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  1. 1. EX POST FACTO -”from after the fact” (Gay, 1976) - “systematic empirical inquiry in which the scientist does not have direct control of independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or because they are inherently not manipulable. Inferences about relations among variables are made, without direct interventon from concomitant variation of independent and dependent variables (Kerlinger, 1973) - In simple terms, the researcher investigates a problem by studying the variables in retrospect.
  2. 2. COMPARISON BETWEEN EX POST FACTO ANDEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH In Ex Post Facto approach, the researcher first observes an effect and then tries to determine the cause. In Experimental research, the researcher creates the cause, deliberately makes the groups different, and then observes what effect that difference has on some dependent variable.
  3. 3.  Main difference between Ex Post Facto approach and the Experimental research is control of the independent variable. Ex Post Facto approach lacks control while Experimental research uses this as its fundamental principle. Random assignment is consequently possible in an experiment but it cannot be done in an ex post facto research. Selective manipulation in ex post facto is in contract to selective manipulation in experimental situation.
  4. 4. APPLICATIONS OF EX POST FACTO RESEARCH As a rule of thumb, where hypotheses are stated in cause-effect relationship and where variables being correlated are Ex Post Facto, that is, their manifestations have already occurred. In some correlational studies that employed ex post facto scientific inquiries, the variables studied are variables obtained in real social structure; hypotheses tested are done in life situations like families, schools, hotels and community.
  5. 5. THE VALUE OF EX POST FACTO RESEARCH Many of the variables in social, psychological and educational setting are certainly important areas of study but which can impossibly be investigated through true experimentation. Although direct control is impossible, controlled inquiry can be done in ex post facto and extraneous variable control is certainly possible. This make the research sensible and valid. For this reason, findings, interpretations and conclusions made in ex post facto research, when done properly, will always be valuable to the scientist and to the layman.
  6. 6. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH METHOD This is where a problem is defined in terms of the people who feel and think that it is a problem. How they will go about solving it will depend on how they perceive the problem themselves and on their resources which are available to enable them to solve it. In short, it is the people themselves who develop their own theories and solutions to the problem.
  7. 7. PRINCIPLES WHICH UNDERLIE PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH Methods used in research have ideological implications A research process should offer some immediate and direct benefit to a community instead of merely serving as a basis for an academic paper. A research process should involve all the participants in the research process from the formulation of the problem to the interpretation of the findings. The members of the research team should be made up of the researchers and the people representing all elements in the situation. The research participants should view the research process as a total community experience where community needs are established and awareness and commitment within the community experience where community needs are established and awareness and community are increased. The research participants should see the research process as a dialogue over time. The aim of the research process should be the liberation of the creative potential of human beings and human resources in solving social problems
  8. 8. FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS I. Context II. Purpose III. Definition of Terms IV. Methods V. Result VI. Implications VII. Unanswered Questions VIII. Key Words (for referencing)
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESEARCHER An ability to effect such reciprocal relationship. The researcher needs to be able to initiate that he is as capable of making mistakes as the other participants in the research do. The researcher must also possess the ability to constantly evaluate what is happening.
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESEARCHMETHOD There must be sufficient time allowed to the research process to deal with the complexity of the problem. The second characteristic calls for a method which allows for reflection done jointly by the researchers and the members of the culture where the research is done The third requires that the research process must be a permanent sequence of analysis, statement, action, reflection, analysis, etc.
  11. 11. INDIGENOUS RESEARCH METHODS Indigenization from within approach makes culture as the source for identifying constructs or concepts that are truly indigenous or culture specific. Indigenization from without is more of an attempt to make existing western or universal concepts and instruments usable in Philippine culture without undue expense, time, and training that might be needed for developing new instruments truly unique to the culture.