The presence of material relating to women is less apparent when browsing titles of collections in repositories, however their experiences and voices are represented in many collections across the country – including those of women with a connection to WNY Connect family/local history to significant historical events (local women involved in suffrage, reforms) Multiple perspectives (social, religious, ethnic/racial, gender-based differences on women in workplace, political issues, etc.) Validate research findings (confirm or invalidate factual data)
When investigating WNY women, we will often be referring to women who were born here, lived here for a time, or were buried here because of their local connection. Women in history can be inspirations for young girls to: Work towards goals of physical and intellectual excellence (Kline and Bethune) Make voices heard (Gibbs, Talbert) See Kit Kline article done by local high school students: http://laxman36.tripod.com/klein.html and the Buffalo Speed Skating Club: http://www.buffalospeedskating.org/about%20us.htm We will look for women of fame and infamy as well as….
Lesser known women from WNY such as housewives, working women, immigrants women, and other average and even below average women Helps empathize with women in general and better understand historical contexts of “unnamed” women who lived here
It is not just the formats of records that help determine their survival rate, but also the creators of those records. For a long time, most records created by women were considered insignificant and irrelevant to the larger historical record. Since the 1980s, we are in process of “catching up” and filling in gaps! During Olympics, people interested in history of winter sports – generates renewed interest in Kit Kline! Another “newer” interest is that of women of color – the Uncrowned Queens site is example. Just as earlier interest in male historical figures focused on “white, affluent achievers,” so too with women’s history (Love, deForest, Ball), but has been broadening rapidly – now GLBT, women in non-traditional fields of science and mathematics, and so on.
Additionally, each type of location where you will find records, there is an institutional infrastructure and resources that impact access to and use of collections, physically and intellectually. Many orgs. Have materials not processed, described or digitized (Aurora Hist Soc., Reinstein Coll.) and many orgs have archives that exist solely for parent organization, so collections not widely known or available (AKAG, Stella Niagara) Although many colleges and universities are the greatest digitizers of collections, many require a connection to their institution in order to use the collection.
These are sites where you can expect to find exhaustive and quality information. In addition, they will lead you to other sources on a topic or person you are researching. Ex – Encyclopedia Brit. – Go to Lucille Ball and see other pseudonym used (Diane Belmont) Google the name and get the Museum of Broadcast Communications (http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=balllucille) You can download videos of shows, interviews, and other materials from her career. Ex – American Women’s History Click on image from Ellis Is Collection and click on “see all images” for women in immigration - click on III. Research Tools Finding Primary Sources – click on Additional Women’s Coll and go to NY links – see esp NYPL and search nypl.org “Digital gallery” (left) using Katherine Cornell, Dorothy Thompson, etc. Katherine Cornell papers - http://asteria.fivecolleges.edu/findaids/sophiasmith/mnsss230.html PBS.org - click on link and then on related sites – scroll down to binghampton site (women and social reform movements in the US) - sent to alexander street site. Click on: Docs Projects and Archives. Find “How Did Women Activists Promote Peace in Their 1915 Tour of Warring European Capitals?” by Kathryn Kish Sklar and Kari Amidon. | Abstract | Document List | Introduction | Check out related sites: http://www.wilpf.int.ch/history/highlights.htm – women’s intl league for peace and freedom highlights in about us –Go to archives and see “Buffalo Branch” listed. Google that and get UB collections! Also, click on “Alexander Street Press” to see ways you can search if you have access (Mary B. Talbert) Then go to UB’s Smith Collection: http://libweb1.lib.buffalo.edu:8080/findingaids/view?docId=ead/archives/ubar_ms0031.xml ALA site – go to “Publications & Resources” and to “women’s studies in digital archives databases” – see various links – LOC and Yale’s Avalon project (search women’s history buffalo, ny – then click on button for search Avalon only) Ex – LOC – click on link – click on last link on list (Amer. Women gateway) and click on “search Amer. Memory” and type in “women buffalo, ny” Get listing including Fotherington image #1, Courier art #4, images of women in labor jobs from War Office coll #21-32; news articles from scrapbook collection – Political Equity Club info has lots of names of local women as well as dates and organizations (items #146 and #250 – Shaw address) Harvard Online – click on “Hollis” at bottom and enter “women buffalo ny” in search – see various types of materials. Go back to homepage and click on “Immigration” and “Working Women” in online collections – type in search term “buffalo new york” and see various items
Marian deForest was one of founders of Zonta Club – her bio on their site gives lots of clues for places to look for additional information – at bottom refers to UB archives (also, Buffalo Seminary is online: http://www.buffaloseminary.org/page.cfm?p=319. The UB collection specifies they have mostly a short range of papers relating to her plays – Google “Papers of Marian deForest” and get Kurz collection at Smithsonian: http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/findingaids/kurtchar.htm Lucille Ball, Marian deForest, and Belva Lockwood are all in the Seneca Falls Women’s Hall of Fame – clues there – See Belva Lockwood bio at end is list of additional resources – lists the NYSL – 3 boxes: http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/msscfa/women.htm You’ll see much more additional information on women in NY! National Archives has “Prologue” articles indexed by year (Lockwood article from there) and NHPRC has grant awards for archives and records (by state) and publications (alpha) Search NY titles for women-related collections NHPRC home – to View all NHPRC P & P – to Arch & Recs – to Awards sorted by st/terri – to NY (ethn, racial, eco, individl women) NHPRC – to publications – to most recent - to alpha listing – to Cs – SP Cahse and his 2 daughters (letters, diaries, etc.)
Note that Frances Cleveland papers are found all in men’s collections!!
Harder to locate because we don’t know who they were – Edith Flanigen or, Their records are not preserved somewhere. Edith Flanigen was born in Buffalo, New York. She received a B.A. from D'Youville College and an M.S. in inorganic-physical chemistry from Syracuse University in 1952. Flanigen is holder of 108 U.S. patents. In 1991, she became the first woman to be awarded the Perkin Medal, America's top honor in applied chemistry. Maria Love grew up in a well-to-do family and was known for her social reform activities, yet little documentation of her life exists in collections – little interest in women social reformers at the time! Same with Harriet Bedell….
NYSA – click on link and then on Images and Video – then on “Digital Collections” and see woman being sentenced image from Albion State Prison: copy info and get link to NYSA record group history and description of the Institution: http://www.archives.nysed.gov/a/research/res_topics_legal_corrections_inst_albion.shtml Also: see NY Corrections History Society site: http://www.correctionhistory.org/html/chronicl/nysarchivesbrowse/nysarchivesbrowse4.html And WoW: Click on link and search Genesee Co. Pull up Sue’s site and click on “History Stories” (women’s suffrage) and then on “Collections” – look at “Indentured Servants” (info on girls) and “Poor House” records – national site on poorhouse records has info on other WNY counties: http:// www.poorhousestory.com/history.htm NY Digital collection – search “women new york” and get images from Chautauqua, Buffalo, etc. NY Heritage – search “farming women”
1 st link – NYSA description of Albion State Reform School/Prison history: note change from 1893 establishment to 1931 title to include “Mentally Defective and Delinquent…” Records include case files and admission ledgers with much background info on girls there. 2 nd link – NYS Corrections History Society – gives a more political or governmental view of Albion institution – reference to state reports, laws, etc. that impacted nature of the institution/services 3 rd link – Museum of disABILITY – if you Google the name of Albion with the “Delinquent” part in it, you get this link. Can “Search Collections” under “women new York” and get several additional (52) “women” entries relating to “The Girl Problem” – see 1920 report – full text is in Cornell’s Making of America (see next page) 4 th link – Letchworth and NYS Board of Charities – listing several reports relating to women, children, poverty and reform 5 th link – US Poorhouse History site – click on NY and see various wny county links – look at Chautauqua and Niagara?
RKN – Can search list of cultural organizations “women’s history” and get narrower list WNYArchivists – go to “Members” and try Jewish Archives – if not, just give handout WNYLegacy – search site “women” – check out Dr. Pierce’s ad on page 2!
Examples of local organizations that are engaged in making collections available in digital formats Genesee Co. – municipal organization – site describes a notebook of women’s history being compiled – and availability for presentations St. Bona – Friedsam Memorial Library/Archives – type in “women’s history” and get SBU Women’s Basketball History BECHS – in addition to Blanchard link, there are possible links via the African Amer, diaries etc. Also at bottom is listing of women’s history materials in Research Library that is cataloged Prendergast Library – in alpha search of web resources “W” has a pamphlet of women of significance in Jamestown history
Testimony of Helen Mintz of Buffalo, NY – was member of Buffalo Chapter of “Win the Peace” Committee – page 1753 The Internet Archive http://www.archive.org/ http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=buffalo%2C%20ny%20AND%20mediatype%3Atexts http://www.archive.org/stream/investigationofc572unit#page/1752/mode/2up
Click on link and copy “Women’s Letters & Diaries” and add “Buffalo, NY” for search – get Camp Family and click on finding aid at Cornell Click on Women & Social Movements link – click on Documents and sort by author – go to “T” for Talbert to see letters
UB site – Papers of Helen Zaidee Marie Rodgers – 1 st female graduate of UB Law School – see her bio: also involved in local women’s suffrage - diaries 1 st link – to Olmsted papers 2 nd link – Helen Zaidee Marie Rodgers Papers at UB – Google her name and get Buffalo BPW link with the organization’s history! MOA site – enter “batavia” in search and “journal” in title – get 2 entries – “My Journal” Women’s Diaries in Canada – some US connections
Why Women’s History? To honor and remember past struggles and accomplishments To preserve the memories of the past as guides into the future….
Role Models and Agents of Change… Lois Gibbs Kit Kline Mary Talbert Jennie Louise Blanchard Bethune
Ordinary andEveryday…. Rosie the Riveter National Park (CA
The Writing ofHistory… …is an ongoing and selective process …is socially and culturally time-dependent The past “selects” certain documentation Survival of some records, not others Personal interests also “select” topics Women’s history became a topic of interest in the 1980s Uncrowned Queens Madeline Davis LGBT Archives of WNY
Finding Voices and Images of the Past Historical records are found in many places Museums Libraries Historical societies Businesses Butler Library, BSC Professional associations Community organizations Your home! AKAG
Starting at the Top: The Short List Encyclopedia Britannica – 300 Women Who Changed the World Library of Congress: 7 collections PBS (Not For Ourselves Alone) American Womens History Research: A Guide Womens Studies Section, Association of College & Resear Harvard Online Collections
Local Women in History with National Recognition Zonta International National Womens Hall oLucille Ball Marian deForest Prologue: Belva Lockwood NHPRC Belva Lockwood
Anna Katherine Green While some women AKG bio and their accomplishments are well documented. …… Lucille Clifton http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html fury for mama remember this. she is standing by the furnace . the coals glisten like rubies. her hand is crying.…http://web.library.emory.edu/blog/lucille-clifton-papers-fully-processed-and-available-research
And others are known for who they were…. National First Ladies Library Genesee Valley History
Documentation about other women is harder to locate…. Edith Flanigen: http://www.invent.org/images/images_hof/induction/docs/04in Women in TransportationMaria M. Lovehttp://www.marialovefund.org/history/Maria Love & the Fitch Creche
Local Reformers GoneSouth! Harriet Bedell: Grew up in Buffalo, NY and became a missionary, first in Oklahoma, then Alaska and finally, Florida. Her work is well documented, but records of her family in Buffalo, or the Training School she attended in NYC are not in any known repository. Florida Memory site
State and Regional Sources for information on women in history… New York State Archives "Word on Women“ New York Digital Collections New York Heritage
Women in Need ofReform? Some historical records present a close parallel with women and poverty, immorality, and delinquency and disability in the 19th century…. http://www.archives.nysed.gov/a/research/res_topics_legal_correctio http://www.correctionhistory.org/html/chronicl/nysarchivesbrowse/n http://www.museumofdisability.org/newyork_map_1900_1950.asp http://www.letchworthparkhistory.com/wplworks.html http://www.poor housestory.com/history.htm
Or, something else? Womens rights(?) in early New York The 1913 Department Store Workers Strike in Buffalo, NY A Study of Women Delinquents in New York State (1920) http://quod.lib.umich.edu /m/moa/
Local collections preserve importantinformation about notable womenwho made an impact here andelsewhere… Cornelia Bentley Sage although some materials may Alice Moore Hubbard as not be readily accessible as others…..
Examples of Local RegionalGuides and Organizations: WNY Legacy WNY Archivists RKN Civic Infrastructu Infrastruct BECHS, Crystal Beach Photo Collection Jewish Buffalo Archives Project
St. Bonaventure University Archives Genesee County Department of History Buffalo & Erie County Historical SocietyPrendergast Library
More than Facts andFigures Beyond the chronologies, occupational achievements, or factual listings, women’s history could be phrased as: Uncommon lives What became of them? Crisis! A case study (company, neighborhood, organization, ethnic/cultural group) Political or philanthropic behavior Professional/personal shifts
Shedding Labels…. The "Communist Threat“ (Internet Archive) (Hotel Touraine) Lois Gibbs – from mother in crisis to environmental advocate http://www.chej.org/about_lois.htm Margaret Goff Clark – from Freedom Crossing to Saving Manatees http://www.lib.usm.edu/~degrum/html/research/findaids/cl
Letters and OralHistories What are we being told? Information the writer/speaker conveys to the reader/listener Women & Social Movements in the US site Information we can deduce from our Uncrowned Queens Oral History Project current perspective and knowledge Womens Letters & Diaries World Cat BECHS World Cat list Camp Family Papers
Diaries & Journals Why are they written? As personal reflections of a time, event, place For the writer to put herself into an historical context http://ublib.buffalo.edu/archives/ead/ms31/ms31.frame.html and Finding Aid for HZM Rodgers Buffalo BPW BECHS Diary Collection MOA Cornell site Elizabeth Olmsted Smith Womens Diaries in Canada
Memoirs These areMemoirs in LitMus intentionally createdClub Records – image with a purpose orfrom UncrownedQueens site audience in mind Usually after-the-fact Best understood in the context of M. St. John in corroborative and WNYLegacy ancillary materials
Links to MoreResources Society of American Archivists Women’s Roundtable: http://www.archivists.org/saagroups/womenscoll/index.asp Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender: http://chswg.binghamton.edu/ Project Flight’s Western New York Directory of Women’s Organizations : http://www.projectflight.org/Directoryofwomenorganizations.htm