C:\Fakepath\Motivation And Job Satisfaction

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C:\Fakepath\Motivation And Job Satisfaction

  1. 1. Motivation and Job Satisfaction<br />Why is this important?<br />Are you tired of unmotivated, uninterested, and inept workers? <br />One-third to one-half your life is spent at work!!<br />
  2. 2. Theories of Motivation<br />Content Theories: Focus on the importance of the work (e.g., challenges and responsibilities) <br />Specific needs that motivate human behavior<br />Process Theories: Deal with the cognitive processes used in making decisions about our work<br />
  3. 3. Content Theories <br />Achievement Motivation Theory: David McClelland. Emphasizes need to accomplish something. Linked to successful managers<br />Favor environment where they can assume responsibility<br />Take calculated risks and set attainable goals<br />Need continuing recognition and feedback<br />Managers high in achievement motivation show more respect for subordinates and use more participatory systems<br />
  4. 4. Need Hierarchy Theory <br />Abraham Maslow: proposed that we have a hierarchy of needs. Once one is fulfilled we can move on to the next<br />Physiological<br />Safety<br />Belonging and Love<br />Esteem<br />Self-Actualization<br />
  5. 5. ERG Theory<br />Alderfer<br />Similar to Maslow. We have needs, but in this case they are not hierarchically arranged<br />Satisfying a need may increase its strength<br />Existence Needs<br />Relatedness Needs<br />Growth Needs <br />
  6. 6. Motivator-Hygiene (Two Factor) Theory<br />Motivator Needs: internal to work itself. If conditions are met, job satisfaction occurs<br />Job enrichment: expand a job to give employee a greater role in planning, performing, and evaluating their work<br />Hygiene Needs: Features of work environment. If not met, job dissatisfaction occurs<br />
  7. 7. Job Characteristics Theory<br />If employees have a high need for growth, specific job characteristics lead to psychological conditions that lead to increased motivation, performance, and satisfaction.<br />Skill variety<br />Unity of a job<br />Task significance<br />Autonomy<br />Feedback<br />
  8. 8. Process Theories <br />Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory: people will work hard if they expect their effort to lead to reward<br />Importance of outcome determines its strength as a motivator – supported by research<br />
  9. 9. Equity Theory <br />Motivation is influenced by how fairly we feel we are treated at work<br />Benevolent Workers: martyrs. Feel guilt when rewarded<br />Equity Workers: Sensitive to fairness. Normal<br />Entitled Workers <br />
  10. 10. Goal-Setting Theory<br />Idea that our primary motivation on the job is defined in terms of our desire to achieve a particular goal<br />Research shows that having goals leads to better performance than not having goals<br />Specific goals are more motivating than general<br />Moderately difficult goals are most motivating<br />
  11. 11. High Performance Cycle<br />Expands on Goal Setting Theory<br />Specific, attainable goals influenced by <br />Moderators (commitment to goal, self-efficacy, task difficulty, feedback) and<br />Mediating Mechanisms (universal task strategies such as direction of attention, effort and persistence)<br />
  12. 12. Job Satisfaction<br />Overall measures of satisfaction may be too broad: current measures address different facets of job satisfaction<br />Overall job satisfaction rate has remained the same for over 50 years<br />Rates are much lower for government workers<br />When people say they are satisfied, they often mean they are not dissatisfied!!<br />
  13. 13. Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction<br />Age: in general, increases with age<br />Malcontents have stopped working<br />Older workers have greater chance of fulfillment<br />Gender: inconclusive results<br />Race: whites are happier<br />Cognitive Ability: slight negative relationship between level of education and satisfaction<br />
  14. 14. Personal Characteristics, Cont.<br />Use of Skills<br />Job Congruence<br />Personality: less alienation and internal locus of control lead to higher satisfaction<br />Occupational Level: the higher the status level the greater the satisfaction<br />
  15. 15. Low Satisfaction and Job Behavior<br />Absenteeism: any given day 16-20% of workers miss work. Costs businesses $30 billion dollars a year<br />Younger have higher absence rates<br />Rates are influenced by economic conditions<br />Turnover: Not always a bad thing!<br />Functional Turnover: when bad workers leave<br />Dysfunctional Turnover <br />

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