ASA 2013 Conference Crowdsourcing

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Creating self-reliant rural communities in a global age (Shuman, 2000) and developing heritage and adventure tourism (Eller, 2009) are viewed as alternatives to classic tourism development in Appalachia. For five summers Berea College’s Entrepreneurship for the Public Good Program has collaborated with leadership within the Kentucky River Area Development District (KRADD) region building upon cell and smart phone prototypes tours, researching Kentucky travel and visitor’s patterns and exploring new social media strategies and tactics to market small businesses and nonprofit organizations throughout rural Appalachia in eight communities experiencing double-digit unemployment as of September 2012. This project mapped the community asset development within the KRADD through “personas” developed by EPG students for selected audiences based upon “How to spend 36 hours in an Eastern Kentucky County” modeled after the New York Times article for Asheville NC (2010), “Hike Pine Mountain, Channel Daniel Boone” NYT article (2008) and an article praising the lesser-known community of Whitesburg, Kentucky poised to become the South’s Next Great Mountain Town (July, 2011). This panel demonstrates the value created by customer reviews on websites like TripAdvisor, Yelp.com and Facebook that can have a big impact on local independently owned businesses, local attractions and civic destinations. Over 1,200 “crowd-sourced” reviews and 250,000 readers’ digital impressions captured the history, culture, arts and crafts, local foods, the greater outdoors KRADD assets. These crowd-sourced reviews can attract tourists, travelers and casual visitors to the western edge of Appalachian Mountains.

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ASA 2013 Conference Crowdsourcing

  1. 1. Creating Tourism Value via Crowdsourcing: A First Attempt Peter H. Hackbert, Jamar Sullivan and Murtaza Sharifi Entrepreneurship for the Public Good Program Berea College, Berea KY 36th Annual Appalachian Studies Conference March 22-24, 2013 Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 1
  2. 2. EPG searches for “real-world” solutions • Mission statement - educating and inspiring students from Appalachia to become service-oriented leaders • 1,600 liberal arts students • 150 yearsWhat better way to encourage young Appalachians to start their own businesses than to reach out to them while they’re still trying to figure out what they should be doing with their lives?
  3. 3. The EPG Program defines “Entrepreneurial Leadership” as:"A process when one person or a group ofpeople in a community originate an idea orinnovation for a needed change and influenceothers in that community to commit torealizing that change, despite the presence ofrisk, ambiguity, or uncertainty".
  4. 4. 13 States of Appalachia
  5. 5. poverty and unemployment ratesAppalachian Regional Commission Distressed Counties - 2009outpace the national average 1 and 1/2 times, and per capita income falls two-thirds below the national average.
  6. 6. Where we do our service for 6 yearsBerea Kentucky
  7. 7. Source: Ezzell,T., Lambert, D., and E. Peter H. Strategies toCollege 3/23/2013 Ogle. Hackbert, Berea Economic Improvement in Appalachia’s 7Distressed Rural Counties, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Washington DC: ARC. February 2012.
  8. 8. Source: Ezzell,T., Lambert, D., and E. Peter H. Strategies toCollege 3/23/2013 Ogle. Hackbert, Berea Economic Improvement in Appalachia’s 8Distressed Rural Counties, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Washington DC: ARC. February 2012.
  9. 9. Source: Ezzell,T., Lambert, D., and E. Peter H. Strategies toCollege 3/23/2013 Ogle. Hackbert, Berea Economic Improvement in Appalachia’s 9Distressed Rural Counties, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Washington DC: ARC. February 2012.
  10. 10. “Uneven Ground” UK Professor of History: Ronald Eller www.google.com/images3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 10
  11. 11. …growing popularity of ecotourism and heritage tourism…contained the potential for building an alternative economy, one that promised greater monetary returns for local residents, the preservation of rural traditions, and the protection of sensitive natural resources. - Ronald D. Eller, Uneven Ground, The University of Kentucky Press, 2008: 256.3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 11
  12. 12. Small Rural Appalachian Community Economic Development (CED)Traditional ED Strategy / Tool Direct, Short-term • Industrial development Economic • Business retention / expansion Outcomes • Workforce development • jobs • Tourism • firms Economic Development • prosperity • wealth ApproachesAlternative ED Strategy / Tool • Entrepreneurship 1. Recruit firms from the outside • Downtown development 2. Strengthen/expand existing firms • Arts / Creative economy 3. Promote development of new firms • Cluster-based development Other • Residential development Outcomes • social • civic • environmentalCD Capacity Building Strategy /Tool Indirect, Long-term • Transportation • Broadband / Internet / Social Media • ED finance • Philanthropy • Strategic planning • Leadership development • Organizational development 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 12
  13. 13. EPG Small Rural Appalachian Community Economic Development ModelTraditional ED Strategy / Tool Direct, Short-term Economic • Tourism Outcomes • jobs Economic Development • firms Approaches eAlternative ED Strategy / Tool 1. Strengthen/expand • Entrepreneurship economy existing firms • Cluster-based development • Local Living Economies 2. Promote new firms Other • Residential development Outcomes • social / civicCD Capacity Building Strategy / • environmentalTool Indirect, Long-term • Transportation • Broadband / Internet / Social Media 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 13
  14. 14. 5 Years Research• Demographic Analysis• Economic Analysis• Entrepreneurship• Community Survey• Site visits (14x10x6) 840 night stays3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 14
  15. 15. Small Town Program Populations 1,602 357 175 1,764 747 1,0813/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 15
  16. 16. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 16
  17. 17. CrowdsourcingTerms include social media, user-generated content (UGC), consumergenerated media (CGM), online socialnetworks (OSN), social networkingsites (SNS), Web 2.0 and Travel 2.0.3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 17
  18. 18. TripAdvisor• 100 million reviews• 30 countries• 60 million unique monthly visitors3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 18
  19. 19. YELP drive real revenues to small businesses• A survey of 4,800 business owners to learn the economic impact Yelp has on small businesses. The results saw an average of $8,000 in annual revenue from Yelp. categories doing exceptionally well advertising to purchase-minded Yelpers: Home -- $54,000* Automotive -- $39,000* Local services -- $36,000* Hotel and travel -- $36,000* Shopping -- $24,000* Health & Medical -- $20,000*Source: Boston Consulting Group, Unlocking The Digital-Marketing Potential of Small Business, March 19, 2013, retrieved athttps://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/digital_economy_marketing_sales_unlocking_digital_marketing_small_businesses/3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 19
  20. 20. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 20
  21. 21. Key Question Can Social Media be a tool to develop an alternative economy in Appalachian communities?3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 21
  22. 22. We observed and we listened to the KRADD business owners, attraction and destination operators.3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 22
  23. 23. Summer 2011We conducted KRADD social media workshops3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 23
  24. 24. They useFacebook 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 24
  25. 25. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 25
  26. 26. Google Search3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College Website 26
  27. 27. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 27
  28. 28. Summer 2012 We researched Kentucky Tourism3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 28
  29. 29. Kentucky Visitor Profile Study Daniel Boone Country Region September 2010 – August 2011 Visitors Prepared for: The Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of Travel and Tourism Prepared by:3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 29
  30. 30. 3rd largest industry in Kentucky, Tourism is the providing $3.3 billion in salaries annually This is despite only 34% of first-time Kentucky visitors actually recalling seeing any advertisements or promotions for Kentucky prior to their visit.3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 30
  31. 31. The Daniel Boone Country VisitorAverage Income : $68,560Average Age: 50.8Average Travel Group Size: 369% short pleasure trip53% use internet 3/23/2013 Peter 96%Recommend their visit to others: H. Hackbert, Berea College 31
  32. 32. 115 million Americans live within a day’s driving distance3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 32
  33. 33. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 33
  34. 34. Imagine How would you spend 36 hours in the KRADD region?3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 34
  35. 35. 36 Hours in the KRADD Region3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 35
  36. 36. Online consumer recommendations are the second most trusted source of brand advertising, second only to“recommendations from people I know” ina global 2012 study of 28,000 consumers in 56 countriesSource: Nielson, “Consumer Trust in Online, Social and Mobile Advertising Grows, 20123/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 36
  37. 37. "Traveler/tourist persona profile gives you a chance to truly empathize with target market segments, stepping out of the role as someone who wants to promote a product and see, through your travelers eyes…” Peter H. Hackbert3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 37
  38. 38. 34 Personas created in 20123/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 38
  39. 39. 1. Traveler and Tourist Personas3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 39
  40. 40. Meet the Weston’s3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 40
  41. 41. Lifestyle3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 41
  42. 42. Limitations3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 42
  43. 43. Westons’ Travel Goals & Strategy • More Spontaneity • Wide open road with unplanned stops • Download apps • Love of history • Good foods and scenic roads3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 43
  44. 44. The Weston’s Next Steps• Once returning home from their rally the Weston’s…• Uploaded multiple pictures on facebook• Wrote reviews on their food and lodging• Told their friends about their trip and passed along their brochures• Planned an annual trip to Hazard for the Cherokee Rally Tag- A-Long3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 44
  45. 45. 2. Traveler and Tourist Personas3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 45
  46. 46. Joseph Atkins3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 46 Images.google.com Images.google.com
  47. 47. 45 years old Works in Cincinnati Restaurant Manager Married No children History Buff 45 Years Old Social Media Experience Wife is in Chicago $1,100 budget Travels by car Visit a buddy at Alice Lloyd college3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 47 Images.google.com
  48. 48. What got him to stop?3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 48 Tripadvisor.co m
  49. 49. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 49
  50. 50. Deals/Discounts3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 50
  51. 51. Yelp Review: Hindman Settlement School3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 51
  52. 52. Lunch Special3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 52
  53. 53. Appalachian Artisan Center Studio3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 53 Yelp.com
  54. 54. Store decals3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 54
  55. 55. Joseph Atkins Next Steps• Returning home from his trip• Uploaded multiple pictures on Facebook• Wrote reviews on Yelp, Google+ and TripAdvisor• Told his friends about his trip and passed along his comments• Planned an annual trip to Perry County, KY3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 55
  56. 56. Who is the nextDUKE in Joe’s restaurant? Use social media to acknowledge loyal local customers3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 56
  57. 57. 3. Traveler and Tourist Personas3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 57
  58. 58. Cameron Bruce Sourced: Google images19 years old 51 years old 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 58
  59. 59. Patrick Todd 16 years old 49 years old Source: Google images 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 59
  60. 60. Lifestyle/ Limitations/BudgetSourced: Google images 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 60
  61. 61. Historic ReenactmentsSourced: Google images 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 61
  62. 62. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 62
  63. 63. Begley’s General Store: Electronic Archery Range Techno Hunt 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 63Sourced: Jalissa Hunter
  64. 64. Begley’s General Store Review 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 64Sourced: Yelp
  65. 65. Kentucky School of Bluegrass & Traditional Music Review – “all cross the USA” 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 65Sourced: Yelp
  66. 66. Next Steps4 Actions Happy People Do:1. Upload Photos2. Tell others3. Make comments4. Comeback 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 66
  67. 67. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 67
  68. 68. 4. Traveler and Tourist Personas3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 68
  69. 69. Cycling Through Appalachian SerenityHow to Spend a Weekend in Berea as a TransAmerican Bicyclist By: Jenna Brooks Hometown: Alexandria, KY Class: Rising Junior Major: Business Administration
  70. 70. America’s oldest and most used route.Reference: Americas Bicycle Travel Inspiration & Resource - Adventure Cycling Association."
  71. 71. The Typical TransAmerican BikerActive, Independent, Adventurous and Driven Reference: Americas Bicycle Travel Inspiration & Resource - Adventure Cycling Association.
  72. 72. 3 H’sHydration HungerHumanity
  73. 73. Limitations and Considerations Local Photo taken 6/09/2012
  74. 74. Next Steps4 Actions PleasedCustomers Do:1. Upload Photos2. Tell others3. Make comments4. Comeback Reference: Google Images
  75. 75. 5. Traveler and Tourist Personas3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 75
  76. 76. Four Souls, Two Destinations, One Adventure of a Lifetime Jamar Sullivan
  77. 77. Traveler Personas• JT Lockhart• Cliff Paterson• Azizz Omar Rahiem• Markus Hughs
  78. 78. JT Lockhart
  79. 79. Cliff Paterson
  80. 80. Azizz Omar Rahiem
  81. 81. Markus Hughes
  82. 82. Goals
  83. 83. Travel Strategy
  84. 84. Arrival @ LEX 10:00 a.m
  85. 85. Finally on the road 11:00 a.m.
  86. 86. Stocking up @ 12:30 p.m.
  87. 87. Pitching A tent @ 1:00 p.m.
  88. 88. Must crawl before you walk @ 2:00 p.m
  89. 89. Taking a dip or Making a Big Splash @ 5:00 p.m.
  90. 90. Cooking on Open Flames @ 7:00 p.m.
  91. 91. Catching ZZZ’s in the Night @ 11:00 p.m.
  92. 92. Rise and Shine @ 7:00 a.m
  93. 93. Flying with Birds @ 9:00 a.m.
  94. 94. Lunch among Climbers @ 12:00 noon
  95. 95. Back on the River @ 2:00 p.m.
  96. 96. Back to Camp @ 6:30 p.m.
  97. 97. Breakfast @ Rockhouse
  98. 98. The Big Day
  99. 99. Next Steps
  100. 100. Reflection Session Framework “I learned that” … “I learned this when” …. “This learning matters because” … “In light of this learning” …Source: Clayton, P.H. (2012). Generating, Deepening, and Documenting Learning: Practical Tools for CriticalReflection in Service-Learning, Center for Excellence in Learning through Service Campus Christian Center &Center for Transformative Learning, Berea College, February 3, 20123/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 104
  101. 101. 6. Traveler and Tourist Personas3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 105
  102. 102. Joseph and Marry ChristianPicture courtesy; http://www.genuinekentucky.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/2011-Kentuckys-Visitor-Guide.jpg
  103. 103. 9:00 AM: Boone Tavern Picture courtesy: Indigenous innovators facebook group
  104. 104. Video courtesy: Indigenous innovators facebook group
  105. 105. 10:30 Berea College Visitor Center Fee had written to the American Missionary about the need for a higher school "which would be to Kentucky what Oberlin is to Ohio, antislavery, anti- caste, anti-rum, anti-sin. . . . Why can we not have such a school here?" Picture courtesy: Indigenous innovators, berea.com
  106. 106. Science Building and Fee Glade Area Picture courtesy: Indigenous innovators/facebook
  107. 107. 12:30 PM Boone Tavern
  108. 108. 2:00 PM Book Store on Main street Picture courtesy: facebook/Indigenous innovators
  109. 109. 5:00 PM Dinner at President’s House New President:• Dr. Larry Shinn, Lyle D. Roelofs Current President Picture courtesy: berea.com
  110. 110. 6:30 AM Seabury Center Picture courtesy: berea.com
  111. 111. 9:00 am Craft Tour to actually seestudents weaving, making brooms and wood working
  112. 112. Video Video Courtesy: facebook/Indigenous innovators
  113. 113. 10:30 AM Meeting with Vice President, Michelle L. Janssen• Discussion on how to donate to college Picture Courtesy: facebook/Indigenous innovators
  114. 114. 12:30 pm Lunch at Papa Leno’s Picture Courtesy: facebook/Indigenous innovators http://www.flickr.com/photos/twofishblu/4660865414/
  115. 115. Old Town, Eco Village and Berea Center for Arts PictureCourtesy: facebook/Indigenous innovators
  116. 116. Berea College’s Convocation Program• Former Berea College student and todays successful entrepreneur talks about his experience and the how Berea Changed his life. Video Courtesy: facebook/Indigenous innovators, berea.com
  117. 117. Meeting with ConvocationSpeaker and EGP Program and EPG Cohort 9 Dr. Peter Hackbert Picture Courtesy: facebook/Indigenous innovators, berea.com
  118. 118. Email to College PresidentDear Dr. Larry Shinn,Berea College is doing a noble job. We are amazed by its mission,vision and student led activities. We congratulate Lyle D. Roelofsfor continuing further this noble cause as you are retiring soon.We will be back soon with a gift of 5 million dollars.Very truly yours,Mr. and Mrs. Christian.
  119. 119. http://stanleyquan.com/the-philanthropic-dollar/philanthropy/
  120. 120. Reflection Session Framework “I learned that” … “I learned this when” …. “This learning matters because” … “In light of this learning” …Source: Clayton, P.H. (2012). Generating, Deepening, and Documenting Learning: Practical Tools for CriticalReflection in Service-Learning, Center for Excellence in Learning through Service Campus Christian Center &Center for Transformative Learning, Berea College, February 3, 20123/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 125
  121. 121. So What?3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 126
  122. 122. 1,214 Social Media Reviews 250,000 free views3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 127
  123. 123. Four Tips for KRADD Leadership 1. Claim your business listings (It’s free!) 2. Encourage multicounty reviews (more = better) 3. Monitor what’s being said in the Counties 4. Start at SOMOLO campaign3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 128
  124. 124. Who Cares?3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 129
  125. 125. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 130
  126. 126. 3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 131
  127. 127. Now What?3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 132
  128. 128. …link ecotourism and heritage tourism………..contained the potential for building an alternative economy, one that promises greater monetary returns for local residents, the preservation of rural traditions, and the protection of sensitive natural resources to [SOMOLO] social, mobile, local, economy3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 133 .
  129. 129. KRADD Chamber Actions1. Recommend KCTC execute social/mobile certificate program2. Expand the Tourism Definition3. Use KY State Park Assets4. Explore KY Trail Town models5. Stimulate social media for the local economy via mobile6. Collaborate across KRADD county lines3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 134
  130. 130. What If?3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 135
  131. 131. Any Questions or Comments??3/23/2013 Peter H. Hackbert, Berea College 136

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