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Us history

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US HISTORY, AMERICAN HISTORY

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Us history

  1. 1. “The present is the fruit of the past and contains the seeds of the future.” => A country is a product of past influences and events
  2. 2. THEORY • Asians pursuit animals & wander across the Bering Strait “land bridge” (aka. Beringia – linked Siberia & present-day AK – exposed by 122m drop in global sea level during ice age due to the forming glacial ice) • Then they pass an ice-free corridor formed between 2 huge masses of glacial ice • Finally, they reach the area of Clovis, NM.
  3. 3. DOUBT • Whether early peoples could have with stood the extremely cold conditions of Beringia and a narrow passageway between two towering masses of glacial ice? • Amerindians: a rather diverse group => multiple migration involving different routes at different times • Arrivals may have followed a coastal route, or walked along the broad continental shelf exposed by lower sea level, or rafted around barriers (river mouth or glaciers) • Time of arrivals? • US has been home to humans for about 15,000 to 20,000 yrs
  4. 4. EARLY NATIVE CULTURES
  5. 5. Naming • Indian -> misnomer: Columbus believed that he had reached Southeast Asia’s “East Indies” • AK: Inuit (Eskimo), Aleut, Athabascan, other native groups • HI: Polynesian • Favorite name: First Americans, Native Americans, First Nations, Amerindians, indigenous peoples, others
  6. 6. Inuit (Eskimo) Inuit (Eskimo)
  7. 7. Aleut people
  8. 8. Athabascan
  9. 9. Polynesian ancestry
  10. 10. Agreed facts • The land had been settled thousands of years earlier. • Most native peoples ~ East Asia • After European arrived, warfare & European diseases decimated native populations. • It was a diverse population (as well as native cultures, cultural attainment): 200 languages in 17 linguistic families
  11. 11. Way of life • Originally, – Practice a hunting-gathering (+fishing) subsistence economy. – Small population, – meager material possessions, – frequent migration for a more bountiful environment • Later, (3000-4000yrs ago) – farming (crops: maize, beans, squash – ideas from Mexico)
  12. 12. Indian Cultural area
  13. 13. hunting fishing gathering
  14. 14. farming
  15. 15. • in desert Southwest => people settled near stream/spring, grow crops using irrigation. (e.g Pueblo people, live in massive adobe structures)
  16. 16. • in eastern US =>farming: crop raising + hunting + fishing =>remarkable cultural growth, high civilizations • Esp. Iroquois & Cherokee
  17. 17. • In Pacific or Arctic Ocean: people were skilled boat-builders & fishermen (watercraft: dugout canoes, kayaks, outriggers)
  18. 18. In Pacific Northwest, people depended on salmon from the Columbia & other rivers
  19. 19. • In country’s interior, 20 tribal groups hunted bison (graze on steppe, prairie grasses) for food, clothing, material for housing, tools, weapons • Bison migrated constantly =>Plain Indians pursued the herds=>migrate
  20. 20. Hunting bison in country’s interior
  21. 21. In the Great Basin & present-day CA: lowest populations, most meager level of material & nonmaterial culture; wandering tribes depended on seed gathering, hunting, fishing
  22. 22. Tribes in the Great Basin & present-day CA
  23. 23. igloo • In AK (Inuit), – harshest environment, – Mesolithic (preagricultural) peoples. – House (warm & sturdy): made of wooden frame, sod, animal skins, snow (igloo). Inuit tent
  24. 24. -Skilled hunters & fishermen. -Well-known inventions: harpoon. Kayak, dogsleds, clothing (body, headgear, footwear, gloves) harpoon
  25. 25. Aleut people
  26. 26. In HI, Polynesian ancestry
  27. 27. Europeans arrive (to find a route to Asia)
  28. 28. 1497, John Cabot reached the coast of Maine.
  29. 29. 1524, Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano reached present-day NC & continued northward on the command of French king in search of wealth & a route to Asia
  30. 30. VerrazanoNarrows Bridge above the mouth of Hudson River in NY city
  31. 31. 1607, first north Europeans (British at Jamestown, VA) began to permanently settle the land
  32. 32. Exploration (Spanish settlement)
  33. 33. In 1540, Spanish explorer Francisco Coronado explored much of the southwestern US (AZ->KS) in search for the fabled Seven Cities of Gold
  34. 34. 1565, a Spanish foothold was built at St. Augustine, FL.
  35. 35. In 1610, in the Southwest, the Spanish established a regional capital in Santa Fe, NM
  36. 36. EUROPEAN ROOTS IN AMERICAN SOIL • Economic/political emphases => Distinct regional differences in political & cultural dominance
  37. 37. • North Europeans first settled along the midAtlantic & New England coasts, • they harvested timber, fished, cleared land to settle & farm • Cities: Boston, New York, Philadelphia were established around protected harbors => doorway for trade between new settlements & homelands
  38. 38. • Inland, throughout Great Lakes region & Mississippi Valley westward to Rockies, French trappers pursued valuable fur-bearing animals (esp. beavers)
  39. 39. • From FL westward to Pacific Coast & much of interior West, Spaniards’ aims: – – – – protect their Caribbean & Atlantic trade routes, expand territory northward, discover gold, convert natives to Roman Catholic faith
  40. 40. • By 18th century: greatest mass migration. 250 years, 45m Europeans -> US • Reasons: freedom to practice religious, social, political, cultural beliefs, “reinvent” themselves, compulsion (slaves)
  41. 41. • Despite differences in language, customs, religion, diet, lifestyles -> cultural “melting pot” (Americans)
  42. 42. • By mid-1700s (4/7/1776), 13 colonies (free from British domination) formed new country: the USA
  43. 43. SOUTHWARD EXPANSION
  44. 44. • The South: humid subtropical climate, ample moisture, long, hot growing season. • => ideal for plantation crops (e.g cotton, indigo, tobacco, rice)
  45. 45. • Northwestern Europeans: unaccustomed to sweltering heat & humidity => unable/unwilling to perform hard physical labor => (first) Amerindians as labor source =>African slaves (welladapted to hot, humid conditions, excellent laborers) • > 150 years, the South depended on slavery • 400,000 Africans involved =>lowest point in U.S. history
  46. 46. • 1808, slave trade was outlawed • Slavery => Civil War (North & South) 1861 to 1865 • 600,000-700,000 died
  47. 47. WESTWARD EXPANSION • Following Daniel Boone + other pioneers => Europeans (esp. of Scandinavian & German ancestry – skilled woodsmen) got across Appalachians into Ohio Valley & beyond => seek a new life & opportunity in interior valleys & plains => canals, railroads built • Transportation linkage maintained ties between expanding frontier – expanding population – economic development along East Coast
  48. 48. Westward expansion (1803-1860)
  49. 49. • 24/1/1848, James Marshall discovered gold => Gold rush
  50. 50. Gold rush (1849-1870)
  51. 51. • Need for safe & speedy transportation links with the East => railroad building • In 1862, Congress passed Pacific Railway Act allowing the building of transcontinental railroad
  52. 52. Promontory Summit (UT) 10/5/1869
  53. 53. Growth & Prosperity • After Civil War (1865), – Most of country was linked by transportation & communication (telegraph) networks – Industrial Revolution in eastern US – Millions of immigrants -> population + economic growth =>become emerging global power
  54. 54. DECADES OF TURBULENCE • Racial, ethnic discrimination -> widespread • 1914-1918, WW1, US entered in 1917 • 1919, Congress passed Volstead Act (Prohibition) (toward alcoholic beverages) • 1933, the Act was repealed, organized crime grew, involving “bootleg” liquor & illegal activities • 24/10/1929, Great Depression
  55. 55. DUST BOWL: Dust storm approaching Stratford, TX.
  56. 56. • 1939, WW2 • 7/12/1941, Pearl Harbor, HI -> bombed • 1945, war ended. US secured its victory.
  57. 57. • 1947-1991, Cold War

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