Co2 - Climate Change research project - Sugar Pine


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The following powerpoint was created as a group project for the Climate Change and Field Investigations - Summer Institute 2010.

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Co2 - Climate Change research project - Sugar Pine

  1. 1. Eric Hagen, Molly Stuart,<br /> Jill Buensuceso, XuaVang,<br /> Laura Kretschmar, Donna Crum<br />Carbon Dioxide and Trees <br />
  2. 2. Investigation Questions<br />How much CO2 does the sugar pine species use in annual growth?<br />How many trees does it take to offset the amount of CO2 emitted by the average midsize car per year? <br />What are the implications for climate change?<br />How could climate change affect this species?<br />
  3. 3. Sugar Pine Pinuslambertia<br /><ul><li>General Description: white fir, 5 needles, large long cones
  4. 4. Extends from the western slope of the Cascade Range in North Central Oregon to the Sierra Pedro Matrir in Baja California
  5. 5. Found at 2,000- 7,500 feet in the Sierra Nevada
  6. 6. Grows in singles or in small groups</li></li></ul><li>Hypothesis<br />We created a hypothetical sugar pine that was 150 feet tall and with a diameter of 5 feet and calculated the carbon dioxide in tons that this tree would absorb in it's lifetime.  In working through the calculations that Adam gave us, we calculated that <br />32.08 tons of CO2 is absorbed in an average sugar pine.  <br />This prediction would serve as a comparison to our actual data.<br />If an average sugar pine absorbs 32.08 tons, then it would take approximately 5 trees to offset this amount of CO2. <br />
  7. 7. Here's how we came up with the prediction:<br />1.  Using the hypothetical diameter and height, we calculated the volume in cubic feet.   V = Pi (r2) H  = 2945 ft3<br />2.  Then we calculated the wet biomass (WB) in lbs = (V x 21.22) = 62,493lbs    21.22 is the density of sugar pine <br />3.  Next we divided by 2000 to convert the WB to tons = 31.25 tons   2000 lbs = 1 ton  <br />4.  Then we determined the dry biomass (DB) in tons = 0.7 (WB) = 27.87 tons  About 30% of wet biomass is H2O and 70% is C6H12O6.<br />5.  Then we calculated the amount of carbon in the DB in tons = 0.4(DB)= 8.75 tons  carbon is 40% of C6H12O6 as determined by the ratio of the atomic mass of carbon to sugar which was 72/180.  <br />6.  Next we determined the amount of CO2 in tons by setting up an equation using the ratio of the atomic mass of C to CO2 which is 12/44  =  8.75  / x (x being the CO2).  We got 32.08 tons of carbon dioxide.<br />
  8. 8. Carbon Emissions<br />Carbon Dioxide Emission Calculator<br />Average/medium car(21 mpg fuel economy)<br />travels 12,000 miles year<br />Total annual emissions = 6.6 tons <br />Trees needed to offset per year = 33 trees<br />135,399,945 mid size cars in the US in 2006<br /> 4,468,198,185 trees needed each year<br />
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  10. 10. Materials:<br />100 ft measuring tape<br />Clinometer<br />Protractor, straw, dental floss/string, small object (washer, key, quarter) for a weight <br />Yarn (optional to measure circumference of trees)<br />
  11. 11. Procedure<br />Using IPhone level App<br />Using Clinometer<br />
  12. 12. Formulas<br />D=M/V<br />V= pi r2 h<br />C = 2pi r<br />1 ton=2000 lbs<br />1 kg=2.2 lbs<br />X tanØ =y<br />Age of tree= rate of growth/r<br />
  13. 13. Procedure<br />We measured a 100x100 sq foot area with identified sugar pines<br />We counted the sugar pines in this area<br />We measured the diameter of the tree at D.B.H. (Diameter at Breast Height)<br />We calculated the height using a clinometer, and trig functions (X tanØ =y)<br />We calculated the volume<br />We calculated the wet and dry mass <br />We extrapolated how much CO2 that tee species uses in annual growth<br />(See equations)<br />
  14. 14. Clinometer<br />The use of a clinometer to measure tree height. A clinometer is a fairly simple instrument which is used to measure the angle of a slope. By using the principles of trigonometry, the height of tall objects can be calculated from the angles measured.<br />
  15. 15. Clinometer<br />
  16. 16. Procedure<br />Measuring Circumference<br />Still measuring Circumference<br />
  17. 17. Data<br />
  18. 18. Data Interpretation<br />Average amount of CO2 that a sugar pine tree in our  sample area absorbs in its lifetime was 20.2 tons or 40,540 pounds.<br />Average amount of CO2 absorbed per year was .16 tons or 320 pounds. <br /> In total, the 6 sugar pines in our sample area  absorb a total of 1,615 pounds of CO2 each year. <br />A medium-sized car that drives 12,000 miles per year, which  produces 13,200 pounds of CO2, (<br />According to Carbonify 33  trees are needed to offset the 13,200 pounds of CO2 emitted from a  medium-sized car. <br /> According to this statistic, the average tree  absorbs 400 pounds of CO2 a year, which in not too far off from our data.<br />
  19. 19. Possible effects of Climate Change on Sugar Pine<br />Future predictions of climate change indicate that it may not be possible to reintroduce historic fire regimes in many forests.<br />Sugar Pines are not shade tolerant<br />Sugar Pines rely on fires that are not too hot in order to regenerate<br />Sugar Pines are already depleted due to early logging and fire suppression.<br />Natalie Angell & Kristen M. Waring School of Forestry,<br /> Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ<br />
  20. 20. Big threat - White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola)<br />
  21. 21. Other dangers to Sugar Pine<br />Big threat - White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola) kills all ages of Sugar Pines<br />Likes damp wet areas – lack of fire creates better conditions.<br />Young particularly susceptible and die with 1 to 3 years<br /> Fewer then 10 in 100,000 trees are naturally resistant – but the best hope<br />
  22. 22. USDA Forest Service - RMRS - Moscow Forestry Sciences LaboratoryLast Modified: 06/26/2010 16:02:59 <br />
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  25. 25. Actually at 60 years<br />
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  27. 27.
  28. 28. Conclusions<br />How much CO2 does the sugar pine species use in annual growth?320 lbs of CO2 per year<br />How many trees does it take to offset the amount of CO2 emitted by the average midsize car? 41 sugar pines<br />What are the implications for climate change?<br />We need to plant, and protect forests<br />How could climate change affecting this species?<br />Climate change is going to make it harder for the sugar pine to survive. The E.P.A. should continue to protect the sugar pine<br />
  29. 29. Classroom Implications<br />Students could follow this same investigation with trees on their  school campus or trees in a nearby park or forest. <br />Learning would  involve the carbon cycle and the role of carbon dioxide in the  atmosphere<br /> The greenhouse effect<br />Tree identification and research<br />  Measuring techniques; calculating volume, percent, and setting up  ratios to solve for an unknown<br />Research on car emissions <br />  Generating "So, now what?" questions, discussions, and proposed  solutions.<br />
  30. 30. Sugar Pine Pinuslambertia<br />“there is a majesty and repose about them. . . more than any other tree gives beauty and distinction to the Sierran forest.” <br /> <br />David Douglas, the Scottish botanist who first discovered the species, called it “the most princely of the genus,” a designation earned by the first tree he measured<br />John Muir <br />