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Sub-clinical endometritis and its effect on the fertility of dairy cattle

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Sub-clinical endometritis and its effect on the fertility of dairy cattle

  1. 1. Subclinical Endometritis and Its Effect on The Fertility of Dairy Cattle BY: Habtamu Kenide March, 2013 1 by habtamu, 2013
  2. 2. Introduction  Reproductive performance is one key component of dairy production and the aim of reproductive management in cows is …..; so to achieve this goal a cow must be pregnant 85 days postpartum.  Reproductive disease are the main causes of failure in reproductive performance of cows, especially those which affect the uterus such as…. 2by habtamu, 2013
  3. 3. Cont…  Endometritis is inflammation of the endometrium with the presence of vaginal discharge… ,while subclinical endometritis is….  Subclinical endometritis is the most prevalent of all uterine diseases; it affects approximately 30% of lactating dairy cows, with the prevalence ranging from 11 to >70% in some herds. 3by habtamu, 2013
  4. 4. Cont… Therefore the objectives of this paper are: To highlight the risk factors for subclinical endometritis To review the diagnostic and treatment options of subclinical endometritis and To highlight recent information’s on the effect of subclinical endometritis on fertility of dairy cattle 4by habtamu, 2013
  5. 5. Postpartum period in bovine  Post partum period is the time interval from parturition to complete uterine involution  Postpartum period is divided in to three sub periods. These are: Puerperal intermediate and postovulatory During the PP period cows are at risk of developing calving related disease such as….. 5by habtamu, 2013
  6. 6. Postpartum uterine involution  It is normal process of the post partum uterus to return to its non-gravid state.  For the cow to return to normal reproduction condition, PP uterus should be involuted 45-50 days post partum. 6by habtamu, 2013
  7. 7. Postpartum ovarian activity and utero-ovarian relationship  Ovarian activity exerts an important influence on the ability of the uterus to resist or eliminate infections. This is because during estrus… 7by habtamu, 2013
  8. 8. Causes of endometritis There are many infectious causes of endometritis which enters uterus at different periods. Pathogens enter uterus mainly at: calving process post partum period and mating process Especially at PP period if special care is not given to the cleanness of the house and the environment cows will be……. 8by habtamu, 2013
  9. 9. Cont… The most common infectious causes of endometrits are:  Arcanobacter pyogenes  E. coli  Campylobacter fetus  Fusobacterium necrophorum  Bovine Herpes Virus -4 (BOHV-4) 9by habtamu, 2013
  10. 10. Predisposing factors of subclinical endometritis  These are factors which makes the uterus of cows….  Some of the known predisposing factors of endometritis are:  Retained Fetal Membrane  Dystocia  Management Factors 10by habtamu, 2013
  11. 11. Retained fetal membrane  Placenta is said retained when the placenta remains attached to the uterine carancules for more than 12-24 hrs after calving.  It services as a favorable media for many infectious agents growth and multiplication, which intern….. 11by habtamu, 2013
  12. 12. Classification of endometritis  Endometritis in bovine is classified as clinical and subclinical. Subclinical endometritis  It is more economical among other problems of the uterus.  It usually occurs over a long period of time rather than progressing quickly as endometritis. 12by habtamu, 2013
  13. 13. Effect of subclinical endometritis on fertility of dairy cows Subclinical endometritis is economically the most important to the dairy industry in that it :  decrease reproductive performance  increased feed intake per lactation  reduced milk yield  increased culling rate Increase the NSPC to a lesser extent to the cost of treatment 13by habtamu, 2013
  14. 14. Cont… Increased NSPC  A study on cross breed dairy cows at Debre Zeit showed that a mean of 2.4 services per conception was required for cows that were positive for SCE at the 4th week postpartum where as 1.7 services per conception was required for cows negative for SCE. 14by habtamu, 2013
  15. 15. Diagnosis options of subclinical endometritis The diagnosis of SCE is very important due to the economic impact it cause, but….. Some of the diagnostic methods used for Dx of SCE are:  Ultrasonography  Endometrial Cytology  Endometrial Biopsy  Vaginoscopy Among these endometrial cytology is … 15by habtamu, 2013
  16. 16. Treatment options of subclinical endometritis  In Vet. Medicine to treat animal should…..  For the treatment of SCE the widely used treatments are:  antibiotic treatment  treatment by prostagldin F2 alpha 16by habtamu, 2013
  17. 17. Conclusion and recommendations Conclusion  There are many factors, which will contribute for the Inability of dairy cows to have maximum productivity, among these uterine disease such as endometritis and subclinical endometritis takes the major part. 17by habtamu, 2013
  18. 18. Cont… Infectious agents that could invade the uterus during parturition may contaminate the maternal reproductive tract and lead to uterine disease; therefore, it needs to have maximum care at the time of calving, for the cleanness of the calving area and at the time of helping the cow at dystocia through caesarian section strict sanitation measures should be taken. 18by habtamu, 2013
  19. 19. Cont… SCE causes great impact on the fertility of dairy cows in that it causes:  decreased reproductive performance,  increased feed intake per lactation,  reduced milk yield,  increases NSPC and  increased culling rate 19by habtamu, 2013
  20. 20. Recommendations  Based on the above conclusions the following recommendations are given:  Proper attention to sanitation and peripartiurent hygiene should be given especially during assisted calving.  The owners must be responsible to keep sanitation of dairy cows through improved housing system and nutrition to reduce bacterial exposure of cows at parturition and increase the pregnancy of cows after calving.  Proper diagnosing and treatment measures should be taken to minimize the economic impact of subclinical endometritis. 20by habtamu, 2013
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