Social Inclusion Program for Disadvantaged Categories Focused on Roma
Social Inclusion Program for Disadvantaged Categories Focused on Roma: Designing an inclusive program of social housing in Romania An overview of housing conditions in Romania & Housing situation of roma population
<ul><li>This working paper is structured alongside two main dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>an analysis of the housing condition of roma population in order to get a right and comprehensive perspective on both emergency intervention and mainstreaming social housing programs; </li></ul><ul><li>a second part – under development – focused on measures to promote housing inclusion for roma population. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The particular living conditions of the Roma population in Romania become more visible when compared to the general housing conditions at the national level. The current analysis of roma housing condition is based on data collected in a survey undertaken by RIQL in 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Picturing out the housing trend in transition period at the national level we can see that: </li></ul><ul><li>the state withdrawal after 90’s left out from housing large categories of population; the most disadvantaged (the poor people, the young families and the roma) receive an insignificant attention from state, because of lack of a coherent housing policy. </li></ul><ul><li>The new dwellings built after 90’s with private funds represents 2/3 from new stock, from which 3/4 were built in rural area, having a lack of equipment and utilities. </li></ul><ul><li>The housing stock recorded an important shift due to privatisation: from public property to private hands – which mean from 66% private property in 1990 to 98% in 2005. A good decision? What is and what will be the price that the poor household will pay? </li></ul><ul><li>Rumanian’s have more bad housing conditions as comparative with all other European citizens, and the roma population has the worst housing conditions in Romania. </li></ul>
# Only 18,4% of roma households have a density average of inhabitants/ room under national average (1,18 inhabitants/ room); # Only 51,4% of roma households have less than 2 person/ room, in comparison with 92,7% at the level of whole Romanian population; # 25,6% of roma households have an average of persons/ room more than 3,01, as comparative with 1,7% at the level of whole Romanian population (including roma);
The main factors that explain housing density of roma population are related to # family low income/ person, as a consequence of # low school level and qualification, # marriage at a young age, # # living in homogenous community # most of them in rural, and # having many children.
As poor is a family (in terms of income but not necessarily wealth) as bad are the housing condition in terms of overcrowding.
<ul><li>16,7% of roma families were living in rented houses as comparative with 3,2% at the national level. From these 54% were in social housing. </li></ul><ul><li>6,2% of roma families are housed in totally insecure/ substandard “houses” ( Abandoned housing, without legal title/ illegal built house, drying room in block of flats, clandestine, Hutting/ cottage, Improvisation/ abusive occupied, tent ) </li></ul><ul><li>77% of roma families are owners as comparative with 93,7 % at national level (1998) and 98% (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of housing and comfort is lower for roma households: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only 1/5 have bathroom and WC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only 1/5 have gas connection, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 are connected to running water, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/4 are connected to sewerage system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% are not connected to electricity (as comparative with only 3% whole Romania), </li></ul></ul><ul><li>while at the national level the similar values for this indicators are a least two times bigger. </li></ul>
These objective factors which describe the bad housing conditions of roma population as comparative with national level are confirmed by the subjective perception/ appreciation of own housing conditions For a global picture of housing quality and comfort of roma population is necessary to set up indexes of housing utilities and assets owned .
# The value of utilities index of roma population is two times smaller than at national level. This could be named as “housing poverty”, not a temporary one but a persistent one. # The roma people living in rural area are so poor, that 3/5 of them have nothing else than electricity and about 1/5 neither electricity. The index of housing utilities included: kitchen, bathroom, WC inside of house, gas network connection, connection to sewerage system, running water inside of house, electricity and heating system (table 19)
Composition of Index assets (7 commodities): refrigerator, cooking machine, freezer, washing machine, vacuum cleaner, TV set (black/ white and colour), telephone set. In terms of assets possession, the situation is going worse. One third of roma household don’t own any commodity, 9 times a higher percentage than at national level. This is another factor which underlines the deep & lasting poverty of roma households.
<ul><li>The data analysed before leads into a conclusion of an imperative/ emergency intervention for developing social programs for improving in the near future the roma housing conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up basic housing assistance/ effective solutions for families housed in severely substandard houses </li></ul>