• SRAM is mainly fixed on the processor or within the
memory and the processor.
• DRAM is fixed on the motherboard.
• The successor of the SRAM is the DRAM because it is
cheaper to produce.
• SRAM is available for purchase, but mainly for system
• The oldest version of the DRAM is DDR1, but it is only
available to industrial manufacturers and not consumers.
On the other hand, the latest version is the
• DDR4, which is available for both consumers and
• SRAM saves data on the memory when power is still
connected to the system.
• DRAM needs to be periodically refreshed.
• SRAM is an abbreviation for Static Random-Access
• DRAM is an abbreviation for dynamic random access
A magnetic stripe card is
generally used in transportation
tickets, identity cards, and credit
cards. They can be read by
swiping it through a magnetic
reading head. Companies make
the use of the magnetic stripe
cards embedded with an RFID
tag or microchip to monitor
access of employees in the
• Machine language is the lowest level of programming
language, consisting of binary code that the computer's CPU
can directly execute. Machine language programs are executed
faster than programs written in high-level programming
languages because there is no need for translation or
interpretation of the code.
• CPU registers are small, high-speed storage areas within
the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. They
are used to temporarily store data and instructions that
the CPU is currently processing, and they are measured
• Registers are located inside the CPU, and they are
designed to allow the CPU to access data and
instructions quickly. Because registers are part of the
CPU, they can be accessed much more quickly than
main memory or storage devices, which makes them
ideal for storing data that is needed frequently or data
that is needed quickly.
• CAD (Computer-Aided Design) and CAM (Computer-Aided
Manufacturing) are two related but distinct computer-aided
technologies used in the design and manufacturing processes.
• CAD refers to the use of computer software to create detailed digital
models of objects, products, or systems. It is primarily used for
designing and engineering new products or systems, as well as for
making modifications to existing designs
• CAM, on the other hand, It requires less labor intensive and saves
labor cost as it can perform work electronically which requires
minimum supervision. Machines are accurate, and the process is
repeated automatically with large quantities. The occurrence of
errors is less here, and it can run continually. A virtual machine can
help in evaluating the outcomes and routines effectively.
• Web publishing refers to the process of making web
content available to the public on the internet. This
includes creating, editing, and publishing web pages,
websites, and web applications.
• Web publishing can be done by individuals, businesses,
or organizations, and can range from simple personal
blogs to complex e-commerce websites or web-based
applications. The goal of web publishing is to make web
content accessible and easily available to the public, and
to provide a platform for sharing information and
communicating with others online.
There are two states of a cell,
i.e. active and passive. The
currently selected cell where
data can be entered or edited is
called the active cell.
When another cell is selected
or cell pointer is moved to
another cell, that cell becomes
the active cell. Actually, at a time
a single is active and other cells
of worksheet are inactive. The
inactive cells are known as
• Yes, it is possible to recover a deleted file in Windows if it
was accidentally deleted. The first step you should take is
to check the Recycle Bin. When you delete a file in
Windows, it is usually moved to the Recycle Bin, where it
can be recovered easily. To restore a file from the
Recycle Bin, simply locate the file, right-click on it, and
• Command Line Interface (CLI)
Operating Systems: These operating systems
require the user to interact with the computer
through a command prompt or terminal. The user
types commands into the prompt and the operating
system responds with text output. CLI operating
systems are often used by developers, system
administrators, and power users who require a high
degree of control over their systems. Examples of
CLI operating systems include Linux/Unix, MS-
DOS, and Windows Command Prompt.
• Graphical User Interface (GUI) Operating Systems: These
operating systems provide a graphical interface that allows users to
interact with the computer using a mouse, keyboard, and other input
devices. GUI operating systems are designed to be more intuitive and
user-friendly than CLI systems, and are used by most home and office
computer users. Examples of GUI operating systems include Windows,
macOS, and various Linux distributions such as Ubuntu and Fed
• An extended partition is a type of partition on a hard drive
that can be used to create logical partitions. In a
traditional partition scheme, a hard drive can be divided
into multiple primary partitions, each of which can contain
a file system and be used to store data.
• Formula: =A1+A2+A3+A4+A5
• Function: =SUM(A1:A5)
• Both the formula and function will produce the same
result, which is the sum of the values in cells A1, A2, A3,
A4, and A5. The SUM function is a built-in function in
Excel that adds the values in a range of cells, while the
formula simply adds the values in the cells together using
the plus (+) operator.
• DBMS stands for Database
Management System. It is a software
system that enables users to create,
manage, and manipulate databases.
A database is a collection of data that
is organized in a specific way to allow
for efficient retrieval and manipulation.
• A DBMS provides a user-friendly
interface for users to interact with the
database. It allows users to define the
structure of the database, store and
retrieve data, enforce data integrity
rules, and perform other operations
such as querying and updating the
• Resolution is an important factor for display screens
because it determines the level of detail and clarity that
can be displayed on the screen. Resolution refers to the
number of pixels that make up the image on the screen.
The higher the resolution, the more pixels are present,
and the sharper and more detailed the image will appear.
• a foreign key is a field or combination of fields that is
used to establish a link between two tables. A foreign key
in one table points to the primary key of another table.
The use of foreign keys is an essential part of
maintaining data integrity and ensuring consistency in the
• A video display adapter, also known as a graphics card, is a
hardware component that is used to generate and output
visual images to a display device, such as a monitor or
projector. It is responsible for rendering images, videos, and
animations on the computer screen.
• There are several types of video display adapters
available in the market, including:
• Integrated graphics: These are built-in graphics processors
that are integrated into the motherboard of a computer. They
are low-cost and suitable for basic computing tasks such as
web browsing, document editing, and video playback.
• Dedicated graphics: These are standalone graphics cards that
are installed in the computer's expansion slot. They have their
own memory and processing power, making them suitable for
demanding tasks such as gaming, video editing, and 3D
• Workstation graphics: These are specialized graphics
cards that are designed for use in professional
workstations, such as those used in the fields of
architecture, engineering, and media production. They
offer advanced features such as multi-monitor support,
3D modeling, and high-end rendering capabilities.
• External graphics: These are graphics cards that are
connected to a computer via a USB or Thunderbolt port.
They are suitable for laptops or other mobile devices that
may not have a dedicated graphics card.
• Onboard graphics: These are graphics cards that are
installed on the computer's motherboard. They are similar
to integrated graphics but offer more advanced features
• A computer virus is a type of malicious software that is
designed to replicate itself and spread from one
computer system to another, often causing damage to
data, hardware, or software. It typically spreads through
email attachments, downloads, or infected software.
• There are several types of computer viruses, including:
• File infectors: These viruses infect executable files, such
as .exe or .com files. When the infected file is executed,
the virus is activated and can spread to other files on the
• Boot sector viruses: These viruses infect the boot sector
of a disk, making it difficult to remove them. They can
cause damage to the disk and prevent the system from
• Macro viruses: These viruses are spread through macros
in applications, such as Microsoft Word or Excel. They
can cause damage to the documents and files that are
• Polymorphic viruses: These viruses can change their
code, making it difficult for antivirus software to detect
and remove them.
• Worms: These are self-replicating viruses that spread
through networks and can cause damage to data and
• Trojan horses: These are programs that appear to be
legitimate but contain hidden malicious code. They can
be used to steal data or give unauthorized access to a
• Installing antivirus software: Antivirus software can detect and
remove viruses from a computer system. It should be updated
regularly to ensure that it can detect new threats.
• Keeping software updated: Software updates often contain
security patches that can prevent vulnerabilities from being
exploited by viruses.
• Avoiding suspicious emails and websites: Emails and websites
that are suspicious or come from unknown sources should be
avoided. They may contain links or downloads that can infect
the system with a virus.
• Using strong passwords: Strong passwords should be used to
prevent unauthorized access to a system.
• Backing up data: Regular data backups can help in the event
that data is lost or damaged due to a virus.