Ft = mv – mu . b) an impulsive force as the • define impulsive force as the rate of change of momentum rate of change of momentum in in a collision or explosion, a collision or explosion, i.e. c) how increasing or mv − mu decreasing time of impact F= . affects the magnitude of the t impulsive force. • explain the effect of increasing or decreasing time of impact on Research and report situations the magnitude of the impulsive where: force. 24
  10. 10. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary a) an impulsive force needs to • describe situations where an be reduced and how it can be impulsive force needs to be done reduced and suggest ways to b) an impulsive force is reduce it. beneficial • describe situations where an Solve problems involving impulsive force is beneficial. impulsive forces. • solve problems involving impulsive forces. A student is able to:2.7Being aware of the need Research and report on the • describe the importance offor safety features in physics of vehicle collisions and safety features in vehicles.vehicles safety features in vehicles in terms of physics concepts. Discuss the importance of safety features in vehicles. A student is able to:2.8Understanding gravity Carry out an activity or view • explain acceleration due to When considering gavitational field – computer simulations to gain an gravity. a body falling medan graviti idea of acceleration due to freely, g (= 9.8 m gravity. s-2) is its weight - berat Discuss acceleration but a) acceleration due to gravity. • state what a gravitational field is. when it is at rest, 25
  11. 11. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary b) a gravitational field as a • define gravitational field g (= 9.8 N kg-1) is region in which an object strength. the Earth’s experiences a force due to gravitational field gravitational attraction strength acting on it. c) gravitational field strength (g) as gravitational force per unit mass. Carry out an activity to determine the value of • determine the value of acceleration due to gravity. acceleration due to gravity. The weight of an Discuss weight as the Earth’s • define weight (W) as the product object of fixed gravitational force on an object. of mass (m) and acceleration mass is dependent due to gravity (g) i.e. W = mg. on the g exerted Solve problems involving on it. acceleration due to gravity. • solve problems involving acceleration due to gravity. A student is able to:2.9Analysing forces in With the aid of diagrams, • describe situations where forces resultant force – dayaequilibrium describe situations where forces are in equilibrium. paduan are in equilibrium, e.g. a book at rest on a table, an object at rest • state what a resultant force is. resolve - lerai on an inclined plane. • add two forces to determine the resultant force. With the aid of diagrams, • resolve a force into the effective discuss the resolution and component forces. 26
  12. 12. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary addition of forces to determine • solve problems involving forces the resultant force. in equilibrium. Solve problems involving forces in equilibrium (limited to 3 forces). A student is able to:2.10Understanding work, Observe and discuss situations • define work (W) as the product work – kerjaenergy, power and where work is done. of an applied force (F) andefficiency Discuss that no work is done displacement (s) of an object in kinetic energy – tenaga when: the direction of the applied force kinetik a) a force is applied but no i.e. W = Fs. displacement occurs gravitational potential b) an object undergoes a energy – tenaga displacement with no keupayaan graviti applied force acting on it. conservation of energy Give examples to illustrate how • state that when work is done Have students – keabadian tenaga energy is transferred from one energy is transferred from one recall the different object to another when work is object to another. forms of energy. done. Discuss the relationship • define kinetic energy and state between work done to that Ek = ½mv2 accelerate a body and the change in kinetic energy. Discuss the relationship • define gravitational potential between work done against energy and state that Ep = mgh. gravity and gravitational 27
  13. 13. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary potential energy. Carry out an activity to show the principle of conservation of • state the principle of energy. conservation of energy. State that power is the rate at • define power and state that which work is done, P = W/t. P = W/t. Carry out activities to measure power. Discuss efficiency as: • explain what efficiency of a useful energy output device is. x100% energy input Evaluate and report the efficiencies of various devices such as a diesel engine, a petrol engine and an electric engine. • solve problems involving work, Solve problems involving work, energy, power and efficiency. energy, power and efficiency. A student is able to:2.11Appreciating the Discuss that when an energy • recognise the importance ofimportance of transformation takes place, not maximising efficiency of devicesmaximising the all of the energy is used to do in conserving resources. 28
  14. 14. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabularyefficiency of devices useful work. Some is converted into heat or other types of energy. Maximising efficiency during energy transformations makes the best use of the available energy. This helps to conserve resources. A student is able to:2.12Understanding elasticity Carry out activities to gain an • define elasticity. elasticity – kekenyalan idea on elasticity. intra-molecular force – Plan and conduct an experiment • define Hooke’s law. daya antara molekul to find the relationship between force and extension of a spring. extension – pemanjangan Relate work done to elastic • define elastic potential energy potential energy to obtain and state that Ep= ½ kx2. elastic potential energy- Ep=½ kx2. tenaga keupayaan kenyal Describe and interpret force- extension graphs. Investigate the factors that affect • determine the factors that affect elasticity. elasticity. Research and report on • describe applications of applications of elasticity. elasticity. Solve problems involving 29
  15. 15. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary elasticity. • solve problems involving elasticity. 30
  16. 16. LEARNING AREA: 3. FORCES AND PRESSURELearning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary A student is able to:3.1Understanding pressure Observe and describe the effect • define pressure and state that Introduce the unit pressure - tekanan of a force acting over a large F of pressure pascal area compared to a small area, P= . (Pa). e.g. school shoes versus high A (Pa = N m-2) heeled shoes. Discuss pressure as force per unit area. Research and report on • describe applications of applications of pressure. pressure. Solve problems involving pressure. • solve problems involving pressure. A student is able to:3.2Understanding pressure Observe situations to form ideas • relate depth to pressure in a depth – kedalamanin liquids that pressure in liquids: liquid. a) acts in all directions density – ketumpatan b) increases with depth liquid - cecair Observe situations to form the • relate density to pressure in a idea that pressure in liquids liquid. increases with density. 31
  17. 17. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Relate depth (h), density (ρ) • explain pressure in a liquid and and gravitational field strength state that P=hρg. (g) to pressure in liquids to obtain P=hρg. Research and report on • describe applications of pressure a) the applications of pressure in liquids. in liquids b) ways to reduce the negative effects of pressure in liquids. Solve problems involving • solve problems involving pressure in liquids. pressure in liquids. A student is able to:3.3Understanding gas Carry out activities to gain an • explain gas pressure. Students need topressure and idea of gas pressure and be introduced toatmospheric pressure atmospheric pressure. instruments used to measure gas Discuss gas pressure in terms pressure (Bourdon of the behaviour of gas Gauge) and molecules based on the kinetic atmospheric theory. pressure (Fortin barometer, Discuss atmospheric pressure in • explain atmospheric pressure. aneroid terms of the weight of the barometer). atmosphere acting on the Working principle Earth’s surface. of the instrument 32
  18. 18. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary is not required. Discuss the effect of altitude on Introduce other the magnitude of atmospheric units of pressure. atmospheric Research and report on the • describe applications of pressure: applications of atmospheric atmospheric pressure. pressure. 1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg = 10.3 Solve problems involving • solve problems involving m water = 101 300 atmospheric and gas pressure atmospheric pressure and gas Pa including barometer and pressure. manometer readings. 1milibar= 100 Pa A student is able to:3.4Applying Pascal’s Observe situations to form the • state Pascal’s principle. enclosed – tertutupprinciple idea that pressure exerted on an enclosed liquid is transmitted force multiplier – equally to every part of the pembesar daya liquid. hydraulic systems – Discuss hydraulic systems as a • explain hydraulic systems. sistem hidraulik force multiplier to obtain: output force = output piston area transmitted - tersebar input force input piston area Research and report on the • describe applications of applications of Pascal’s principle Pascal’s principle. (hydraulic systems). • solve problems involving Solve problems involving Pascal’s principle. Pascal’s principle. 33
  19. 19. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary A student is able to:3.5Applying Archimedes’ Carry out an activity to measure • explain buoyant force. Recall density and buoyancy – keapunganprinciple the weight of an object in air and buoyancy. the weight of the same object in buoyant force – daya water to gain an idea on Apparent weight apung buoyant force. equals actual weight minus submerged – tenggelam Conduct an experiment to • relate buoyant force to the buoyant force. investigate the relationship weight of the liquid displaced. fluid – bendalir between the weight of water displaced and the buoyant force. apparent weight – berat ketara Discuss buoyancy in terms of: • state Archimedes’ principle. a) an object that is totally or partially submerged in a fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid displaced b) the weight of a freely floating object being equal to the weight of fluid displaced c) a floating object has a density less than or equal to the density of the fluid in which it is floating. Research and report on the • describe applications of applications of Archimedes’ Archimedes principle. principle, e.g. submarines, 34
  20. 20. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary hydrometers, hot-air balloons. Solve problems involving • solve problem involving Archimedes’ principle. Archimedes’ principle. Build a cartesian diver. Discuss why the diver can be made to move up and down. A student is able to:3.6Understanding Carry out activities to gain the • state Bernoulli’s principle. fluid – bendalirBernoulli’s principle idea that when the speed of a flowing fluid increases its • explain that a resultant force lifting force – daya pressure decreases. e.g. exists due to a difference in fluid angkat blowing above a strip of paper, pressure. blowing through straw between two ping-pong balls suspended on strings. Discuss Bernoulli’s princple. Carry out activities to show that a resultant force exists due to a difference in fluid pressure. View a computer simulation to • describe applications of observe air flow over an aerofoil Bernoulli’s principle. to gain an idea on lifting force. 35
  21. 21. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Research and report on the • solve problem involving applications of Bernoulli’s Bernoulli’s principle. principle. Solve problems involving Bernoulli’s principle. 36
  22. 22. LEARNING AREA: 4. HEATLearning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary A student is able to:4.1Understanding thermal Carry out activities to show that • explain thermal equilibrium. thermal equilibrium –equilibrium thermal equilibrium is a keseimbangan terma condition in which there is no nett heat flow between two objects in thermal contact. Use the liquid-in-glass • explain how a liquid-in-glass thermometer to explain how the thermometer works. volume of a fixed mass of liquid may be used to define a temperature scale. A student is able to:4.2Understanding specific Observe the change in • define specific heat capacity (c). Heat capacity only specific heat capacity –heat capacity temperature when: Q relates to a muatan haba tentu a) the same amount of heat is • state that c = . particular object used to heat different mθ whereas specific masses of water. heat capacity b) the same amount of heat is relates to a used to heat the same mass material. of different liquids. Discuss specific heat capacity. 37
  23. 23. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Plan and carry out an activity to • determine the specific heat Guide students to determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid. analyse the unit of capacity of • determine the specific heat c as J kg-1 K-1 or a) a liquid capacity of a solid. J kg-1 0 C -1 b) a solid Research and report on • describe applications of specific applications of specific heat heat capacity. capacity. Solve problems involving • solve problems involving specific specific heat capacity. heat capacity. A student is able to:4.3Understanding specific Carry out an activity to show • state that transfer of heat during melting – peleburanlatent heat that there is no change in a change of phase does not temperature when heat is cause a change in temperature. solidification – supplied to: pemejalan a) a liquid at its boiling point. b) a solid at its melting condensation – point. kondensasi With the aid of a cooling and specific latent heat – heating curve, discuss melting, haba pendam tentu solidification, boiling and condensation as processes specific latent heat of involving energy transfer without fusion – haba pendam a change in temperature. tentu pelakuran 38
  24. 24. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary • define specific latent heat (l) Guide students to specific latent heat of Discuss Q analyse the unit of vaporisation - haba a) latent heat in terms of • state that l = . l as J kg-1 pendam tentu molecular behaviour. m pengewapan b) specific latent heat. • determine the specific latent heat of fusion. Plan and carry out an activity to • determine the specific latent determine the specific latent heat of vaporisation. heat of: c) fusion d) vaporisation • solve problems involving specific Solve problems involving latent heat. specific latent heat. A student is able to:4.4Understanding the gas Use a model or view computer • explain gas pressure, Kelvin scale – skalalaws simulations on the behaviour of temperature and volume in Kelvin molecules of a fixed mass of terms of the behaviour of gas gas to gain an idea about gas molecules. absolute zero – sifar pressure, temperature and mutlak volume. Discuss gas pressure, volume and temperature in terms of the behaviour of molecules based on the kinetic theory. Plan and carry out an experiment on a fixed mass of 39
  25. 25. Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary gas to determine the • determine the relationship relationship between: between pressure and volume at a) pressure and volume at constant temperature for a fixed constant temperature mass of gas i.e. pV = constant. b) volume and temperature at • determine the relationship constant pressure between volume and c) pressure and temperature at temperature at constant constant volume pressure for a fixed mass of gas V Extrapolate P-T and V-T graphs i.e. = constant. or view computer simulations to T show that when pressure and • determine the relationship volume are zero the between pressure and temperature on a P-T and V-T temperature at constant volume graph is -273oC. for a fixed mass of gas i.e. Discuss absolute zero and the p = constant. Kelvin scale of temperature. T • explain absolute zero. • explain the absolute/Kelvin scale of temperature. Solve problems involving the pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas. • solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas. 40
  26. 26. LEARNING AREA: 5. LIGHT Suggested LearningLearning Objective Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities A student is able to:5.1Understanding Observe the image formed in a • describe the characteristics of the plane mirror – cerminreflection of light plane mirror. Discuss that the image formed by reflection of light. satah image is: a) as far behind the mirror as reflection – pantulan the object is in front and the line joining the object and image – imej image is perpendicular to the mirror, virtual – maya b) the same size as the object, laterally inverted – c) virtual, songsang sisi d) laterally inverted. • state the laws of reflection of light. convex mirror – cermin Discuss the laws of reflection. cembung • draw ray diagrams to show the Draw ray diagrams to position and characteristics of the concave mirror – determine the position and image formed by a cermin cekung characteristics of the image i. plane mirror, formed by a ii. convex mirror, a) plane mirror, iii.concave mirror. b) convex mirror, c) concave mirror. • describe applications of reflection Research and report on of light. applications of reflection of light. 41
  27. 27. Suggested LearningLearning Objective Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities • solve problems involving reflection Solve problems involving of light. reflection of light. • construct a device based on the Construct a device based on application of reflection of light. the application of reflection of light. A student is able to:5.2Understanding Observe situations to gain an • explain refraction of light. refraction – pembiasanrefraction of light idea on refraction. • define refractive index as refractive index – Conduct an experiment to find sin i indeks pembiasan the relationship between the n= . angle of incidence and angle of sin r real depth – dalam refraction to obtain Snell’s law. nyata Carry out an activity to • Determine the refractive index of a apparent depth – dalam determine the refractive index glass or perspex block. ketara of a glass or perspex block. Discuss the refractive index, n, • state the refractive index, n, as speed of light in a vacuum speed of light in a vacuum as . . speed of light in a medium speed of light in a medium Research and report on • describe phenomena due to phenomena due to refraction, refraction. e.g. apparent depth, the twinkling of stars. 42
  28. 28. Suggested LearningLearning Objective Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Carry out activities to gain an idea of apparent depth. With the aid of diagrams, discuss real depth and apparent depth. Solve problems involving the refraction of light. • solve problems involving the refraction of light. A student is able to:5.3Understanding total Carry out activities to show the • explain total internal reflection of total internal reflection –internal reflection of effect of increasing the angle of light. pantulan dalam penuhlight incidence on the angle of refraction when light travels • define critical angle (c). critical angle – sudut from a denser medium to a less genting dense medium to gain an idea about total internal reflection and to obtain the critical angle. Discuss with the aid of • relate the critical angle to the diagrams: 1 a) total internal reflection and refractive index i.e. n = . critical angle. sin c b) the relationship between critical angle and refractive index. Research and report on • describe natural phenomenon 43
  29. 29. Suggested LearningLearning Objective Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities a) natural phenomenon involving total internal reflection. involving total internal reflection • describe applications of total c) the applications of total internal reflection. internal reflection, e.g. in telecommunication using fibre optics. Solve problems involving total • solve problems involving total internal reflection. internal reflection. A student is able to:5.4Understanding lenses Use an optical kit to observe • explain focal point and focal light rays – sinar and measure light rays traveling length. cahaya through convex and concave • determine the focal point and focal lenses to gain an idea of focal length of a convex lens. convex lens – kanta point and focal length. • determine the focal point and focal cembung Determine the focal point and length of a concave lens. focal length of convex and concave lens – kanta concave lenses. cekung With the help of ray diagrams, focal point - titik fokus discuss focal point and focal length. focal length – panjang fokus Draw ray diagrams to show the positions and characteristics of • draw ray diagrams to show the ray diagrams – gambar the images formed by a positions and characteristics of the rajah sinar. a) convex lens images formed by a convex lens. 44
  30. 30. Suggested LearningLearning Objective Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities b) concave lens. • draw ray diagrams to show the magnification - positions and characteristics of the pembesaran Carry out activities to gain an images formed by a concave lens. object distance – jarak idea of magnification. v objek With the help of ray diagrams, • define magnification as m = . u discuss magnification. image distance – jarak Carry out an activity to find the imej relationship between u, v and f. • relate focal length (f) to the object distance (u) and image 1 1 1 distance(v), i.e. = + . f u v Carry out activities to gain an idea on the use of lenses in • describe, with the aid of ray optical devices. diagrams, the use of lenses in optical devices. With the help of ray diagrams discuss the use of lenses in optical devices such as a telescope and a microscope. Construct an optical device that uses lenses. • construct an optical device that uses lenses. Solve problems involving lenses. • solve problems involving lenses. 45

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