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Hi 121 Power Point Aug Sep09

Thai food impact on Thai economy

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Hi 121 Power Point Aug Sep09

  1. 1. The Institute of International Studies, Ramkhamhaeng University August-September 2009 By Ajarn Lucy Tan-atichat HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  2. 2. <ul><li>Culture is acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behavior. This knowledge forms values, creates attitudes, and influences behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>(Hodgetts et al, 2006) </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  3. 3. <ul><li>LEARNED: Culture is not inherited or biologically based; it is acquired by learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>SHARED: People as members of a group, organization, or society share culture; it is not specific to single individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSGENERATIONAL: Culture is cumulative, passed down from one generation to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>SYMBOLIC: Culture is based on the human capacity to symbolize or use one thing to represent another. </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  4. 4. <ul><li>5. PATTERNED: Culture has structure and is integrated; a change in one part will bring changes in another. </li></ul><ul><li>ADAPTIVE: Culture is based on the human capacity to change or adapt, as opposed to the more genetically driven adaptive process of animals. </li></ul><ul><li>( Hodgetts et al, 2006 ) </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  5. 5. <ul><li>1. helps solve problems and respond to the various needs of mankind. </li></ul><ul><li>2. helps bond members in the society together and a society with the same culture is united with the same feeling and ideology </li></ul><ul><li>3. distinguishes one country from another </li></ul><ul><li>4. dictates the behavior of people in the society, helps people to live together peacefully and serves as a standard for the relationship of the people in society </li></ul><ul><li>5. helps the country to flourish e.g. diligent, frugal, persevering, etc. </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  6. 6. <ul><li>Characteristics of Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>- paternalistic ruler (father and son) </li></ul><ul><li>- righteous ruler (ruling based on Buddhist principles of righteousness/virtues) </li></ul><ul><li>divine ruler (king elevated to an incarnation of one of the Brahmin gods) </li></ul><ul><li>. Sukhothai Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute monarchy but more dominant on paternalistic ruler and righteous ruler, while divine ruler was not an important role. </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  7. 7. <ul><li>. Central Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Govern using military system based on functions (peaceful time civilian and soldiers carry out their duties, war time everyone fights) </li></ul><ul><li>. Regional Administration </li></ul><ul><li>City states with heads of states free to govern themselves (problems e.g. Phayalithai from Srisatchanalai successfully seized Sukhothai in 1347) </li></ul><ul><li>. Administration of Sovereign States </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded boundary and maintain control through marriages and fostering good relationship </li></ul><ul><li>- Used indirect rule by not sending people to govern but only send tributes as stipulated </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  8. 8. <ul><li>Characteristics of Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Adhered to divine rule followed by righteous rule </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons in Applying Divine Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Khmer religion and culture to enhance power and stability of king, essential for varied and scattered population </li></ul><ul><li>Did not contradict any form of Thai administration </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated king to state of god or deity through coronation ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Righteous Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Righteous rule placed a limit on power of divine rule with no oppression of the people </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  9. 9. <ul><li>- Absolute monarchy, but not much stability with frequent overthrowing of throne due to: </li></ul><ul><li>i. No law to name Crown Prince </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Ayutthaya people accept the monarchy as institution not individual, so every king is accepted </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Divine rule - a factor for capable person to claim throne by seizing the palace because it was the centre and representative of the Kingdom </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  10. 10. <ul><li>Enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Taking oath of allegiance by drinking holy water each year </li></ul><ul><li>Enacted laws to protect the king e.g. entering palace, severe punishment transgressors </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing royal lineage to 3 generations </li></ul><ul><li>Counter Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Reigned by 10 virtues of a ruler </li></ul><ul><li>King refrained from exercising power for fear of rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced regulations to limit king’s power: royals and noblemen might oppose king’s order 3 times (final decision rested on the king) </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  11. 11. <ul><li>Alms-giving </li></ul><ul><li>Morality </li></ul><ul><li>Liberality </li></ul><ul><li>Rectitude </li></ul><ul><li>Gentleness </li></ul><ul><li>Self-restriction </li></ul><ul><li>Non-anger </li></ul><ul><li>Non-violence </li></ul><ul><li>Forbearance </li></ul><ul><li>Non-obstruction </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  12. 12. <ul><li>1. leader in the administration and upheld the law (acted as the judge) </li></ul><ul><li>2. enacted new law or decree if there was no precedence to existing law </li></ul><ul><li>3. acted as supreme judge (people petitioning) </li></ul><ul><li>4. supported religion and arts </li></ul><ul><li>5. supreme commander in time of war (most important, as failing could cause rebellion) </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  13. 13. <ul><li>Early part divided into 4 ministries: </li></ul><ul><li>Vieng/City – order and peace of capital city </li></ul><ul><li>Wang/Palace – orderliness of palace ground </li></ul><ul><li>Klang/Finance – look after King’s assets </li></ul><ul><li>Na/Agriculture – supervise people’s farming </li></ul><ul><li>2 ministries added in King Trailohkanat </li></ul><ul><li>5. Interior – control civilians in Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>6. Defense – control military personnel in Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Later Ayutthaya </li></ul><ul><li>Changed to regional administration </li></ul><ul><li>Interior – responsible for civilians and military in Southern part </li></ul><ul><li>Defense – responsible for civilians and military in Northern part </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  14. 14. <ul><li>Early part of Ayutthaya </li></ul><ul><li>- City states similar to Sukhothai and loosely integrated – power decentralized </li></ul><ul><li>- King Trailokanat – some centralization of administration </li></ul><ul><li>Later part of Ayutthaya </li></ul><ul><li>- King Naresuan the Great totally abolished city states, complete centralization and brought unity to the kingdom </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  15. 15. <ul><li>King Rama I to Rama III </li></ul><ul><li>(More of righteous and paternalistic ruler than divine ruler) </li></ul><ul><li>Righteous ruler- adhered to 10 virtues of a ruler; promoted Buddhism and issued decrees to protect people from being oppressed or have better quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Divine ruler – King Rama I obliged Triple Gems to be first worshipped before ancestral kings; ordered destruction of phallus; King Rama II abolished shooting in the eye who looked at king; re-instated tradition of directly petitioning to king </li></ul><ul><li>Paternalistic ruler – enabled subjects to be close with king, but more evident from King Rama IV and V, until present day </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  16. 16. <ul><li>King Rama IV – Rama VII (B.E. 2475) </li></ul><ul><li>To keep with changing times, emphasized on righteous rule: </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom open to Western countries, much trade and contacts </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama IV had policy to accept knowledge, science and development from Western countries </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama IV raised standard of living by hiring foreign workers to work for king </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama V reformed the government and abolished slavery </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  17. 17. <ul><li>Reasons for Reform </li></ul><ul><li>- Deficiency at central level: unequal distribution of responsibilities; income of people not commensurate with responsibility; overlapping of duties </li></ul><ul><li>- Deficiency at regional level: regional administration as city state, capital city had no control </li></ul><ul><li>- Threats from Western super powers to colonize: decentralization of policy making so king have no absolute power; prevent abuse of power by public servants-earn salary, less corruption </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  18. 18. <ul><li>Goals in the Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Lay the foundation for a democratic system </li></ul><ul><li>Change the way ministries function and increase number to be sufficient with no overlapping </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of power from the regions to central administration </li></ul><ul><li>Change society so all Thais have same rights and freedom, especially abolishing slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Reform to finance and economic fields for sufficient budget to develop the kingdom </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  19. 19. <ul><li>Reforms divided into 3 phases: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Set up 2 advisory councils: State Council-helps king to issue policies in administering the country, Privy Council-helps monitor the various activities and make recommendations N.B. The first phase was halted. Opposition from noblemen and conservative royals; State Council and Privy Council – not strong enough, afraid of influence of the conservatives </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  20. 20. <ul><li>2. Reform resumed. Power of conservatives weakened, so King Rama V established six new ministries with ministers empowered to administer their duties. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Improvement and changes made after 1892 with major changes to the group of ministers </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  21. 21. <ul><li>- Reform was to consolidate power from city states to central administration </li></ul><ul><li>- Structural amendment with Ministry of Interior to have control over the provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Head of city state was proposed by the governor and had to report to him, so power diminished </li></ul><ul><li>First province established in 1894 and last one in 1906. Altogether 18 provinces in 12 years. </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  22. 22. <ul><li>King Rama VI </li></ul><ul><li>- stressed the importance of the role of the monarchy and that Thailand still needed the monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>- established a model city for self-governing by the people, the ‘Dusitthani’ - constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama VII </li></ul><ul><li>reigned during economic hardship; He reduced palace staff and his own income </li></ul><ul><li>abdicated the throne in 1932 to give way to constitutional monarchy and lived abroad until death </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  23. 23. <ul><li>Professions </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture – government helped provide irrigation and gave land to people who cleared and farmed on uncultivated land </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing – abundant “In the water, there is fish, in the paddy, there is rice” </li></ul><ul><li>Raising and breeding cattle – horses, cows to transport goods to sell in other cities. Capture elephants to sell in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Mining/excavating minerals – iron, gold, lead, zinc, tin and copper </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  24. 24. <ul><li>Trading (domestic) -shop houses and flea market; neighboring and foreign countries (Sangkaloke porcelain) </li></ul><ul><li>Handicrafts – artistic skills making porcelain, tools used as weapons, construction materials, weaving, etc. made for religious purposes or as gift to governor and royal family </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Custom duty – revoked by King Ramkhamhaeng </li></ul><ul><li>Tax on rice – one tenth of rice production </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  25. 25. <ul><li>Reasons and obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Land not fertile, could only produce for local consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Inconvenient land transportation for bulky items; landlocked </li></ul><ul><li>Other cities using Sukhothai as transit were self-sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Most important export good ‘Sangkaloke’ porcelain; civil war in China enabled Sukhothai to replace China in porcelain export </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  26. 26. <ul><li>Professions </li></ul><ul><li>Rice farming – fertile land, productive-surplus for export </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of crops – durian, mangosteen, langsaat, coconut, banana, sugar cane, pepper, areca palm, betel, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Raising Cattle/Catching Fish – raising elephants, horses, cows, buffalo, pigs, ducks, chicken, goat, sheep, etc.; catching fish and prawns </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  27. 27. <ul><li>Forestry and Mining – bamboo, teak, etc. to build ships: conserve wood, collect high tax from ship builders; tin, important mineral in Phuket, iron in Sukhothai, Pitsanulok, etc. gold in Kuiburi </li></ul><ul><li>Trading – domestic (agricultural products, food, fruits, clothes, etc.) - foreign (monopolized by king, noblemen – China, Japan carried in junks to sell to Western countries) – Portugal, first Western country to trade with Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting taxes from rice, alcohol, water, market, gambling houses, commission on stamps for land ownership, court fee from guilty party. Highest revenue from tribute trade with China </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  28. 28. <ul><li>Highest revenue from tribute trade with China </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly by the Trade Department which fixed price of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Payment for Thai goods made by ivory, tin, gun powder, printed cloths rather than money </li></ul><ul><li>Government did not have to pay for goods in trade, as they were gifts from commoners </li></ul><ul><li>Thai acted as agent to bring Chinese and Japanese goods to sell to Western countries at high prices, as both countries reluctant to trade directly with Western countries </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  29. 29. <ul><li>Professions </li></ul><ul><li>Rice farming – fertile ground suitable for rice farming and making paddies very prosperous </li></ul><ul><li>Orchards and plantations – sugar cane, pepper, tobacco and cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Animal raising and Catching Marine Creatures – raising cows and buffaloes (King Rama V and VI – encouraged for exports; silkworms (King Rama V employed Japanese experts to help for Thai silk quality to be comparable to overseas) </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  30. 30. <ul><li>King Rama II </li></ul><ul><li>had farmlands measured to know total area covered, so tax can be collected properly </li></ul><ul><li>farm land owners given red title deed as evidence, which is beneficial to treasury and also the court because fewer farmland disputes </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  31. 31. <ul><li>King Rama III – promoted rice farming by </li></ul><ul><li>(1) using religious approach to have royal ceremony to pray for water to recede so farmers can harvest rice </li></ul><ul><li>(2) using regulations for everyone to have to pay farm tax equally – previously public servants and heads of cities were exempted </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  32. 32. <ul><li>King Rama IV </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Allowed commoners who served in court to return home during rice farming season </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Helped farmers sell rice at better price </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Gave advice on which type of rice fetch better price </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Helped solved water problem or resolved court cases relating to rice </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Accepted Western technology and encouraged foreigners to stay in back to give know-how </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  33. 33. <ul><li>King Rama V </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Have canals dug to expand rice farming </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Provide good quality rice grain to sell to farmers; organize competition; distribute winning type as seed grain </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Government imported ‘Carolina’, superior rice to distribute to farmers as seed grain </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Arranged for modern integrated farming equipment (Siam Agriculture Company) to till land and sow the seed </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  34. 34. <ul><li>King Rama VI </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Increase land ownership to farmers for rice farming </li></ul><ul><li>(2) When shortage of labor, waived regulation for men 25 – 30 years from being soldiers to fully engage in rice farming </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Have additional canals dug during drought 1910 – 1913 and set up Irrigation with experts from England </li></ul><ul><li>(4) When shortage of grain, Agriculture bought from winners to distribute to farmers </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Enacted Weight and Measurement Act in 1923 to solve cheating middlemen and introduce metric system </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  35. 35. <ul><li>Catchers of abundant marine creatures subject to ‘water tax’ (Rama VI hired American expert to supervise Agriculture Dept.) </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry – pre-Rama V teakwood in hands of heads of state; Rama V established Forestry Dept. to control teakwood forestry; Rama VII staff educated with knowledge of wood and various types of forest </li></ul><ul><li>Mining – Tin (Rama V set up a bank, government hired ships to transport laborers from China, and built train route from Petchburi to southernmost boundary </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  36. 36. <ul><li>Trading </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic – controlled by Chinese merchants in early Rattanakosin: (a) Chinese people enjoy equal rights as Thais (b) opted to be under foreign rule, so protected by foreign consuls (c) Thai government granted special privileges to build cargo ships to export goods without paying taxes, etc. (d) People diligent, collectivists, so help each other (e) applied psychology to benefit trade </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  37. 37. <ul><li>Foreign – Ruler promoted foreign trade as it was very beneficial; government wanted profit to sustain the country and upheld Buddhism; government sell produces collected from people at profit; early Rattanakosin – monopoly like Ayutthaya; Rama III English government wanted negotiations so monopoly gradually revoked; Rama IV the Bowring Treaty signed with UK in 1855 to end monopoly; Thai economy changed to produce goods for exports </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  38. 38. <ul><li>Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Structure from Rama I to IV similar to Ayutthaya except: collecting ‘water tax’ according to size and power of equipment used to catch marine creatures; collecting fee for government service rendered e.g. license, title deed, court fee, bail, fine, inheritance tax, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rama V set up the Revenue Dept. to centralize tax collection to know how much income collected and what amount to be paid for administering the kingdom </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  39. 39. <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Small community </li></ul><ul><li>Limited area for cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Law gave rights to people e.g. waive customs duty, free trading to motivate people to migrate to Sukhothai </li></ul><ul><li>Paternalistic ruler enabled king to look after subject closely </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  40. 40. <ul><li>Classes of population </li></ul><ul><li>Blue blood/royals – descendants of king and senior noblemen, the high class in society and minority, who helped king with activities </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary noblemen – acted as middlemen between royals & senior noblemen and people; supervised commoners in location of responsibility, collecting taxes and arbitrators in minor cases </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  41. 41. <ul><li>iii. Commoners – the majority of population with duty to provide labor to fight in war, build forts, city walls, wells, temples, etc. in peace; when not working for the king, have time to cultivate land for crops and work in industry, freedom to trade as no monopoly </li></ul><ul><li>iv. Slaves – lowest class in society: slaves from prisoners of war; when king won war, confiscated assets and citizens, rather than kill them, made use of labor </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  42. 42. <ul><li>Blue Blood/Royals : </li></ul><ul><li>Duty and Power – helped king to carry out activities, go to war to expand territories, supervise people; ruled new territory conquered; give orders to commoners; gave verdict to cases, collected taxes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to Limit Power – encouraged them to lead a moral life, so they could be in position for long time; commoners allowed to petition to king direct (King Ramkhamhaeng, bell in front of palace for commoners to ring when petitioning) </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  43. 43. <ul><li>Education – most important subjects: relating to war and administration; elephants and horses; fighting on elephant and horse backs, arts. </li></ul><ul><li>(King Ramkhamhaeng invented Thai alphabets, Phayalithai wrote “Traibhumphraruang”, book relating to three worlds : heaven, earth, hell) </li></ul><ul><li>Learned about religion and taught subjects about morality and religion; supported Buddhism </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  44. 44. <ul><li>Income – partly received from the king, which were treasures when entering into war, including prisoners; collecting taxes from people and court fees; income from land, produce from land by assigning slaves to till the land and turn into farm </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  45. 45. <ul><li>Ordinary Noblemen: </li></ul><ul><li>Little evidence regarding this group; duty to coordinate and acted as middlemen between royals and commoners </li></ul><ul><li>Commoners: </li></ul><ul><li>Had duty to fight in wars and build infrastructure in time of peace; have own occupation e.g. rice farming, trading </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves: </li></ul><ul><li>Academics believed started in Sukhothai period from prisoners of war that King made use of their labor instead of killing them </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  46. 46. <ul><li>Values of the People </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent Thai values during Sukhothai period: </li></ul><ul><li>The value of seniority in age or rank; relationship of patron-client relationship: junior must show respect or give up life for senior; senior have self-control and not show anger in front of junior </li></ul><ul><li>Government imbued people to be aware of duty and sacrifice for the benefit of majority </li></ul><ul><li>Women and children of lower rank than men and senior people </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  47. 47. <ul><li>Classes of Population </li></ul><ul><li>Superiors – descended directly from king with royal title passed to 3 generations: royal title passed by birth or being promoted through government service; income derived from allowance from king and fighting in war, produce of land or trading </li></ul><ul><li>Noblemen – commoners with no royal lineage but provide service to royal family; underwent ceremony to pledge allegiance and fate depended on king’s satisfacti on </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  48. 48. <ul><li>3. Commoners – shortage of commoners because of limited population, so service to king reduced to one month of service, another month earning a living; foreigners hired to be soldiers; had to be registered to be under king or noblemen to get protection under law because application of land ownership or court case had to be carried out through masters </li></ul><ul><li>4. Slaves – master or superior had the right to use the slaves in every way including to be imprisoned or enter war </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  49. 49. <ul><li>Rights and income of superiors </li></ul><ul><li>Rights – eligible to inherit the throne; did not have to give service or pay taxes; had commoners under control; if sued, tried in palace court; if a guilty party, only punished by beating or imprisoned, not subject to capital punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Income – derived from allowance annually according to land allocated (King had most allocation of 100,000 rai {2.53 rai = 1 acre} followed by 50,000 rai second in rank; government officials about 400 rai); tributes, produce from land using labor of commoners under control; trading; assets from king after fighting a war </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  50. 50. <ul><li>Rights and income of noblemen: </li></ul><ul><li>Rights – entitled to 400 rai of land; did not have to serve; did not have to pay tax; had commoners according to rank; if sued, did not have to go to court, but use lawyer; could have audience with king; had personal aide; royal decoration received from king, pass on to children </li></ul><ul><li>Income – no fixed salary, but from position held e.g. taxes, fees, trading with foreigners; annual allowance from king according to rank; tribute from commoners under them and produce from using their labor </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  51. 51. <ul><li>Rights and income of commoners: </li></ul><ul><li>Rights – had to register under a master in the same area (domicile) at 9 years old, but start giving service at 18 or when married; had rights to the land cultivated to make a living; receive justice of law; protection from being bullied by noblemen or senior persons; request for bail </li></ul><ul><li>Income – from occupation and financial assistance from masters </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  52. 52. <ul><li>Rights of Masters of Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>master could use slave in every way </li></ul><ul><li>slaves could not argue </li></ul><ul><li>used slaves to go to jail, to war </li></ul><ul><li>master could punish slaves but not maim or caused death </li></ul><ul><li>earned income by selling slaves </li></ul><ul><li>inherited assets of slaves, if slaves died for the duration of being slaves; other inheritance before that went to children of slaves; but if slaves did not have children, went to masters </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  53. 53. <ul><li>Differences between Thai and Western slaves </li></ul><ul><li>legally, Thai slaves had the right to be free e.g. used money to set themselves free </li></ul><ul><li>if master refused to accept money in exchange for freedom, slaves could go to court </li></ul><ul><li>Thai slaves had gradual reduction in value e.g. age, until of no value, then set free </li></ul><ul><li>if slaves entered into monkhood, became free, even after leaving monkhood </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  54. 54. <ul><li>Minorities in Ayutthaya Society </li></ul><ul><li>Foreigners who settled in Ayutthaya i.e. merchants, prisoner slaves, refugees and missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Government agency responsible for minorities in Ministry of Finance </li></ul><ul><li>Thai government assigned public servant of same nationality as the minority group to be leader e.g. ‘Luangchoteruekrajsethi’ leader of Chinese and Dutch merchants; ‘Phrachularajmontri’ leader for Indian, Malayan, Arab, Persian, Javanese, English and French merchants, etc. </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  55. 55. <ul><li>Classes of Population </li></ul><ul><li>Royals – commoners had the name of the royal/noblemen and domicile tattooed on wrist to prevent escape or change of superior </li></ul><ul><li>Noblemen – had more stability as they did not lose control of commoners through tattooing; had more authority for role in selecting King between Rama II to Rama V, until investiture of Crown Prince </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  56. 56. <ul><li>3. Commoners – life better than Ayuttaya period with 1 month service and 3 months’ leave to earn living or if did not wish to serve pay THB 18 per year or THB 6 per month or THB6 per year if they had to serve one month per year </li></ul><ul><li>4. Slaves – Rama V took 30 years to completely abolish slavery by doing it gradually </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  57. 57. <ul><li>Reasons for modernizing society for commoners to give lesser service starting from Rama IV: </li></ul><ul><li>King had policy to emphasize ‘moral ruler’ and ‘paternalistic ruler’ than ‘divine ruler’ </li></ul><ul><li>Threats and spreading of Western influence obliged more democratic to prevent claim to colonize </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in economic characteristics to move from monopoly to free trade; Rama IV open country to trade with foreign countries </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  58. 58. <ul><li>4. Since Rama III a lot of Chinese laborers immigrated into kingdom, so popular for Government to hire them to substitute commoner laborers </li></ul><ul><li>5. Thailand did not have to go to war with other countries, because all neighboring countries were colonized </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  59. 59. <ul><li>Minorities during Rattanakosin </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese - played important role because they had full time to trade, not having to give service </li></ul><ul><li>-Rama II reign Thai government collected money from them, but if they did not pay, had to work 1 month per 3 years (very low) </li></ul><ul><li>-Rama III more Chinese came </li></ul><ul><li>-Rama IV Chinese laborers brought Chinese women to marry not much integrated with Thai </li></ul><ul><li>-Rama V Chinese grouped “Angyee” engaged in illegal activities, but government could do little, as they registered under foreign masters </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  60. 60. <ul><li>Sukhothai Period </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism has been national religion since olden time. Its essence – teach people to use their wisdom, think rationally; after discovering the truth, have faith and abide in it. </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in India and spread to other countries during King Ashoka the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Previously divided into 2 paths: Hinayana (Bali) and Mahayana (Sanskrit); later Tantrayana added resulting in magic power and rituals penetrating Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>-Although Buddhism flourished Thai kings did not prohibit other religions i.e. Brahmin and Hindu; gave freedom and support them </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  61. 61. <ul><li>Ayutthaya Period </li></ul><ul><li>Two more religions added: Christianity and Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of people were Buddhist. </li></ul><ul><li>Kings spent most effort in building or renovating temples believing to attain highest merit </li></ul><ul><li>Temple structure had ordination hall as considered important tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Education important process of monk hood, so temple place for them to attain primary education </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  62. 62. <ul><li>Ayutthaya (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Important achievement – compose literature about greatest life of Lord Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Kings had absolute power over Buddhist kingdom including monks </li></ul><ul><li>Although Buddhism flourished, kings and people believed in magic power, which did not exist in Buddhism </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  63. 63. <ul><li>Rattanakosin Period </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama I brought order to monks enacting“Law of Monks”; revised the Tripitaka and restored on fan palm, bound and gilded </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama II commissioned Supreme Patriarch to write best practices of Buddhist monks; harder exams on Tripitaka and presided on Visakabucha ceremony for first time </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  64. 64. <ul><li>King Rama III – maintained Buddhist monks well, built temples and Buddha images; made merit by giving to beggars; build hall to distribute things to needy, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>One of his sons (later Rama IV) entered monkhood and established new vehicle “Thammayut” – monks adhered strictly to monk discipline with essence to change from blind beliefs to be rationale </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  65. 65. <ul><li>King Rama IV – flourished especially in governing of monks and Mahakhabucha ceremony revived </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama V – enacted “Governing the Sangha Council (monks)” in 1902 so good administering and stability; first time monks governed themselves under Supreme Patriarch, but real authority with king </li></ul><ul><li>King Rama VI – delegated absolute governing power of monks, who brought progress </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  66. 66. <ul><li>Religion and Society </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism, not only to attain nirvana, but to help societal problems based on 2 principles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Practice for self-improvement and have peace of mind; when achievable should have no social problem; believe in karma and be self-reliant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Practice the way to treat other people by training one’s mind to adhere to ‘The 4 Principles of Virtuous Existence’ </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  67. 67. <ul><li>‘ The 4 Principles of Virtuous Existence’ </li></ul><ul><li>Mercy – love and good intentions to others </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathy – feeling sympathy for other people’s sufferings </li></ul><ul><li>Rejoicing with others in their good fortune – happiness when we see others succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Impartiality – have justice and have no bias </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  68. 68. <ul><li>Thai arts are classified into 4 types: </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture – arts or those relating to buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture – sculptures, carvings and moldings into various shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings – color paintings which are usually found in temples (mural paintings), stupas, caves, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Fine arts – arts for decoration or made by hands </li></ul><ul><li>Thai arts classified by era of dynasty, characteristics of art or period of time and place they were discovered. </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  69. 69. <ul><li>Arts pre-Thai Kingdom : </li></ul><ul><li>Dvaravati era (11 th or 12 th to 16 th century B.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Srivichai era ( 13 th to 18 th century B.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Lopburi era (16 th to 18 th century B.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Arts of Thai Kingdom : </li></ul><ul><li>Chiangsaen era (17 th to 19 th century B.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sukhothai era (19 th to 21 st century B.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Uthong era (18 th to 21 st century B.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ayutthaya era (21 st to 24 th century B.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Rattanakosin era (24 th century B.E. till present) </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  70. 70. <ul><li>Dvaravati – kingdom between Burma and Cambodia, located on Thai soil during 12 th century B.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Theme of Architecture related to religion or religious places, e.g. temples, stupas of laterite or bricks </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures comprised stone carvings, small Buddha statues e.g. sitting Buddha, Wheel of Law with prostrating deer </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  71. 71. <ul><li>Srivichai located in Southern Thailand receiving influence from Indian arts </li></ul><ul><li>Themes – Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism e.g.Phraboromthat Chaiya, Suratthani province </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures – incarnation of Lord Buddha as Phra Botisat e.g. Vieng Temple in Chaiya </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings – found in Cave Temple, Yala depicting Lord Buddha in sitting, standing, walking postures, disciples, Mekla and Ramasoon </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  72. 72. <ul><li>Lopburi arts found Central, Eastern and Southern parts of Northeast Thailand; resembled that found in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct characteristics – stone castles built from sandstone, laterites and bricks for religious purposes e.g. Prasartmuangsingh, Karnchanaburi, Prasarthinpimai, Nakornrajsima </li></ul><ul><li>Popular sculptures – Lord Buddha with nagas either standalone or several Buddha images on a single base </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  73. 73. <ul><li>Chiangsaen /Lanna architecture influenced by Sukhothai of bell-shaped stupa with whole stupa covered in gold e.g. Phratat Doi Suthep, Chiangmai </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures – Buddha images in bronze in early period e.g. Phraputhasihing in Bangkok, chiang Mai and Nakornsrithammaraj; and sculptures from glass or colored stones e.g. Emerald Buddha, Bangkok </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  74. 74. <ul><li>Sukhothai architecture according to Brahmin religion holy places of worship imitated from Khmer influence e. Chanchao, Srisawai Temples in Sukhothai </li></ul><ul><li> architecture according to Buddhism found everywhere even in, Pitsanulok, Nakornsawan e.g. Temple of Emerald Buddha, Bangkok; Srichum Temple, Sukhothai </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures “Golden Era of Thai Sculptures” Buddha images, pure Thai and most beautiful e.g. Phraputtachinaraj, Pitsanulok; most prominent posture – walking ‘Panglila’ </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  75. 75. <ul><li>Utong or Ayodhya arts developed from Central Thailand and created to fulfill faith in Buddhism e.g. Panunchoeng Temple, Ayutthaya </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures mixed characteristics with Dvaravati and Lopburi, Sukhothai, but Buddha images have hairline and face of Lord Buddha with lines engrossed in attaining Enlightenment with the base curved inward </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  76. 76. <ul><li>Ayutthaya architecture “Golden Era of Thai Architecture” divided into Early Ayutthaya – mixture between Sukhothai and Lopburi (Khmer) in building stupas; Mid Ayutthaya – round shape stupa like the bell e.g. Temple of Emerald Buddha; Late Ayutthaya – stupas with corners mixture of Lanka, Sukhothai and Srivichai stupas </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  77. 77. <ul><li>Sculptures replicated Lopburi and Uthong, but when Sukhothai was vassal state, took Sukhothai model i.e. walking posture of Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings depicted Lord Buddha’s life and 10 births before Enlightenment; several Buddha sitting next to each other. Towards the end of era resembled European style of trees, mountains, rocks or houses </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  78. 78. <ul><li>Rattanakosin architecture resembled Ayutthaya with curved base like chapel and golden bell-shaped stupa in Temple of Emerald Buddha. Rama I built Dusit Throne Hall to resemble Sanpet Throne Hall in Ayutthaya </li></ul><ul><li>Rama III favored Chinese e.g. Temple of Dawn, Chetupon (Pho) Temple and Yannawa Temple depicting Chinese junk </li></ul><ul><li>Rama V built temples with European influence Niwetthamprawat, Ayutthaya; Marble Temple with mixture of Western and Eastern arts </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  79. 79. <ul><li>Sculptures – focused on design rather than facial expression; Rama III built decorative Buddha images, which were placed on left and right of Emerald Buddha; Rama IV changed characteristics to be more human beings (commoners) and even more so during Rama V reign with some Buddhist elements </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009
  80. 80. <ul><li>Paintings “Golden Era of Thai Paintings” mural paintings with no Chinese influence and got inspiration from environment depicting kings, religions and way of people’s lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest painting Phutaisawan Throne Hall in National Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Most prosperous painting during Rama II Suthatthepwararam Temple (Giant Swing) </li></ul><ul><li>From Rama IV’s Western paintings influenced Thai paintings in smaller series about Lord Buddha standing flanked by 2 disciples </li></ul>HI121 Lucy Tan-atichat AUG/SEP 2009