Pragmaatism....

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Pragmaatism....

  1. 1. ASSLAM U ALAIKUM!
  2. 2. Group # 5 Roll # (21-25) Presented by: RABIA BASRI PRAGMATISM
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Pragmatism means dealing with practical techniques.  It is an American contribution to the history of philosophical thoughts.  It focuses on personal experiences.  It also known as Experimentalism & Instrumentalism.  Man is the measures of all things.
  4. 4. Contributors Charles S. Peirce (1839 – 1914) William James (1842 – 1910) John Dewey (1859 – 1952)
  5. 5. CONCEPT OF REALITY  Mind & matter are not two separate & independent substances.  We know about matter only as we experience.  Mind is a tool for reflecting the experiences.  Reality is not an “Abstract” thing rather it is a transacional experience.  What is real today may not be as real tomorrow.
  6. 6. CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE  Knowledge is based upon “experience”.  Man has an exploratory & active mind.  We learn through transactional experience.  Truth may be different according to the context/situation.  Beliefs are personal for every one.  Harmony of the man with the environment.  Knowledge is for adjustment in society.
  7. 7. CONCEPT OF VALUES  Values are relative.  There are not absolute principles.  Ethically good is that which works.  Values are instrumental.  There is no fix criterion for values.
  8. 8. PRINCIPLES OF PRAGMAISM  Pluralism  Emphasize on change  Utilitarianism  Individualism  Socialism  Experimentalism
  9. 9. AIMS OF EDUCATION  Aims are not final, fixed & immutable.  Construct knowledge by self experience.  Social adjustment without losing individuality.  Life long process.  Development of democratic behaviour.  Problem solving ability by using scientific method.  Preparation for practical life.
  10. 10. PRAGMATIST CURRICULUM  Useful for present needs (Language, History, Science, Geography, Physical Training, &Home Science for girls)  Interested according to age level  Child centered & integrated  Activity based
  11. 11. ROLE OF TEACHER  Helper & Guide  Project Director  Facilitator  Main task of teacher is to suggest problems to his pupils & guide them to find out solutions
  12. 12. TEACHING MEHODS  Problem Solving  Project Method  Scientific Method  Demonstration Method  Field Trips  Audio Visual Experiences
  13. 13. CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP  Democratic leadership  A Pragmatic Leader should be selected from social group/ community.  Leader should have competency & vision.  Wider participation of society in decision making.  Authoritative role is disagreeable.
  14. 14. EVALUATION  Assessment on the basis of performance  Problem solving tasks  Observational Techniques  Strong Evaluation system
  15. 15. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS  They provide definite aims of Education.  Teaching methods are based on Learning by doing.  Democratic way of Learning.  Utility is final criterion.  Self experience is more important than memorization.  Teacher’s role is to just facilitate.
  16. 16. MERITS OF PRAGMATISM  More Importance to child rather than subject  Emphasize on Activity  Faith in applied life  Social & Democratic Education  Infusion of new methods in Education  Construction of Project Method
  17. 17. GRAY AREAS  Lack of Standards  Opposition to eternal truths  Opposition to pre-determined values & Ideas  Negation of spiritual values  Negation of rich culture of past  It is a method rather than a philosophy  No determined aims of Education  Problem in Curriculum development
  18. 18. THANK YOU

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