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- 1. Session 2: Modeling with Hadoop Algorithms in MapReduce Vijay K Narayanan Principal Scientist, Yahoo! Labs, Yahoo!
- 2. Outline• Why learn models in MapReduce framework?• Types of learning in MapReduce• Statistical Query Model (SQM)• SQM Algorithms in MapReduce• Sequential learning methods and MapReduce• Challenges and Enhancements• Apache Mahout
- 3. Why learn models in MapReduce?• High data throughput – Stream about 100 Tb per hour using 500 mappers• Framework provides fault tolerance – Monitors mappers and reducers and re-starts tasks on other machines should one of the machines fail• Excels in counting patterns over data records• Built on relatively cheap, commodity hardware – No special purpose computing hardware• Large volumes of data are being increasingly stored on Grid clusters running MapReduce – Especially in the internet domain
- 4. Why learn models in MapReduce?• Learning can become limited by computation time and not data volume – With large enough data and number of machines – Reduces the need to down-sample data – More accurate parameter estimates compared to learning on a single machine for the same amount of time
- 5. Learning models in MapReduce• A primer for learning models in MapReduce (MR) – Illustrate techniques for distributing the learning algorithm in a MapReduce framework – Focus on the mapper and reducer computations• Data parallel algorithms are most appropriate for MapReduce implementations• Not necessarily the most optimal implementation for a specific algorithm – Other specialized non-MapReduce implementations exist for some algorithms, which may be better• MR may not be the appropriate framework for exact solutions of non data parallel/sequential algorithms – Approximate solutions using MapReduce may be good enough
- 6. Outline• Why learn models in MapReduce framework?• Types of learning in MapReduce• Statistical Query Model (SQM)• SQM Algorithms in MapReduce• Sequential learning methods and MapReduce• Challenges and Enhancements• Apache Mahout
- 7. Types of learning in MapReduce• Three common types of learning models using MapReduce framework 1. Parallel training of multiple models Use the Grid as a – Train either in mappers or reducers large cluster of independent 2. Ensemble training methods machines – Train multiple models and combine them (with fault tolerance) 3. Distributed learning algorithms – Learn using both mappers and reducers
- 8. Parallel training of multiple models• Train multiple models simultaneously using a learning algorithm that can be learnt in memory• Useful when individual models are trained using a subset, filtered or modification of raw data• Can train 1000’s of models simultaneously• Train 1 model in each reducer – Map: • Input: All data • Filters subset of data relevant for each model training • Output: <model_index, subset of data for training this model> – Reduce • Train model on data corresponding to that model_index
- 9. Parallel training of multiple models• Train 1 model in each reducer Data subgroup 1 "model_1", Data model_1 Train Model_1 Data subgroup 2 Train Model_2 Data subgroup N "model_2", Data model_2 Mapper Reducer
- 10. Parallel training of multiple models • Train 1 model in each mapper Map_1 Model (c1 ) • All data is sent to each c1 mapper (as a cache archive) • Mapper partition file Map_2 Model (c2 ) determines the trainingTraining c2 configuration and labeling Data strategy {x, (ci , c j ...ck )} – e.g., Training one vs. rest models in multi-class ci {c1 , c2 ...cM } classification – Can train 1000s of classes in parallel Map_M Model (cM ) cM
- 11. Ensemble methods• Train 1 base model in each mapper on a data partition• Combine the base models using ensemble methods (primarily, bagging) in the reducer• Strictly, bagging requires the data to be sampled with replacement – However, if the data set is very large, sampling without replacement may be ok• Base models are typically decision trees, SVMs etc.
- 12. Ensemble Methods: Random Subspace Bagging (RSBag)• Assume that the training data is partitioned randomly into blocks – Class distributions are roughly the same across all blocks• Algorithm (Yan et al. 2007) – Learn 1 base model per data sub-group Base-model hc ( x) yc {1, 1} – Optionally, use a random subset of features to train each model – Combine the multiple base models into a composite classifier as the final output Fci ( x) Fci 1 ( x) hci ( x)
- 13. RSBag in MapReduce 1 Map_1 hc ( x) Features 2 Combine Map_2 h ( x) c baseD modelsA intoT finalA hc3 ( x) classifier Map_3 Map_4 hc4 ( x)
- 14. RSBag in MapReduce• Provides coarse level parallelism at the level of base models – Base models can be decision trees, SVMs etc.• Speed-up with SVM base models Nrd2 rf , rd , rf data, feature sampling ratios N 5, rd 0.2, rf 0.5 Speedup 10• Can achieve similar performance as a single classifier with theoretical guarantee in less learning time E * ( Fc ) 1 sc2 sc2 Upper bound on generalization error E , x h( x, )h( x, ) Correlation between classifiers sc 2 Ex , yc P h( x, ) yc 1 Strength of classifier
- 15. Robust Subspace Bagging (RB-SBag)• Sometimes the base models may over-fit the training data – Correlation between base models may be high• Add a Forward selection step for models – Iteratively add base models based on their performance on a validation data (Yan et al. 2009)• Adds another MapReduce job – Select the base models using forward selection based on performance metrics on a validation dataset Vc
- 16. RB-SBag in MapReduce Map_1 " c ",{hc , Pr ediction c (V )}Validation Data Map_2 1 hc ( x ), hc2 ( x ), .... hcN ( x ) 1. Forward selection of base models 2. Combine base models into composite Map_N classifier Mapper Reducer
- 17. COMET: Cloud of Massive Ensemble Trees • Similar to RSBag, but uses Importance-Sampled Voting (IVoting) in each base model • Samples are weighted with non-uniform probability • Each mapper creates a set of data to train on • Ensemble after k iterations = E(k) – Add new sample to training set: • Always if E(k) incorrectly classifies new sample • With a lower probability if E(k) correctly classifies new sample e(k ) / (1 e(k )); e(k ) error on training dataset • Variant of Random Forests, in which IVoting generates the training samples instead of bagging • Use lazy evaluation during predictionJ.D Basilico, M.A. Munson, T.G. Kolda, K.R. Dixon, W.P.Kegelmeyer, COMET: A Recipe for Learning and UsingLarge Ensembles on massive data, 2011, http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1103/1103.2068v1.pdf
- 18. Distributed learning algorithms• Use multiple mappers and reducers to learn 1 model• Suitable for learning algorithms that – Have heavy computing per data record – One or few iterations for learning – Do not transfer much data between iterations• Typical algorithms – Fit the Statistical query model (SQM) • One/few iterations – Linear regression, Naïve Bayes, k-means clustering, pair-wise similarity etc. • More iterations have high overheads, e.g., – SVM, Logistic regression etc. – Divide and conquer • Frequent item-set mining, Approximate matrix factorization etc.
- 19. Outline• Why learn models in MapReduce framework?• Types of learning in MapReduce• Statistical Query Model (SQM)• SQM Algorithms in MapReduce• Sequential learning methods and MapReduce• Challenges and Enhancements• Apache Mahout
- 20. Statistical Query Model (SQM)• Learning algorithm can access the learning problem only through a statistical query oracle (Kearns 1998)• Given a function f(x,y) over data instances, the statistical query oracle returns an estimate of the expectation of f(x,y) (averaged over the data distribution).
- 21. Statistical Query Model (SQM) Raw Data Raw Data Learning Statistics Samples Samples Algorithm Oracle (X,Y) (X,Y) f ( x, y)• Learning algorithms that calculate sufficient statistics of data, gradients of a function, etc. fit this model• These calculations can be expressed in a “summation form” over subgroups of data (Chu et al. 2006) subgroup f ( x, y )
- 22. SQM in MapReduce• Distribute the summation calculations over each data sub-group• Map: – Calculate function estimates over sub-groups of data• Reduce – Aggregate the function estimates from various sub- groups• Learning algorithm should be able to work with these summaries alone
- 23. SQM in MapReduce• Assume algorithm depends on 2 functions f(x,y) and g(x,y) Data subgroup 1 " f ", subgroup f ( x, y ) " g ", subgroup g ( x, y ) Data subgroup 2 N subgroup f ( x, y), N subgroup g ( x, y) Data subgroup N Mapper Reducer
- 24. Outline• Why learn models in MapReduce framework?• Types of learning in MapReduce• Statistical Query Model (SQM)• SQM Algorithms in MapReduce• Sequential learning methods and MapReduce• Challenges and Enhancements• Apache Mahout
- 25. Algorithms in MapReduce• Many common algorithms can be formulated in the SQM framework (Chu et al. 2006) – Classification and Regression • Linear Regression, Naïve Bayes, Logistic regression, Support Vector Machine, Decision Trees – Clustering • K-means, Canopy clustering, Co-clustering – Back-propagation neural network – Expectation Maximization – PCA• Recommendations and Frequent Itemset mining• Graph Algorithms
- 26. Classification and Regression algorithms in MapReduce• Linear Regression• Naïve Bayes• Logistic Regression• Support Vector Machine• Decision Trees
- 27. Linear regression• Data vector: xi ( xi1 , xi 2 ,...xin )T• Real valued target : yi• Weight of data point: wi x, y, w m• Data set of points: y T x * A1b m A wi ( xi xiT ) i 1 m Summation form b wi ( xi yi ) i 1
- 28. Linear Regression in MapReduce• Map: – Input data Index, x, y, w from a subgroup of data – Output • 2 types of keys – K1 – for matrix A » Value1 = N x N matrix – K2 – for vector b » Value2 = N x 1 vector• Reducer: – Aggregate the individual mapper outputs for each key – Estimate A b * 1
- 29. Linear Regression in MapReduce• A: N x N matrix, b: N x 1 vector x, y, w A, b " A ", subgroup wi xi xiT " b ", subgroup wi xi yi 1 x, y, w 2 A, b A, b * A1b x, y, w k A, b Mapper Reducer
- 30. Naïve Bayes• Input Data: x ( x1 , x2 ,...xn ); x j {a1j , a2j ....aPj } j Domain of x j• Categorical target: y c1 , c2 ...cL • Class prediction: Class prior Conditional probability table (CPT) y* arg max P( y ck ) P( x j a pj | y ck ) j y j• Two types of sufficient statistics P( x j a pj | y ck ) j Sum counts P( y ck ) over sub-groups
- 31. Naïve Bayes in MapReduce• Map – Input data {x, y} from a subgroup of data – Output: 3 types of keys key ( x j a pj , y ck ), value j subgroup 1( x j a pj | y ck ) j CPT key ( y ck ), value subgroup 1( y ck ) Class prior key " samples ", value subgroup 1 Normalization• Reduce – Sum all the values of each key – Compute the class prior and the conditional probabilities
- 32. Logistic Regression• Features: x ( x1 , x2 ,...xn ) ;• Categorical target: y [0,1] Data: x, y m•• Conditional probability: 1 P ( y | x, ) 1 exp( T x)• Equivalently p log T x 1 p – Log odds is a linear function of the features
- 33. Logistic Regression• Estimate the parameters by maximizing the log conditional likelihood of observed data LCL log p log 1 p i: yi 1 i i: yi 0 i• Optimize using Newton-Raphson to update H 1 LCL Gradient LCL j y i p i x ij i Summation form Hessian H jk H jk p p 1 x x i i i i j k i i [1, m]; j , k [1, n] Data Features
- 34. Logistic Regression in MapReduce• A control program sets up the MapReduce iterations• Map – Input: x, y – Output: key g , value j , y i p i x ij isubgroup i i key h, value j , k , p p 1 x j xk i i isubgroup • Reduce – Aggregate the values of LCL j , H jk from all mappers – Compute H LCL 1 – Update H LCL 1• Stop when updates become small 1 update per iteration
- 35. Support Vector Machine• Features: x Rn ;• Binary target: y [1, 1]• Objective function in primal form min w C i p , i ( wT xi yi ) 2 w ,b i ,i 0 s.t i y i wT xi b (1 i ) p=1 (hinge loss), p=2 (quadratic loss)• For quadratic loss, batch gradient descent to estimate w Gw 2w 2C w.xi yi xi i Summation form
- 36. Support Vector Machine in MapReduce• Map – Input: ( x, y} – Output: key GGW , value 2w 2C w.x y x subgroup i i i• Reduce – Aggregate the values of gradient from all mappers – Update w w * Gw• Driver program sets up the iterations and checks for convergence
- 37. Decision Trees• Features: x ( x1 , x2 ,...xn )• Targets: y [0,1] or yR Data: D x, y m•• Construct Tree – Each node splits the data by feature value – Start from root • Select best feature, value to split the node – Based on reduction in data impurity between the child and parent nodes – Select the next child node – Repeat the process till some stopping criterion • Pure node, or data is below some threshold etc.
- 38. Decision Trees Expensive step for Large datasetsB. Panda, J. S. Herbach, S. Basu, R. J. Bayardo, PLANET: Massively ParallelLearning of Tree Ensembles with MapReduce, 2009, Proceedings of The VldbEndowment - PVLDB, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1426-1437
- 39. PLANET for Decision Trees• Parallel Learner for Assembling Numerous Ensemble Trees (PLANET- Panda et al. 2009) – Main idea is to use MapReduce to determine the best feature value splits for nodes from large datasets• Each intermediate node has a sub-set of all data falling into it• If this sub-set is small enough to fit in memory, – Grow remaining sub-tree in memory• Else, – Launch a MapReduce job to find candidate feature value splits – Select the best feature split from among the candidates
- 40. PLANET for Decision Trees• 5 main components 1. Controller M • Monitors and controls the growth of tree a p 2. Initialization Task R • Identifies all feature values to be considered for splits e 3. FindBestSplit Task d u • Finds best split when there is too much data to fit in memory c 4. InMemoryGrow Task e • Grow an entire sub-tree once the data fits in memory T 5. Model File a • File describing the state of the model s k s
- 41. PLANET for Decision Trees• Maintain 2 queues – MapReduceQueue (MRQ) • Contains nodes for which data is too large to fit in memory – InMemoryQueue (InMemQ) • Contains nodes for which data fits in memory• 2 main MapReduce jobs – MR_ExpandNodes • Process nodes from the MRQ to find best split • Output for each node: – Candidate split positions for node along with » Quality of split (using summary statistics) » Predictions in left and right branches » Size of data going into left and right branches – MR_InMemory • Process nodes from the InMemQ. • For a given set of nodes N, complete tree induction at nodes in N using the InMemoryGrow algorithm.
- 42. PLANET for Decision Trees• Map function in MR_ExpandNodes – Load the current model file and set of nodes N from MRQ – For each record • Determine if record is relevant to any of the nodes in N • Add record to the summary statistics (SS) for node • For each feature-value in record – Add record to the summary statistics for node for split points “s” less than the value in record “v” – Output Split ID key (n N , x Ordered feature, s ); value Tn , x s SS of key (n N , x Categorical feature); value v, Tn , x v candidate splits key (n N ); value SS SS of parent node Tn , x s SS y, y , 1 2 subgroup subgroup subgroup SS for variance impurity
- 43. PLANET for Decision Trees• Reduce function in MR_ExpandNodes – For each node • Aggregate the summary statistics for that node – For each split (which is node specific) • Aggregate the summary statistics for that Split ID from all map outputs of summary statistics • Compute impurity of data going into left and right branches • Total impurity = Impurity in left branch + Impurity in right branch • If Total impurity < Best split impurity so far – Best split = Current split – Output the best split found
- 44. Clustering algorithms in MapReduce• k-means clustering• Canopy clustering• Co-clustering
- 45. k-means clustering• Choose k samples as initial cluster centroids• Iterate till convergence – Assign membership of each point to closest cluster MR – Re-compute new cluster centroids using assigned members• Control program to – Initialize the centroids • random, initial clustering on sample etc. – Run the MapReduce iterations – Determine stopping criterion
- 46. k-means clustering in MapReduce• Map – Input data points: x1 , x2 ...xN – Input cluster centroids: C (c1 , c2 ,...cK ) – Assign each data point to closest cluster – Output key ci , value x j | x j ci , 1| x j ci • Reduce subgroup subgroup – Compute new centroids for each cluster ci key ci subgroup x j | x j ci key ci , value key ci subgroup 1| x j ci
- 47. Complexity of k-means clustering• Each point is compared with each cluster centroid• Complexity = N * K * O(d ) where O(d ) is the complexity of the distance metric• Typical Euclidean distance is not a cheap operation• Can reduce complexity using an initial canopy clustering to partition data cheaply – Preliminary step to help reduce expensive distance calculations – Group data into (possibly overlapping) canopies using a cheap distance metric (McCallum et al. 2000) – Compute the distance metric between a point and a cluster centroid only if they share a canopy.
- 48. Canopy clustering• Every point in the dataset is in a canopy• A point can belong to multiple canopies• Canopy size = T1• Algorithm – Keep a list of canopies, initially an empty list – Scan each data point: • If it is within T2 < T1 distance of existing canopies, discard it. Otherwise, add this point into the list of canopies – Use a cheap distance metric to construct the canopies • e.g. Manhattan distance, L – Assign points to the closest canopyA. McCallum, K. Nigam, L. Ungar. Efficient Clustering of High Dimensional Data Sets with Applicationto Reference Matching, SIGKDD 2000
- 49. Canopy clusteringImage from: http://horicky.blogspot.com/2011/04/k-means-clustering-in-map-reduce.html
- 50. Canopy clustering in MapReduce• Map – Input data points: x1 , x2 ...xN – If data point is not within distance T2 of an existing candidate canopy, add it as a candidate canopy point – Output key 1, value xi | xi candidate canopy• Reduce – Keep a list of final canopy points, initially an empty list – If the canopy point is not within distance 0.5*T2 of an existing final canopy point, add it as a final canopy point – Output key 1, value xi | xi final canopy
- 51. Canopy + k-means clustering• Final step in canopy clustering assigns all points to the closest final canopy point – Map only operation• Speeding up k-means using canopy clustering – Initial run of canopy clustering on the data (or on a sample of data) • Pick canopy centers • Assign points to canopies – Pick initial k-means cluster centroids • Run k-means iterations – Compute distance between point and centroid only if they are in the same canopy
- 52. Co-clustering• Cluster pair-wise relationships in dyadic data• Simultaneously cluster both rows and clusters, based on certain criteria• Identify sub-matrices of rows and columns that are inter-related• Commonly used in text mining, recommendation systems and graph mining
- 53. Co-clustering• Given an m x n matrix – Find group assignments of rows and columns such that the resulting sub-matrices are smooth (Papadimitriou & Sun, 2008) – Assign rows and columns to clusters r {1, 2....k}m , c {1, 2....l}n , k m, l n 01011 r 2 1 2 1 T 11000 10100 11000 01011 c 2 1 2 1 1 00111 T 10100 00111
- 54. Co-clustering• Iteratively re-arrange rows and columns till an error function keeps reducing• Algorithm: Input Am x n , k , l – Initialize r and c – Compute a group statistics/cost matrix Gk x l – While cost decreases • For each row i 1 m do – For each row group label p 1 k do » r (i) p if cost decreases • Update G, r • Do the same for columns – Return r and cS. Papadimitriou, J. Sun, DisCo: Distributed Co-clustering with Map-Reduce, 2008, ICDM 08. Eighth IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, pp 512-521
- 55. Co-clustering in MapReduce• Assumptions – Error can be computed using r , c, G only (sufficient statistics) – Row assignments can be based on r , c, G, ai: (greedy search)• Map: – Cost matrix and column cluster assignments are in all mappers – Input: • Key = row index i • Value = adjacency list for row i ai: – Compute: • Row statistics for current column cluster assignment gi (ai: , c) • Assign row to row cluster r (i) {1 k} that has the lowest cost – Output: key r (i ) Row cluster label for row value ( gi ,{i}) Cost of cluster assignment, row
- 56. Co-clustering in MapReduce• Reduce – For each row cluster label, merge the rows and total cost p r (i) gp j:r ( j ) r ( i ) gi Ip Ip i Row cluster label Total cost Rows in this row cluster – Output p, g p , I p • Collect the results for each row cluster – For each reduce output g p: g p r (i ) p, i I p
- 57. Co-clustering in MapReduce- Example• Assume a row and column partitioning for the matrix k 2 l2 01011 r (1,1,1, 2) r (1, 2,1, 2) 10100 c (1,1,1, 2, 2) 01011 Cost function = Number of non-zeros per group 10100 4 4 2 4 G= G= 2 0 4 0 Reduce: Map: Input: (2,<(2, 0),{2}) )Input:(2, 1,3 ) Output: g 2 2, 0 Output: r (2) 2, ( g 2 (2, 0),{2}) I2 I2 {2}S. Papadimitriou, J. Sun, DisCo: Distributed Co-clustering with Map-Reduce, 2008, ICDM 08. Eighth IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, pp 512-521
- 58. Recommendations and Frequent Itemset mining• Item-based collaborative filtering• Pair-wise similarity• Low-rank matrix factorization• Frequent Itemset mining
- 59. Item-based collaborative filtering• Given a user-item ratings matrix, fill in the ratings of the missing items for each user ITEM RATING U 514 S E ?25 R 432• Infer missing ratings from available item ratings for user weighted by similarity between items R ( u , j )!? sim(i, j ) * R(u, j ) R(u, i ) R ( u , j )!? sim(i, j )
- 60. Item-based collaborative filtering• Estimate similarity between items as Pearson correlation of rankings from users who have rated both items. R(u, i) R (i) R(u, j ) R ( j ) U ij sim(i, j ) R(u, i) R (i) R(u, j ) R ( j ) 2 2 U ij U ij U ij {u | R(i )! ?, R( j )! ?}
- 61. Item-based collaborative filtering using MapReduce• Map • Reduce – Input: – Input: key u, key (i, j ) Value {(i, R(i ) | R(i )! ?)} Value [( R(i ), R( j )] – Output: Ratings for – Output: item pairs key (i, j ) key (i, j ) Value sim(i, j ) Value ( R(i ), R( j ))
- 62. Pair-wise Similarity• Compute similarity between pairs of documents in a corpus S (di , d j ) wt ,di * wt ,d j wt ,di * wt ,d j tV tdi dj• Generate a postings list for each t V P(t ) {(di , wt ,di ) | wt ,di 0} – This is an easy map-reduce job
- 63. Pair-wise Similarity in MapReduce• Generating a postings list of inverted index – Map Input di For each t di Emit {t , ( di , wt ,di )} – Reduce Emit {t ,[(di , wt ,di )]}
- 64. Pair-wise Similarity in MapReduce• Map – Input term postings list t , P(t ) – Take the Cartesian product of the postings list with itself • For each pair of (di , d j ) P(t ) Emit <(i, j ), sim(i, j ) wt ,di * wt ,d j • Reduce – For each key (i, j ), Sim(di , d j ) sim(i, j )
- 65. Pair-wise Similarity in MapReduce• Cartesian product of postings list with itself may produce a large set of intermediate keys• Modify the above algorithm as follows – Split the corpus into blocks of documents and query against postings list – Map • Input term postings list t , P(t ) • Load blocks of documents in memory • For each document d i in block – If t di compute partial score for each element – Reduce • For each document, aggregate the partial scores from mappers for all other documents• Can reduce intermediate keys by implementing term limits when documents are loaded into memory
- 66. Low-rank matrix factorizations• Useful for analyzing patterns in dyadic data Vm x n Wm x d H d x n , d min(m, n)• Given an application dependent loss function, find arg min L(V ,W , H ) W ,H• Most loss functions are sums of local losses L ( i , j )Z l (Vij ,Wij , H ij )• Use stochastic gradient descent (SGD) for this factorization
- 67. SGD for matrix factorizationTraining set Z Vij | Vij ! ? , initial values W0 , H 0While not converged, do Select a training point (i, j ) Z uniformly at random Lij (W , H ) Wi* Wi* n N l (Vij ,Wi* , H * j ) For local losses, WWi k i* depend only on Lij (W , H ) H* j H* j n N l (Vij ,Wi* , H * j ) l (Vij , Wi* , H * j ) HjH kj * Wi* Wi* end while R. Gemulla, P.J. Haas, E. Nijkamp, Y. Sismanis, IBM Tech Report , 2011
- 68. SGD for matrix factorization in MapReduce• Main ideas – Local loss depends only on Vij ,Wi* , H* j – If sub-matrices do not share rows and columns, they can be factored independently and factors combined. Z b W bH b H 1 H 2 H d W 1 W Z 0 ... 0 1 11 2 2 W W 0 Z 22 ... W H H 1 , H 2 ...H d 0 W d W d 0 dd 0 Z – Stratify the input matrix such that each stratum can be processed in a distributed manner
- 69. SGD for matrix factorization in MapReduce• Stratify the input matrix (dropping missing values) into subsets Z s , Z s2 , 1 Z sd such that i i , j j (i, j ) Z sb1 , (i , j ) Z sb 2 , (b1 b2)• Stratification – Randomly permute the rows and columns of the input matrix Z 11 n/d V11 V12 V1n For a permutation j1 , j2 .... jd of 1...d m/d V21 V22 V2 n Z s Z 1 j1 Z 2 j2 Z 3 j3 ... Z djd V V m1 m 2 Vmn R. Gemulla, P.J. Haas, E. Nijkamp, Y. Sismanis, IBM Tech Report , 2011
- 70. SGD for matrix factorization in MapReduceTraining set Z , initial values W0 , H 0 , cluster size dW W0 , H H 0Block Z / W / H into d x d / d x 1/1 x d blocksWhile not converged, do Epochs Pick step size For s 1 d do Sub-epoch Pick d blocks Z 1 j1 , Z 2 j2 ,....Z djd to form a stratum Z s For b 1 d do Machines Run SGD on points in Z bjb with step size end for end forend while R. Gemulla, P.J. Haas, E. Nijkamp, Y. Sismanis, IBM Tech Report , 2011
- 71. Frequent Itemset Mining• Set of items I {a1 , a2 ...aM } and D {T1 , T2 ...TN } where Ti subsets of I• Pattern A I is frequent if support( A) • Problem – Find all complete frequent item-sets of D• Divide and conquer approach – Patterns containing A can be found using only transactions containing A. – Filter transactions with A – conditional database (CDB) of A – Find patterns containing A in CDB(A)
- 72. Frequent Itemset Mining• Construct a Frequent Pattern (FP) Tree – Keep only items with frequency above the minimum support – Sort each transaction in descending order of frequent items – Add each sorted transaction to an item prefix tree – Each node in the FP tree is an item • Node has count of transactions with that item in that path • Nodes of same items in different paths are linked together• FPGrowth algorithm – Start from CDB of single frequent item – Build FP Tree of CDB – Mine frequent patterns from CDBs using recursion • Recursion terminates when CDB has a single path • Frequent pattern = Union of all nodes in this tree with support = min. support of nodes in this tree Mining frequent patterns without candidate generation, J. Han, J. Pei,Y. Yin. 2000, In SIGMOD, 2000.
- 73. Frequent Itemset Mining f:4 p: { f c a m / f c a m / c b } c:4facdgimp a:3 fcamp b:3 m: { f c a / f c a / f c a b } m:3abcflmo p:3 fcabm b: { f c a / f c } o:2bfhjo d:1 fb e:1 a: { f c / f c / f c } g:1bcksp h:1 cbp i:1 c: { f / f / f } k:1afcelpmn l:1 fcamp f: {} n:1 Original Sorted Conditional databases of Frequenttransactions transactions Frequent items items
- 74. Frequent Itemset Mining in MapReduce• Identifying frequent items = 1 MapReduce job – Find the set of items and the associated frequency• Prune this frequent items list keeping only items more frequent than minimum support• Mine subsequent projected CDBs in MapReduce iterations (Li et al. 2008) – Project transactions in CDB by least frequent item in the mapper – Breadth first search of the FP Tree using a MapReduce iteration – Once projected CDB fits in memory of reducer • Run FPGrowth algorithm in reducer • No more growth of the sub-tree
- 75. Frequent Itemset Mining in MapReduce p: { f c a m / f c a m / c b } pc: {} pc:3 p D|p c m: { f c a / f c a / f c a b } D|am D|cam am: { f c / f c / f c } a m cm: { f / f / f } D|m c cam: { f / f / f } D|cm fcam: {} b mf:3, mc:3, ma:3, mfc:3,D D|b mfa:3, mca:3, mfca:3 c b: { f c a / f c } a D|a D|ca a: { f c / f c / f c } ca: { f / f / f } c fa: {} D|c af:3, ac:3, afc: 3 c: { f / f / f } fc: {} MR Iteration 1 MR Iteration 2 MR Iteration 3 cf:3
- 76. Graph Algorithms• Ubiquitous in web applications – Web-graph, Social network graph, User-item graph• Typical problems – Popularity (e.g. PageRank) – Shortest paths – Clustering, semi-clustering etc.
- 77. Graph algorithms in MapReduce• Vertex centric approach – Work with the adjacency list of each vertex – Especially useful for sparse adjacency matrices• Breadth first search – Each MR iteration advances the horizon by one level• In each iteration 1. Compute on each vertex 2. Pass values to connected vertices for aggregation in the reducer 3. Pass the adjacency list of each node to the reducer
- 78. Breadth first search on Graphs in MapReduce 3 • Easy (iterative) 2 implementations exist for some common algorithms – Single source shortest path1 2 3 – PageRank 2 3 3MR Iteration 1 MR Iteration 2
- 79. Single source shortest path in MapReduce• Find the shortest path from a given node to any reachable node• Given a start node: – Distance to adjacent nodes = 1 – Distance to any other node reachable from a set of nodes S DistanceTo(n) = 1 + min(DistanceTo(m), m S)• Map • Reduce – Input: – Input: • Node “n” • “p”, “D+1” from all nodes • D, Adjacency list of “n” pointing to “p” Pass the – Output: graph from • “n”, Adjacency list of “n” • For each node “p” in 1 iteration – Output: adjacency list To the next • “p”, min(“D+1” from all – <p, (D+1)> nodes pointing to “p”) • <n,Adjacency list of “n”> • “n”, Adjacency list of “n”
- 80. PageRank• Given a node A PR(Ti ) PR( A) d (1 d ) * {Ti :Ti A} C (Ti ) d random jump probability Ti node pointing to A C (Ti ) out-degree of Ti• Iterate this equation till convergence• Driver program to check if the page rank for each node has converged
- 81. PageRank in MapReduce• In each iteration (i) • Map • Reduce – Input: – Input: • Node “n”, PRi-1(n) • <“p”, V from all nodes “n” • Adjacency list of “n” pointing to “p”> – Compute • Adjacency list of “n” • V = PRi-1(n) / |Adjacency – Compute list of n| • PRi(p) = Sum(V) – Output: – Output: • For each node “p” in • <p, PRi(p) > adjacency list • <n,Adjacency list of “n”> – <p, V> • <n,Adjacency list of “n”>
- 82. Frameworks for graph algorithms• MapReduce is not a good fit for graph algorithms – 1 iteration for each level of the graph has large overheads• “Bulk synchronous processing model” for graph processing. – Components – for either compute or storage – Router – to deliver point to point messages – Synchronization at periodic intervals (called supersteps) that are atomic• In each superstep, vertex can – Receive messages sent by other vertices in previous superstep – Compute using the data in that vertex and the received messages – Send messages to other vertices
- 83. Frameworks for graph algorithms• Vertex can vote to go to halt state• Computation stops when all vertices have voted to halt.• Vertices can also mutate the graph – Add/remove edges and other vertices – Mutations implemented in next superstep• Framework also supports aggregators – Can maintain global summaries over the graph – Values communicated to all vertices before the next superstep• Large scale graph processing tools leveraging Grid – Pregel (in Google) – Open source implementation Giraph https://github.com/aching/Giraph
- 84. Outline• Why learn models in MapReduce framework?• Types of learning in MapReduce• Statistical Query Model (SQM)• SQM Algorithms in MapReduce• Sequential learning methods and MapReduce• Challenges and Enhancements• Apache Mahout
- 85. Sequential learning methods• Some learning algorithms are inherently sequential in nature, e.g., – Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) minimization – Conditional Maximum Entropy using SGD – Perceptron• Difficult to distribute sequential algorithms over data partitions – Need frequent communication of intermediate parameter values• Some sequential algorithms can be trained in a cluster environment. – Theoretical and empirical analysis show that parameters converge to the values from sequential training over all data
- 86. Sequential learning methods in MapReduce• Types of sequential learning in MapReduce – Single M/R job: • Learn parameters on each data partition in mappers over multiple epochs • Average the model parameters from all mappers in a reducer – Multiple M/R jobs: • Learn parameters on each data partition in each mapper for 1 epoch • Average the model parameters from all mappers in a reducer • Start the next iteration for next epoch in the mapper with the average parameter values from previous iteration – Communicate between nodes • Launch MPI on Hadoop cluster
- 87. Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) methods• Many learning algorithms involve optimizing an objective function (maximizing log likelihood, minimizing root mean square error etc.) over the training data to determine the optimal parameters w* arg min L( xi , y i , w) itraining data w w * itraining data w L(xi , y i , w)• Stochastic Gradient techniques update the parameter one example at a time w w * w L( xi , y i , w)• Parameter updates are inherently sequential
- 88. Parallelized SGD• Partition the training data into multiple partitions, each with T examples chosen at random• Perform stochastic gradient updates on each data partition separately with constant learning rate.• Average the solutions between different machines.• For large scale data, (Zinkevich et al. 2010) show that – Parameter values converge to sequential estimates – For k partitions, averaging the parameters reduces variance by O(k 1 2 ) – Bias in parameter estimates decreases as well
- 89. Parallelized SGD in MapReduce Map: Reduce: In each mapper i 1...k Aggregate from all mappers: Machines wi ,0 0 1 k v wi ,t Average across all For t 1...T Data k i 1 machines wi ,t wi ,(t 1) * w L( x, y , wi ,t 1 ) end for end for
- 90. Parallelized SGD in MapReduce • Multi-pass parallel SGD (Weimer, Rao, Zinkevich 2010) – Divide the data randomly among all machines ctj t th example sent to j th machine * – Initialize weight vector w – For i {1...T } iterations do Iterations • For each machine j {1...k} do Machines wi w* Shuffle data uniformly at random p :{1...m} {1...m} For each t {1...m} do DataInitial value for next w j w j c p (t ) (w j ) j end for iteration end for 1 k j w w * Average across all machines in k j 1 each iteration end for
- 91. Conditional MaxEnt models• Used in both binary and multi-class classification problems• Commonly used in NLP and computer vision S {( x1 , y1 ), ( x2 , y2 )...( xm , ym ) 1 pw ( y | x ) exp w. ( x, y ) , ( x, y ) feature Z ( x) Z ( x) exp w. ( x, y) yY 1 m w arg min FS ( w) arg min w log pw ( y | x) 2 w w m i 1 y arg max pw ( y | x) y
- 92. Conditional MaxEnt in MapReduce• Mixture weighting method (Mann et al. 2009) – Train a model in each of mappers using standard gradient ascent on a M subsample of the data. k th mapper; wk 0 for t 1...T do wk wk * wk FS ( wk ) return w – Average the weights from all the mappers in 1 reducer M w k wk M k 1 k 0 k 1 – Mann et al. (2009) show that the mixture weighting1 estimate converges to the k sequential estimate
- 93. Perceptron algorithm• Online algorithm used in NLP for structure prediction e.g., – Parsing, Named entity recognition, Machine translation etc. Perceptron( D {xi , yi }) w(0) 0; k 0 for n 1...N N epochs for t 1... | D | Data y arg max wk . f ( xt , y ) Predict using y current weights if ( y yt ) Add weight to features for w( k 1) wk f ( xt , yt ) f ( xt , y ) correct output k k 1 Remove weights to features for incorrect output return wk
- 94. Perceptron in MapReduce• Iterative parameter mixing – Train using data sub-group for 1 epoch in each mapper – Average the weights in reducer – Communicate back to mapper – Train next epoch in mapper OneEpochPerceptron( D, w) w(0) w; k 0 w 0 for t 1... | D | for n 1...N y arg max wk . f ( xt , y ) w(i ,n ) = OneEpochPerceptron( Di , w) y w i , n w (i ,n ) if ( y yt ) w( k 1) wk f ( xt , yt ) f ( xt , y ) i return w k k 1 Average across all machines in return wk each iteration
- 95. Perceptron in MapReduce• McDonald et al. (2010) show that averaging parameters after each epoch: – Has as good or better performance as sequential training on all data – Trains better classifiers quicker than training sequentially on all data – Performs better than averaging parameters from training model in each partition for multiple epochs to convergence
- 96. Outline• Why learn models in MapReduce framework?• Types of learning in MapReduce• Statistical Query Model (SQM)• SQM Algorithms in MapReduce• Sequential learning methods and MapReduce• Challenges and Enhancements• Apache Mahout
- 97. Challenges for ML algorithms on Hadoop• Hadoop is optimized for large batch data processing – Assumes data parallelism – Ideal for shared nothing computing• Many learning algorithms are iterative – Incur significant overheads per iteration• Multiple scans of the same data – Typically once per iteration high I/O overhead reading data into mappers per iteration – In some algorithms static data is read into mappers in each iteration • e.g. input data in k-means clustering.• Need a separate controller outside the framework to: – coordinate the multiple MapReduce jobs for each iteration – perform some computations between iterations and at the end – measure and implement stopping criterion
- 98. Challenges for ML algorithms on Hadoop• Incur multiple task initialization overheads – Setup and tear down mapper and reducer tasks per iteration• Transfer/shuffle static data between mapper and reducer repeatedly – Intermediate data is transferred through index/data files on local disks of mappers and pulled by reducers• Blocking architecture – Reducers cannot start till all map jobs complete• Availability of nodes in a shared environment – Wait for mapper and reducer nodes to become available in each iteration in a shared computing cluster
- 99. Iterative algorithms in MapReduce Overhead per Iteration: Data (each pass) Pass Result •Job setup •Data Loading •Disk I/O
- 100. Enhancements to Hadoop• Many proposals to overcome these challenges• All try to retain the core strengths of data partitioning and fault tolerance of Hadoop to various degrees• Proposed enhancements and alternatives to Hadoop – Worker/Aggregator framework – HaLoop – MapReduce Online – iMapReduce – Spark – Twister – Hadoop ML – …..
- 101. Worker/Aggregator framework• Worker - Load data in memory - Iterate: › Iterates over data using user specified functions › Communicates state › Waits for input state of next pass• Aggregator – Receive state from the workers – Aggregate state using user specified functions – Send state to all workers• Communicate between workers and aggregators using TCP/IP• Leverage the fault tolerance, and data locality of Hadoop M. Weimer, S. Rao, M. Zinkevich, 2010, NIPS 2010 Workshop on Learning on Cores, Clusters and Clouds
- 102. Parallelized SGD in Worker/Aggregator Advantages: Final ResultInitial Data •Schedule once per Job •Data stays in memory •P2P communication 102 9/7/2011
- 103. HaLoop • Programming model and architecture for iterations – New APIs to express iterations in the framework • Loop-aware task scheduling – Physically co-locate tasks that use the same data in different iterations – Remember association between data and node – Assign task to node that uses data cached in that node • Caching for loop invariant data: – Detect invariants in first iteration, cache on local disk to reduce I/O and shuffling cost in subsequent iterations – Cache for Mapper inputs, Reducer Inputs, Reducer outputs • Caching to support fixpoint evaluation: – Avoids the need for a dedicated MR step on each iterationHaLoop: Efficient Iterative Data Processing on Large Clusters by Yingyi Bu, Bill Howe, Magdalena Balazinska,Michael D. Ernst. In VLDB10
- 104. HaLoop vs. MapReduceApplication ApplicationFramework Framework • HaLoop framework controls the loop • First iteration is similar to that on Hadoop. • Framework identifies data node mappings, caches and indexes for fast access, and controls looping • Subsequent iterations leverage the above optimizations HaLoop: Efficient Iterative Data Processing on Large Clusters by Yingyi Bu, Bill Howe, Magdalena Balazinska, Michael D. Ernst. In VLDB10
- 105. New, additional API HaLoop DesignLeverage data locality Caching for fastStarts new access MR jobsrepeatedlyHaLoop: Efficient Iterative Data Processing on Large Clusters by Yingyi Bu, Bill Howe, Magdalena Balazinska,Michael D. Ernst. In VLDB10
- 106. HaLoop Programming APIName FunctionalityMap() & Reduce() Specify a map & reduce functionAddMap() & AddReduce() Specify a step in loop IterationSetDistanceMeasure() Specify a distance for results inputsSetInput() Specify inputs to iterationsAddInvariantTable() Specify loop-invariant dataSetFixedPointThreshold() A loop termination condition LoopSetMaxNumberOfIterations() Specify the max number of control iterationsSetReducerInputCache() Enable/disable reducer input cacheSetReducerOutputCache() Enable/disable reducer output Cache cache controlSetMapperInputCache() Enable/disable mapper input cacheHaLoop: Efficient Iterative Data Processing on Large Clusters by Yingyi Bu, Bill Howe, Magdalena Balazinska,Michael D. Ernst. In VLDB10
- 107. k-means clustering in HaLoop• k-means in HaLoop 1. Job job = new Job(); 2. job.AddMap(Map_Kmeans,1); Assign data point to closest cluster 3. job.AddReduce(Reduce_Kmeans,1); Re-compute centroids 4. job.SetDistanceMeasure(ResultDistance); – # of changes in cluster membership 5. job.SetFixedPointThreshold(0.01); 6. job.SetMaxNumOfIterations(12); Stopping criteria 7. job.SetInput(IterationInput); Same input data to each iteration 8. job.SetMapperInputCache(true); – Enable mapper input caching for mappers to read data from local disk node 9. job.Submit();
- 108. MapReduce Online • Pipeline data between operators as it is produced – Decouple computation and data transfer schedules – Intra-job: • between mapper and reducer – Inter-job: • schedule multiple dependent jobs simultaneously • between reducer of one job and mapper of next job • “Push” data from producers instead of a “pull” by consumers • Intermediate data is considered tentative till map job completes – Also stored on disk for fault tolerance/recovery • Reducer starts as soon as some data is available from mappers – Can compute approximate answers from partial data • Mappers and Reducers can also run continuously – Enables stream processingMapreduce online, T. Condie, N. Conway, P. Alvaro, J. M. Hellerstein, K. Elmeleegy, R. Sears, 2010, NSDI10,Proceedings of the 7th USENIX conference on Networked systems design and implementation
- 109. iMapReduce• Iterative processing – Persistent map/reduce tasks – Each reduce task has a locally connected corresponding map task• Maintain static data locally – On local disk of mapper• Asynchronous map execution – Persistent socket between reducemap – Completion of reduce triggers map – Mappers do not need to waitiMapReduce: A Distributed Computing Framework for Iterative Computation, Y. Zhang, Q. Gao, L. Gao,C. Wang, DataCloud 2011
- 110. iMapReduce – Iterative Processing
- 111. iMapReduce – Asynchronous map executionTIME MapReduce iMapReduce
- 112. Spark• Open source cluster computing model: – Different from MapReduce, but retains some basic character• Optimized for: – iterative computations • Applies to many learning algorithms – interactive data mining • Load data once into multiple mappers and run multiple queries• Programming model using working sets – applications reuse intermediate results in multiple parallel operations – preserves the fault tolerance of MapReduce• Supports – Parallel loops over distributed datasets • Loads data into memory for (re)use in multiple iterations – Access to shared variables accessible from multiple machines• Implemented in Scala,• www.spark-project.orgSpark: Cluster Computing with Working Sets. M. Zaharia, M. Chowdhury, M.J. Franklin, S. Shenker,I. Stoica. 2010, USENIX HotCloud 2010.
- 113. Outline• Why learn models in MapReduce framework?• Types of learning in MapReduce• Statistical Query Model (SQM)• SQM Algorithms in MapReduce• Sequential learning methods and MapReduce• Challenges and Enhancements• Apache Mahout
- 114. Mahout• Goal – Create scalable, machine learning algorithms under the Apache license.• Scalable: – to large datasets – business use cases – community• Contains both: – Hadoop implementations of algorithms that scale linearly with data. – Fast sequential (non MapReduce) algorithms• Latest release is Mahout 0.5 on 27th May 2011 (circa Aug 4, 2011)• Wiki: – https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/MAHOUT/Mahout+Wiki• Mailing lists – User, Developer, Commit notification lists – https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/MAHOUT/Mailing+Lists
- 115. Algorithms in Mahout• Classification: – Logistic Regression – Naïve Bayes, Complementary Naïve Bayes – Random Forests• Clustering – K-means, Fuzzy k-means – Canopy – Mean-shift clustering – Dirichlet Process clustering – Latent Dirichlet allocation – Spectral clustering• Parallel FP growth• Item based recommendations• Stochastic Gradient Descent (sequential)
- 116. Acknowledgment Numerous wonderful colleagues!Questions?
- 117. Model Training Exercise
- 118. Exercise problem• Problem: – Predict the age of abalone as a function of physical attributes – Useful for ecological and commercial fishing purposes• Dataset: – Dataset from the Marine Resources Division at the Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, Tasmania – Attributes: • Gender, Length, Diameter, Height, 4 different weights – 8 attributes – Target: • Number of Rings in shell • Age (in years) = 1.5 + number of rings in shell – At: http://www.stat.duke.edu/data-sets/rlw/abalone.dat• Learn a linear relation between the age and the physical attributes
- 119. Exercise dataset• Original data sample size = 4177• Generate larger dataset by replicating each record – Add Gaussian noise for each feature with the sample variance – Do not add variance for Gender and # of rings – Replicate by factors of: • 10x, 1k x, 8k x, 16k x, 32k x • Datasets of about 40k, 4MM, 32 MM, 64MM and 128 MM records.• For all attributes, compared to the original dataset, the larger datasets have: – same mean – higher sample variance
- 120. Exercise: Model training• Train a linear regression model 8 Rings wi xi x0 1 i 0 w* A1b 8 8 A ( xi x ) T i b ( xi yi ) i 0 i 0• Split the training data into 10 parts• Mapper: – Compute the matrix A and vector b on each partition• Reducer – Aggregate the values of A and b from all mappers – Compute the weights w* A1b
- 121. Exercise: Model Results• For replication factor of 10x – w[Sex] = 0.747 – w[Length] = 1.894 – w[Diameter] = 2.844 – w[Height] = 7.213 – w[Whole] = 0.311 – w[Shucked] = -0.558 – w[Viscera] = 0.840 – w[Shell] = 3.288 – w[1] = 5.046
- 122. Training Times: Sequential vs Hadoop 9000 8000Training Time (seconds) 7000 Hadoop Sequential 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 20 40 Data60 (MM records) size 80 100 120 140
- 123. References1. M. Kearns. Efficient noise-tolerant learning from statistical queries. Journal of the ACM, Vol. 45, No. 6, November 1998, pp. 983–1006.2. C. Chu, S.K.Kim, Y. Lin, Y. Yu, G. Bradski, A.Y. Ng, K. Olukotun, Map-Reduce for Machine Learning on Multicore. In Proceedings of NIPS 2006, pp. 281-288.3. W. Zhao, H. Ma, Q. He. Parallel K-Means Clustering Based on MapReduce. CloudCom 09 Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing 2009, pp. 674-6794. R. Ho. http://horicky.blogspot.com/2011/04/k-means- clustering-in-map-reduce.html
- 124. References5. Cluster Computing and MapReduce, Lecture 4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ZDybXl212Q6. A. McCallum, K. Nigam, L. Ungar. Efficient Clustering of High Dimensional Data Sets with Application to Reference Matching, Proceedings of the sixth ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, 2000, pp.169-1787. C. Elkan, 2011. http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~elkan/250B/logreg.pdf8. B. Panda, J. S. Herbach, S. Basu, R. J. Bayardo, PLANET: Massively Parallel Learning of Tree Ensembles with MapReduce, 2009, Proceedings of The Vldb Endowment - PVLDB, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1426- 1437.
- 125. References9. J.S. Herbach, 2009. http://fora.tv/2009/08/12/Josh_Herbach_PLANET_MapR educe_and_Tree_Learning#fullprogram10. R. Yan, J. Tesic, and J. R. Smith. Model-shared subspace boosting for multi-label classification, 2007, In Proceedings of the 13th ACM SIGKDD Intl. Conf. on Knowledge discovery and data mining, pp 834-843.11. R. Yan, M. Fleury, M. Merler, A. Natsev, J.R. Smith, 2009, Proceedings of the First ACM workshop on Large- scale multimedia retrieval and mining, pp 35-4212. J.D Basilico, M.A. Munson, T.G. Kolda, K.R. Dixon, W.P.Kegelmeyer, COMET: A Recipe for Learning and Using Large Ensembles on massive data, 2011, http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1103/1103.2068v1.pd f
- 126. References13. S. Papadimitriou, J. Sun, DisCo: Distributed Co- clustering with Map-Reduce, 2008,ICDM 08. Eighth IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, pp 512-52114. M.A. Zinkevich, M. Weimer, A. Smola, A., L. Li, Parallelized Stochastic Gradient Descent, 2010, NIPS.15. T. Elsayed, J. Lin, and D. Oard. Pairwise document similarity in large collections with MapReduce, 2008, In ACL, Companion Volume, pp 265-268, 200816. J. Lin, Brute Force and Indexed Approaches to Pairwise Document Similarity Comparisons with MapReduce., Proceedings of the 32nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR) 2009.
- 127. References17. M. Weimer, S. Rao, M. Zinkevich, 2010, NIPS 2010 Workshop on Learning on Cores, Clusters and Clouds18. HaLoop: Efficient Iterative Data Processing on Large Clusters by Yingyi Bu, Bill Howe, Magdalena Balazinska, Michael D. Ernst. In VLDB10: The 36th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, Singapore, 24-30 September, 2010.19. G. Mann, R. McDonald, M. Mohri, N. Silberman, D. D. Walker, 2009, in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 22 (2009), edited by: Y. Bengio, D. Schuurmans, J. Lafferty, C. K. I. Williams, A. Culotta pp. 1231-1239.20. R. McDonald, K. Hall, G. Mann, Distributed training strategies for the structured perceptron , 2010, In Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (2010), pp. 456-464.
- 128. References21. H. Li, Y. Wang, D. Zhang, M. Zhang, E.Y. Chang, 2008, In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Recommender systems (2008), pp. 107-114.22. R. Gemulla, P.J. Haas, E. Nijkamp, Y. Sismanis, IBM Tech Report , 2011 http://www.almaden.ibm.com/cs/people/peterh/dsgdTe chRep.pdf23. Pregel: a system for large-scale graph processing, G. Malewicz, M. H. Austern, A. J.C Bik, J. C. Dehnert, A.H Horn, N. Leiser, G. Czajkowski, 2010, SIGMOD 10 Proceedings of the 2010 international conference on Management of data
- 129. References24. Mapreduce online, T. Condie, N. Conway, P. Alvaro, J. M. Hellerstein, K. Elmeleegy, R. Sears, 2010, NSDI10, Proceedings of the 7th USENIX conference on Networked systems design and implementation25. iMapReduce: A Distributed Computing Framework for Iterative Computation, Y. Zhang, Q. Gao, L. Gao, C. Wang, 2011, DataCloud 201126. Spark: Cluster Computing with Working Sets. M. Zaharia, M. Chowdhury, M.J. Franklin, S. Shenker, I. Stoica. 2010, USENIX HotCloud 2010.27. Mining frequent patterns without candidate generation, J. Han, J. Pei,Y. Yin. 2000, In SIGMOD, 2000.
- 130. Backup
- 131. Decision Trees• Features: x ( x1 , x2 ,...xn )• Targets: y [0,1] or yR Data: D x, y m•• Construct Tree – Each node splits the data by feature value – Start from root • Select best feature, value to split the node – Based on reduction in data impurity between the child and parent nodes – Select the next child node – Repeat the process till some stopping criterion • Pure node, or data is below some threshold etc.
- 132. Decision Trees Expensive step for Large datasetsB. Panda, J. S. Herbach, S. Basu, R. J. Bayardo, PLANET: Massively ParallelLearning of Tree Ensembles with MapReduce, 2009, Proceedings of The VldbEndowment - PVLDB, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1426-1437
- 133. PLANET for Decision Trees• Parallel Learner for Assembling Numerous Ensemble Trees (PLANET- Panda et al. 2009) – Main idea is to use MapReduce to determine the best feature value splits for nodes from large datasets• Each intermediate node has a sub-set of all data falling into it• If this sub-set is small enough to fit in memory, – Grow remaining sub-tree in memory• Else, – Launch a MapReduce job to find candidate feature value splits – Select the best feature split from among the candidates
- 134. PLANET for Decision Trees• 5 main components 1. Controller M • Monitors and controls the growth of tree a p 2. Initialization Task R • Identifies all feature values to be considered for splits e 3. FindBestSplit Task d u • Finds best split when there is too much data to fit in memory c 4. InMemoryGrow Task e • Grow an entire sub-tree once the data fits in memory T 5. Model File a • File describing the state of the model s k s
- 135. PLANET for Decision Trees• Controller – Determines the state of the tree and grows it • Decides if nodes are pure or have small data to become leaves • Data fits in memory Launch a MapReduce job to grow the entire sub-tree in memory • Data does not fit in memory Launch a MapReduce job to find candidate best splits • Collect results from MR jobs and choose the best split for a node • Update the Model File – Periodically checkpoints the system• Model File – Contains the state of the tree constructed so far – Used by the controller to check which nodes to split or grow next
- 136. PLANET for Decision Trees• Maintain 2 queues – MapReduceQueue (MRQ) • Contains nodes for which data is too large to fit in memory – InMemoryQueue (InMemQ) • Contains nodes for which data fits in memory• Initialization Task (MapReduce) – Identifies candidate attribute values for node splits – Continuous attributes • Compute an approximate equi-depth histogram • Boundary points of histogram used for potential splits – Categorical attributes • Identify attributes domain • Sort values by average values of Y and use this for ordering – Generate a file with list of attributes to be used by other tasks
- 137. PLANET for Decision Trees• 2 main MapReduce jobs – MR_ExpandNodes • Process nodes from the MRQ to find best split • Output for each node: – Candidate split positions for node along with » Quality of split (using summary statistics) » Predictions in left and right branches » Size of data going into left and right branches – MR_InMemory • Process nodes from the InMemQ. • For a given set of nodes N, complete tree induction at nodes in N using the InMemoryGrow algorithm.
- 138. PLANET for Decision Trees• Map function in MR_ExpandNodes – Load the current model file M and set of nodes N – For each record • Determine if record is relevant to any of the nodes in N • Add record to the summary statistics (SS) for node • For each feature-value in record – Add record to the summary statistics for node for split points “s” less than the value in record “v” – Output Split ID key (n N , x Ordered feature, s ); value Tn , x s SS of key (n N , x Categorical feature); value v, Tn , x v candidate splits key (n N ); value SS SS of parent node Tn , x s SS y, y , 1 2 subgroup subgroup subgroup SS for variance impurity
- 139. PLANET for Decision Trees• Reduce function in MR_ExpandNodes – For each node • Aggregate the summary statistics for that node – For each split (which is node specific) • Aggregate the summary statistics for that Split ID from all map outputs of summary statistics • Compute impurity of data going into left and right branches • Total impurity = Impurity in left branch + Impurity in right branch • If Total impurity < Best split impurity so far – Best split = Current split – Output the best split found
- 140. PLANET for Decision Trees• InMemoryGrow – Task to grow the entire subtree once the data for it fits in memory – Similar to parallel training – Map • Load the current model file • For each record identify the node that needs to be grown, • Output <Node_id, Record> – Reduce • Initialize the feature value file from Initialization task • For each <Node_id, List<Record>> run the basic tree growing algorithm on the records • Output the best split for each node in the subtree

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