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In a society increasingly intolerant of religious enquiry, where empirical scientific investigation and strict rationalism are afforded primary importance, tarot has been discredited, linked in the media and popular culture with dodgy soothsayers with a malignant intent to deceive and with weak-minded seekers clad in rainbow colours. The relatively small numbers of scholarly works relating to tarot is in marked contrast to the large numbers of popular tarot books, which crowd the shelves of New Age bookstores and ‘Self-Help’ corners of department stores.

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  1. 1. 571 CHAPTER FIFTY-SEVEN TAROT Helen Farley INTRODUCTION In a society increasingly intolerant of religious enquiry, where empirical scientific investigation and strict rationalism are afforded primary importance, tarot has been discredited, linked in the media and popular culture with dodgy soothsayers with a malignant intent to deceive and with weak-minded seekers clad in rainbow colours. The relatively small numbers of scholarly works relating to tarot is in marked contrast to the large numbers of popular tarot books, which crowd the shelves of New Age bookstores and ‘Self-Help’ corners of department stores. In considering tarot in an academic context, it is first necessary to distinguish historical facts from the esoteric fictions which are endlessly recycled. For example, many authors still promulgate the falsehood that tarot is encoded with the lost Hermetic knowledge of an endangered Egyptian priesthood confronted with annihilation by powerful enemies. These fanciful tales cannot be substantiated and originate in a perceived need for legitimacy for tarot through an artificial association with a noble, wise and ancient people. This discussion will provide an overview of tarot history, symbolism and divination. It begins by investigating the origins of tarot, gleaning evidence from the time of its first appearance in the courts of Northern Italy in the first quarter of the fifteenth century. At this time, the deck was used exclusively for game playing. Tarot was first viewed as an esoteric device in the last part of the eighteenth century in pre- Revolutionary France. This is where tarot’s first significant links with esotericism were forged and tarot symbolism became associated with a perceived ancient Egyptian provenance, as well as esoteric Freemasonry and astrology in the milieu of the French occult revival. Occurring slightly later, England also underwent an occult revival, the most noteworthy group during which was the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Under their considerable influence, tarot underwent a substantial evolution, which laid the foundations for modern tarot interpretation. The Occult World.indb 571The Occult World.indb 571 9/15/2014 1:16:27 PM9/15/2014 1:16:27 PM
  2. 2. – H e l e n F a r l e y – 572 WHAT IS TAROT? Tarot decks exist in infinite variety, resplendent with symbolism from every religious, esoteric and cultural tradition. The creators of these different decks assert that each has a particular purpose and is suited to particular people. But, what constitutes the tarot deck? Commonly, though not exclusively, the tarot deck consists of seventy-eight cards. Most of the deck has a comparable structure to the ordinary playing card deck. Fifty- six of the cards are distributed through four suits and this structure belies tarot’s original purpose for use in games very similar to contemporary Bridge. Those who use the tarot for more esoteric purposes have a special name for this grouping, calling it the ‘Minor Arcana’. As with the ordinary playing card deck, each suit consists of numbered cards from 1 (Ace) to 10, with the usual three court cards of Jack (Knight), Queen and King. Tarot suits however have an additional court card, the Page. When tarot first appeared, it featured the Italian suit signs of the regular card deck, namely Cups (Coppe), Batons (Bastoni), Coins (Denari) and Swords (Spade). These suits signs relate to the modern English and French marks of Hearts (Coeur), Clubs (Trèfle), Diamonds (Carreau) and Spades (Pique) respectively. As those card games played with both the regular deck and the tarot deck extended from Italy across Europe, the suit signs evolved into distinctive, region-specific patterns. The remaining twenty-two cards of the tarot deck consist of twenty-one ordered trump cards and an unnumbered ‘wild’ or Fou (Fool) card. These cards are generally distinguished by the elaborate symbolism they display. Those who use the tarot deck for divination often use the term ‘Major Arcana’ to describe the grouping of the trump cards and Fool card. It is certainly the novel addition of these cards to the cards of the four suits that makes the tarot deck so intriguing. In this way, the structure of the tarot deck diverged markedly from that of the ordinary playing card deck. Originally unlabelled, the trumps bear the names of the Magician, the Popess, the Empress, the Emperor, the Pope, the Lovers, the Chariot, Strength, the Hermit, the Wheel of Fortune, Justice, the Hanged Man, Death, Temperance, the Devil, the Tower, the Star, the Moon, the Sun, Judgement and the World. The names of the individual trump cards, the form of the symbolism on them and their rank order, differed between decks, depending on where each was designed, the purpose for which they were created and the intent of the artist who crafted them. THE BIRTH OF TAROT No new invention first appears in a form that is final and complete. Instead, there are a number of false starts, incremental changes, revisions and redesigns and so it was with the invention of tarot. It seems most likely that the tarot deck evolved from the fifty-two-card playing deck common in many countries in the west. There are significant correspondences in structure and symbolism between the two kinds of deck which indicate a close developmental relationship. Indeed, circumstantial evidence supports this hypothesis. The ordinary playing card deck was first mentioned in sermons and prohibitions against gambling around fifty years before the first documented appearance of tarot (Depaulis 1984, 33). In 1371, Peter IV, King of Aragorn, commissioned a deck of cards from the Catalan Jaume March (Ortalli The Occult World.indb 572The Occult World.indb 572 9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM
  3. 3. – c h a p t e r 5 7 : T a r o t – 573 1996, 175) and just six years later in 1377, Johannes of Rheinfelden in Switzerland, referred to a deck as consisting of thirteen cards in four suits, each made up of ten numeral cards and three court cards consisting of a King, an upper Marshal and a lower Marshal (Steele 1900, 189, 202). The ‘game of cards’ or ludus cartarum had arrived in Switzerland that same year but was swiftly prohibited (O’Donoghue 1901, 2–3). Almost concurrently, playing cards were alluded to in a range of bureaucratic documents including catalogues of possessions, edicts, city chronicles and account books in the cities of Florence, Siena, Paris and Basle (Dummett & Mann 1980, 10–32). The deck was most likely introduced into Europe through the prosperous seaport of Venice which conducted a busy trade with the countries of the East and the Near East (Hargraves 1966, 223). By this time, it is evident the deck consisted of fifty-two cards distributed through four suits. It is also evident that in the absence of transitional decks or obvious progenitors, the playing card deck was not of European invention (Dummett & Mann 1996, 33–34). A likely progenitor was found in 1939 in an Istanbul museum by archaeologist L. A. Mayer. The deck was from the Egyptian Mamlūk Empire and was obviously the antecedent of the Latin playing card deck (Goggin, 49–50). Through comparison with Egyptian illustrated manuscripts of known provenance, it was dated to the fifteenth century (Hoffmann, 18–19). Forty-eight cards of the entire pack had survived with cards divided into four suits of Swords, Polo-Sticks, Cups and Coins, with each comprised of ten numeral cards and three court cards headed by the King (Dummett & Mann, 39). Having been imported into Italy via Venice, the cards were adapted to reflect the subtleties of the local culture by card-makers (Olsen, 42–43). The most evident modification was the renovation of the suit of polo sticks into batons as polo was not well-known in Europe at that time (Chehabi & Guttmann, 390). As indicated at the outset, the oldest tarot decks so far unearthed are from northern Italy and have been dated to the first half of the fifteenth century. The first intriguing intimation as to the identity of tarot’s creator came in a letter written by a Venetian military captain, Jacopo Antonio Marcello. The letter was dated 1449 and accompanied a deck of tarot cards (carte de trionfi), sent as a gift for Queen Isabella of Anjou, the consort of King René I, Duke of Lorraine (Olsen 1994, 1). In the letter, Marcello asserted that the famous artist Michelino da Besozzo painted the deck which had been invented by Duke Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan (Olsen 1994, 1). Although the deck of cards Marcello described did not survive, his letter and an instructive treatise in Latin penned by the eccentric Duke’s secretary, Marziano da Tortono, still do (Dummett & Mann 1996, 82). The treatise, entitled Tractatus de Deificatione Sexdecim Heroum, maintained that the idea for the deck came from Duke Filippo Maria Visconti and that it was crafted by the acclaimed artist, Michelino da Besozzo (Olsen 1994, 106–7). Duke Visconti’s biographer, Decembrio, writing in 1440, also described a deck of similar cards and it seems credible that this deck was the one described in Marcello’s letter and Marziano’s treatise (Moakley 1966, 52). Decembrio described the deck as comprising ‘sixteen celestial princes and barons’ with four kings. Though the sixteen cards were sequential, as with the tarot deck, they were also distributed into four orders or suits, namely Virtues, Riches, Virginities and Pleasures (Pratesi 1989, 34). There is no doubt that this deck was very different to the deck that later became characterised as tarot, but it does seem to have The Occult World.indb 573The Occult World.indb 573 9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM
  4. 4. – H e l e n F a r l e y – 574 represented an intermediate stage between regular playing cards and tarot. Though the sixteen deities were not present as trumps in later tarot decks, there is some similarity between the suits of Virtues, Riches, Virginities and Pleasures and those of both the regular tarot deck and regular playing cards. Pratesi suggested that the denari (coins) corresponded with the order of Riches; spade (swords) evolved into Virtues; coppes (cups) inspired Pleasures; and bastoni (batons) became known as Virginities (1989, 143–44). An abundance of administrative documents from the various courts of northern Italy suggest that there was a surfeit of handcrafted decks produced between the time of Marcello’s letter and the end of the fifteenth century. Even so, just twenty partial packs survive (Olsen 1994, 2). The earliest of these originated from the court of Milan presided over by Duke Filippo Maria Visconti. Though there is a broad correspondence between their structures, they do not resemble very closely the pack described in Marziano’s treatise or Marcello’s letter. Of the extant packs, there are three that are of particular interest because they are both the oldest and the most complete. The three decks share pip cards allocated to the traditional Italian suits of Coins, Swords, Cups and Batons (Dummett & Mann, 68). One of these decks, known as the Visconti-Sforza deck, appeared to be the immediate progenitor of standardised decks with most of the familiar trumps. It seems most likely that the tarot was invented by Duke Filippo Maria Visconti. The symbolism depicted on that first deck described by Marziano was replaced by something altogether more symbolic of the forces affecting the Duke’s difficult passage through life. For example, the cards of the Emperor, Empress, Pope and Popess represented spiritual and temporal power in northern Italy in late Medieval and Early Modern times (Dummett 1986, 104). Milan was caught in a power struggle between the Pope, exerting influence from Rome, and the Holy Roman Empire to the north. These four cards are indicative of that struggle (Farley 2009, 52–58). Interestingly, the Popess has been linked to the figure of Sister Maifreda da Pirovano who was a relative of the Viscontis. She was a member of the heretical sect of the Guglielmites (Newman 2005, 28). Significantly, none of the extant decks possessed either the Devil trump or the Tower trump, standard in modern tarot decks. It has been theorised that the Devil was not a significant figure in the Renaissance so probably was omitted from the deck (Farley 2009, 88–92). The Tower or ‘Torre’ in Italian, however, was also the name of the main political rivals of the Visconti in Milan. It is not inconceivable that the Tower card, with its destructive and violent imagery, was present in the original decks, symbolising the eventual triumph of the Viscontis over the Della Torres (Farley 2009, 84–88). The game of tarot was complex requiring much skill and an excellent memory. The symbolism on the cards could be seen as an allegory for life, itself complicated and unpredictable. The particular character of the games played using those early cards remains mysterious as there were no recorded rules of play prior to the sixteenth century (Dummett and McLeod 2004, 13). However, there are a few clues as to how play proceeded. It can be deduced from Marziano’s treatise that the order of cards of two of the pip suits were reversed in common with games described at a later date (Pratesi 1989, 24). It is feasible that the ordering of these cards would also have been reversed in games played with those first decks and shrewd players would have factored this complication into their game strategy. Initially, trump cards were not The Occult World.indb 574The Occult World.indb 574 9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM
  5. 5. – c h a p t e r 5 7 : T a r o t – 575 numbered and their order had to be memorised, serving to further complicate the game (Dummett 1986, 7–8). The game of tarot required cleverness and strategy, yet each player was still susceptible to the vagaries of chance introduced by the other players. In many ways a game is a reflection of life as inferred by the phrase ‘the game of life’ (von Franz 1980, 49), and the game of tarot with its evocative symbolism and complex rules of play, made this relationship overt. In our society, tarot is primarily used as a divinatory device and it is worth considering why it did not serve such a function from the time of its creation. An explanation can be found in Renaissance attitudes to both divination and magic. At this time, it was widely believed that God embedded clues in nature that could be deciphered by anyone with sufficient knowledge. In this way, humans were able to discern the mind and will of God (Kieckhefer 1989, 90). It was thought that the causes of tempests, illness, misfortune or famine could be determined by a careful examination of omens, the movements of stars or even a reading of the physical attributes of the human body (Lessa 1958, 314–26). Any form of divination or fortune-telling which made use of invocations, written petitions or the use of sigils or signs was considered to be devilish could draw the unwelcome attentions of the Inquisition (Russell 1972, 143). Using tarot for fortune-telling or other forms of divination would have been akin to working with the Devil. TAROT AND ESOTERICISM We know tarot primarily as an esoteric or divinatory device. There are numerous books about how to use tarot to enhance various aspects of life. Yet, for many continental Europeans, tarot is a popular game requiring skill and patience. In many countries, tarot decks can be purchased solely for the purpose of game playing (see Dummett & McLeod 2004). The change was brought about by a shift in European culture, which saw a decline in the popularity and legitimacy of organised Christianity and allowed the emersion of more heterodox forms of spirituality which often combined Christian ideas with astrology, esoteric Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, Kabbalah and other esoteric systems (Farley 2009, 95–101). Just before the French Revolution that would so shake Europe, between the years 1773 and 1782, a Swiss-born Freemason and esotericist, Antoine Court de Gébelin, published his magnificent nine-volume opus entitled The Primeval World, Analyzed and Compared to the Modern World. This considerable work elaborated Court de Gébelin’s dream to reconstruct primeval civilisation which he perceived to be in every way superior to contemporary culture. Part of the eighth volume was devoted to the origins of tarot (Depaulis 1984, 131). It was here that Court de Gébelin recounted how at some time in the last quarter of the century, he happened across some women playing the game of tarot. At that time, tarot cards were not known in Paris. As Court de Gébelin was interested in the Hermetic mysteries of ancient Egypt, it seemed obvious to him that he was regarding a sacred Egyptian book, the remnants of the lost Book of Thoth (Decker and Dummett 2002, 25). Court de Gébelin imagined that this Book of Thoth had been smuggled to Europe by the gypsies, at that time thought to have been from Egypt, who had been hiding it since it had been entrusted to them by Egyptian priests faced with annihilation by their enemies. He further inferred that the most secure way to preserve the Hermetic wisdom was to encode it as a game and The Occult World.indb 575The Occult World.indb 575 9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM
  6. 6. – H e l e n F a r l e y – 576 to trust that one day a suitable adept would decipher it. This honour he claimed for himself (Court de Gébelin 1774). Because tarot was purportedly of Egyptian origin, Court de Gébelin removed all traces of Christian symbolism from the deck. For example, the Pope holding the papal triple cross became the ‘High Priest’ or ‘Hierophant and his cross was declared to be Egyptian. Likewise, the Popess emerged as the “High Priestess” apparently correcting the gaffe of the German card-makers’ (Decker, Depaulis & Dummett 1996, 60). Remarkably, Court de Gébelin linked the twenty-two tarot trumps with the twenty-two letters of the Egyptian alphabet which he maintained was also common to the Hebrews and the Orientals (Decker, Depaulis & Dummett 1996, 62). Alas, there were not twenty-two letters in the Egyptian alphabet but notably, this was the first time the trumps had been linked to the Hebrew alphabet and subsequently Kabbalah, an association which was a central tenet of later esoteric theories of tarot (Auger 2004, 5). The theory that posited an Egyptian origin for tarot was reinforced by other French esotericists such as Éliphas Lévi, Paul Christian and Gérard Encausse (popularly known as ‘Papus’) (Farley 2011). Each had their own particular slant on tarot’s place in esoteric theory. Egypt was believed to be the source of all esoteric wisdom and the Egyptian hieroglyphics were considered an ancient magical language. This theory was able to gain currency because of France’s infatuation with all things Egyptian, prior to the deciphering of hieroglyphics by François Champollion enabled by the discovery of the Rosetta Stone. Just a few short years later, across the Channel from France, England was also in the grip of the occult revival. By this time hieroglyphs had been translated. Even so, Victorian society remained enraptured by Egyptian culture. One possible reason is the revelation of the grandeur and sophistication of Egyptian civilisation unearthed by extensive archaeological excavations (Luhrmann 1989, 40). Initially, the role of tarot in this esoteric climate was slight. However, guided by the influence of a small esoteric society, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the tarot became significant. The Golden Dawn never possessed more than 300 members, yet it quickly became enormously influential on the practice of magic and tarot interpretation. The Order was the crowning glory of the British occult revival, fusing into a coherent whole, an immense body of material embracing Egyptian mythology, Kabbalah, tarot, Enochian magic, alchemy, Rosicrucianism and astrology (Farley 2002, 3). The trump sequence of the tarot deck was rearranged to better align with other esoteric systems and each Major Arcana card was linked to one of the twenty-two pathways between the sephiroth on the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. A divinatory meaning could be ascribed to each of the cards, borrowed from the meaning of the pathways. The modified trump order and divinatory interpretations underpin modern tarot divination. Two members of the Golden Dawn would also play a substantial role in the evolution of tarot, namely Aleister Crowley and Arthur Edward Waite. Crowley extended the lists of correspondences between the tarot trumps and other esoteric systems. But it was Waite who was to be the major innovator. He designed a pack in which each Minor Arcana card was illustrated to expedite divinatory interpretation. Waite was also responsible for popularising the link between tarot and the Grail legends, which, at that time, erroneously claimed a Celtic origin. This invention of Britain’s Celtic heritage came to be known as the ‘Celtic revival’. In The Occult World.indb 576The Occult World.indb 576 9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM
  7. 7. – c h a p t e r 5 7 : T a r o t – 577 addition to Ireland and Scotland, this movement embraced the language, mythology and lore of Brittany, Cornwall, Wales and the Isle of Man (Webb 1974, 318–19). Further mining this inclination, Waite was the initiator of the Celtic Cross spread, a very commonplace method used to ‘read’ the cards even today. The deck he conceived, commonly known as the Rider-Waite deck after its designer and publisher, was to become the most popular in the history of tarot. Many modern tarot scholars prefer to call it the ‘Colman-Waite’ deck in order to acknowledge the contribution of Pamela Colman Smith who was the artist who painted the deck. TAROT TODAY With the advent of the New Age when esoteric, philosophical and religious systems are eclectically plundered to create individual spiritual systems for seekers, the tarot has undergone yet another transformation. The tarot deck preserved its primary function as an aid to divination, but the character of that divination has altered. The object of New Age tarot reading has become healing and self-development, rather than straightforward fortune-telling. During the French and British occult revivals, practitioners looked for the one true tarot, ‘rectifying’ the deck in accordance with their beliefs (Pollack 1989a, 124). With the advent of the New Age, tarot designers felt able to ‘re-imagine’ the deck, no longer afraid to experiment, comfortable with creating links to other cultures or to create decks that fulfilled roles other than divination (Pollack 1989a, 124). The appropriation of the principles of analytical psychologist Carl Jung justified this practice. Jung’s theory of archetypes validated borrowings and substitutions from other cultures in the symbolism of tarot (Nichols 1980, 7–10). Consequently, the structure and symbolism of the tarot deck is constantly shifting. Large numbers of decks lack Minor Arcana cards or variable numbers of Major Arcana cards. Trump titles are frequently substituted so that they are better customised within whatever scheme was pulled into service. There are modern tarot decks aligned to every conceivable tradition, philosophy or culture (for example, see Tarot Catalog #61 2004). For example, the Voyager Tarot of Knutson and Wanless was created as a psychological tool of personal transformation. In contrast to the well-defined rubric of symbols used by esotericists to effect change, Wanless advocated using a larger, less conventional pool of symbolism. The images on this deck range from animals, vegetables and elements to minerals, art and extra-terrestrial worlds (Pollack 1989b, 126). In contrast, the Feng Shui Tarot created by the mother-and-son team of Eileen and Peter Paul Connolly has incorporated the ancient Chinese geomantic tradition of feng shui into the schema of tarot. It is not intended for feng shui analysis and the traditional meanings of the Major Arcana cards are retained though illustrated using symbols relevant to feng shui. The suits of the Minor Arcana suits are renamed White Tigers (Swords), Black Tortoises (Wands), Red Phoenix (Cups) and Green Dragons (Coins) (Kaplan & Huets, 35–37). These two decks are just examples of the many thousands of decks available for New Age divination and spiritual development. The Occult World.indb 577The Occult World.indb 577 9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM
  8. 8. – H e l e n F a r l e y – 578 CONCLUSION Tarot began its life nearly 600 years ago in the court of Milan, most likely invented by a reclusive and eccentric nobleman, Duke Filippo Maria Visconti. At first, the tarot reflected the concerns of the Duke’s life: his battles with the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the trials and tribulations of love and marriage, the ever present spectre of death in the form of the Black Death. But once the deck was taken away from this cultural milieu, it appeared enigmatic and mysterious. Little wonder that Antoine Court de Gébelin, when he saw the tarot in pre-Revolutionary France, did not recognise the symbolism on the deck, mistaking it for the outpouring of an Egyptian priestly class faced with annihilation. The fiction was promulgated by esotericists in France and later in England into the nineteenth century. Once in England, the tarot underwent its most significant transformation under the auspices of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and in particular, with two of its members, Aleister Crowley and Arthur Edward Waite. It was here that tarot’s modern divinatory meanings were established along with long lists of correspondences, tying tarot to a myriad other esoteric schema. With the emergence of the New Age in the late 1970s, tarot underwent further transformation in tandem to the cultural changes taking place. With the rise of interest in Eastern and indigenous spiritual systems, ecofeminism and other spiritual and cultural currents, the symbolism of tarot adapted to and incorporated those symbols. In addition, its purpose shifted from fortune-telling to become a tool of spiritual and holistic development. As culture undergoes further change, as will inevitably happen, tarot no doubt will act as a willing receptacle for those new patterns, symbols and systems that will arise. REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Auger, E.E. (2004) Tarot and Other Meditation Decks: History, Theory, Aesthetics, Typology, Jefferson: McFarland & Company Inc. Chehabi, HE & Guttmann, A. (2002) ‘From Iran to All of Asia: The Origin and Diffusion of Polo’, The International Journal for the History of Polo 19:2–3, 384–200. Court de Gébelin, A. (1774) Le Monde Primitif: Analysé Et Comparé Avec Le Monde Moderne, Considéré Dans L’histoire Naturelle De La Parole; Ou Grammaire Universelle Et Comparative, 9 vols, Paris: Archives De La Linguistique Française. Decker, R & Dummett, M. (2002) A History of the Occult Tarot: 1870–1970, London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. Decker, R, Depaulis, T & Dummett, M. (1996) A Wicked Pack of Cards: The Origins of Occult Tarot, London: Gerald Duckworth and Co. Ltd. Depaulis, T. (1994) Tarot, Jeu Et Magie, Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. Dummett, M. (1986) The Visconti-Sforza Tarot Cards, New York: George Braziller, Inc. Dummett, M & McLeod, J. (2004) A History of Games Played with the Tarot Pack: The Game of Triumphs, vol. 1, Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. Dummett, M with Mann, S. (1980) The Game of Tarot: From Ferrara to Salt Lake City, London: Gerald Duckworth and Co. Farley, H. (2011) ‘Out of Africa: Tarot’s Fascination with Africa’, Literature and Aesthetics 21:1, 175–95. ——(2009) A Cultural History of Tarot: From Entertainment to Esotericism, London: I.B. Tauris. The Occult World.indb 578The Occult World.indb 578 9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM
  9. 9. – c h a p t e r 5 7 : T a r o t – 579 ——(2002) ‘The History of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn: 1887–1920’, Masters thesis, Brisbane: University of Queensland. Gilbert, C.E., ed. (1980) Italian Art 1400–1500: Sources and Documents, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Goggin, J. (2003) ‘A History of Otherness: Tarot and Playing Cards from Early Modern Europe’, Journal for the Academic Study of Magic 1:1, 45–74. Hargrave, C.P. (1966) A History of Playing Cards and a Bibliography of Cards and Gaming, New York: Dover Publications. Hoffmann, D. (1973) The Playing Card: An Illustrated History, Greenwich: New York Graphic Society. Kaplan, SR & Huets, J. (2005) The Encyclopedia of Tarot, vol. 4, Stamford: U. S. Games Systems. Kieckhefer, R. (1989) Magic in the Middle Ages, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lessa, W.A. (1958) ‘Somatomancy: Precursor of the Science of Human Constitution’, in Lessa, WA & Vogt, EZ, eds., Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach, Evanston: Row, Peterson and Co., 314–26. Lessa, WA & Vogt, EZ, eds. (1958) Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach, Evanston: Row, Peterson and Co. Luhrmann, T.M. (1989) Persuasions of the Witch’s Craft: Ritual Magic in Contemporary England, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Moakley, G. (1966) The Tarot Cards Painted by Bonifacio Bembo for the Visconti-Sforza Family: An Iconographic and Historical Study, New York: The New York Public Library. Newman, B. (2005) ‘The Heretic Saint: Gugliema of Bohemia, Milan, and Brunate’, Church History 74:1, 1–38. Nichols, S. (1980) Jung and Tarot: An Archetypal Journey, New York: Samuel Weiser. O’Donoghue, F.M. (1901) Catalogue of the Collection of Playing Cards Bequeathed to the Trustees of the British Museum by the Late Lady Charlotte Schreiber, London: Longmans and Co. Olsen, C. (1994) ‘Carte Da Trionfi: The Development of Tarot in Fifteenth Century Italy’, doctoral thesis, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Ortalli, G. (1996) ‘The Prince and the Playing Cards: The Este Family and the Role of Courts at the Time of the Kartenspiel-Invasion’, Ludica: annali di storia e civilta del gioco 2, 175–205. Pollack, R. (1989) ‘An Overview of the Variety of New Tarot Decks: Emphasis on European Decks’, in Greer, MK & Pollack, R, eds., New Thoughts on Tarot: Transcripts from the First International Tarot Symposium, North Hollywood: Newcastle Publishing. ——(1989a) The New Tarot, Wellingborough: The Aquarian Press. Pratesi, F. (1989b) ‘Italian Cards – New Discoveries: 10. The Earliest Tarot Pack Known’, The Playing Card 18:2, 33–38. Russell, J.B. (1972) Witchcraft in the Middle Ages, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Steele, R. (1900) ‘A Notice of the Ludus Triumphorum and Some Early Italian Card Games; with Some Remarks on the Origin of the Game of Cards’, Archaeologia, or, Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity 57, 185–200. U.S. Games Systems, Inc. (2004) Tarot Catalog #61, Stamford: U. S. Games Systems. von Franz, M. (1980) On Divination and Synchronicity: The Psychology of Meaningful Chance, Toronto: Inner City Books. Webb, J. (1974) The Occult Underground, La Salle: Open Court Publishing Company. The Occult World.indb 579The Occult World.indb 579 9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM9/15/2014 1:16:33 PM