Literature Review

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Literature Review

  1. 1. Conducting Literature Review A very brief overview
  2. 2. About Me – Dr. Merza Abbas – Assoc. Prof. – Chairman of Graduate Studies, Centre for Instructional Technology & Multimedia – merza@usm.my, drmerza@yahoo.com
  3. 3. Achievement? • Best Thesis/Dissertation Awards – USM : Ibrahim Jbeili (2004) – META: Hamidah Maidinsah (2004) Tumpang syok sahaja
  4. 4. Ibrahim‛s Award
  5. 5. Why do a master degree? • To do a better job – To teach better: more effectively, more efficiently, more productively, etc… – To improve the quality of learning • To move to better jobs • Because it is exciting, challenging, etc… – Because it‛s there
  6. 6. Why do a master degree? • To do a PHD, to be a researcher • To acquire “constructive” knowledge as well as “destructive” knowledge • To learn to deconstruct and/or reconstruct knowledge (how do you know what you know is correct?) • No real applications except for a PHD or in a research environment
  7. 7. What is a graduate program? Critical review of paradigms: PHD Accept when irrefutable Critical review of theories: Master Accept when “proven” Grad. Dip/ More skills & theories: Prof. exams Accept w/o question Skills & theories: Bachelor Accept w/o question Diploma Skills: Accept w/o question
  8. 8. Paradigm  Structure  P  of  R  Academic  D  E  E  thinking  S  S  C  Theory  C  R  R  I  I  P  P  T  T  I  I  Model  V  V  E  E  Res.  Res. Practice 
  9. 9. Structure of Scientific Revolution (Kuhn, 1970) Master programs Paradigm Normal Science New Anomalies New Paradigm Normal Science Another new More Anomalies Paradigm Doctoral Programs
  10. 10. Objectivist Paradigm Theory Focus: Mastery of content/skills Behaviourist through conditioning and use of Mental processes extrinsic “motivational”processes are predictable: External factors Cybernetic through accumulation of sub-skills can change and sub-procedures internal processes Cognitive through activation of mental processes such as schemas, strategies, & metacognition
  11. 11. Constructivist Paradigm Theory Focus: reasoning skills & science process skills Mental through inquiry and solving Development real-life problems Mental processes are not predictable: Knowledge is private && Humanist through meaningful is personally purposeful learning constructed Social through scaffolding, learning cooperative/collaborative learning,
  12. 12. What is a thesis/dissertation? • Report of a scholarly investigation – Proof of theory-practice mastery – Genuine & Original thought/argument • Document to pass a sentence – Verify/fine-tune theories, models, practice – Reject/Debunk paradigms, theories, models
  13. 13. What is in a thesis/dissertation? • Chapter 1: Introduction – Problem Statement – Research Questions – Hypotheses, etc • Chapter 2: Literature Review • Chapter 3: Research Methodology • Chapter 4: Results / Data Analysis • Chapter 5: Discussion & Conclusions
  14. 14. Skills for Research & Thesis Writing Draw & apply reasonable conclusions  Organize & analyze expt. data  Plan & conduct controlled expt.  Generate logical predictions  Recognize & state Alt. H & Theories  Sense & state causal question  Describe nature accurately  Dari Lawson (1995)
  15. 15. Literature Review • What is it? • What is it for? • Where do we start? • How do we do it? – Quantitative research – Qualitative research • How do we know we‛ve done a good job? • Worked example(s)
  16. 16. Literature Review: M.Ed. Evaluation Form • Perkaitan Sumber yang disoroti dengan masalah kajian. • Terdapat teori/model untuk menyokong masalah kajian. • Sumber yang disoroti adalah terkini dan mencakupi skop kajian.
  17. 17. What is it? • High quality overview – Clarity, Flow, Relevance, Recency, Empirical focus, Independence • With technically accurate citations and references – List all articles cited in text, – Cite all articles listed in reference – Use the APA standard.
  18. 18. What is it for? • Support for ideas in Chapter 1 • Elaboration of ideas in Chapter 1 • Reference for discussion and conclusions in Chapter 5 – Must be thorough, exhaustive, & up-to- date
  19. 19. Where do we start? • Choose a paradigm • Problem Statement (3-5 pages: tentative cause & effect statements) – Problems = anomalies – Choose a suitable theory/model – Identify Independent Variables (IV) – Identify Dependent Variables (DV) – Identify Moderator Variables (MV) • Write clear Research Questions – How will the IVs affect the DVs among the MVs? – Develop the Hypotheses • Derive a Title from the Research Questions • Tip: RQ = Summary of Problem Statement
  20. 20. Information Processing Model Learning: process of Executive Motivation Encoding and decoding E Control N Stimuli/Knowledge items V into meaningful structures I Response Muscles cognitive using various Generator R O strategies N M Short Term/ Long E Sensory Working Term N Senses Register Memory Memory T
  21. 21. Piaget‛s theory Existing • Learning: Schema in equilibrium process of resolving New Information cognitive causes disequilibrium conflicts Assimilation Self-regulation Accomodation New Schema in equilibrium
  22. 22. How do we do it? • Expand from the Title – Expand concepts to content outline – Use cause and effect structure • Expand from the Research Questions • Expand from the Problem Statement • Take note of the – Academic Pecking Order – Sources of Knowledge – Who else has done this, in what paradigm, with what subjects, & with what results: go to ASKERIC, Google, etc. • Tip: Hypotheses are summaries for Lit. Review.
  23. 23. The Academic Pecking Order Innovators Developers No name dropping, Reporters padding Please! Students
  24. 24. Sources of Knowledge • Experience • Authority • Deductive Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning • Scientific Thinking/Research (Empirical studies)
  25. 25. Inductive Deductive Scientific Reasoning Reasoning Thinking Begins with a  Begins with theory that  specific explains an  observations  event  Detects forms  patterns & hypotheses  forms to test  Forms tentative Collects data/  hypotheses observations  to test to test H’thesis  Concludes with Confirms  a new theory original theory  Dari Sopiah Abdullah (2004)
  26. 26. How do you know you‛ve done a good job? • Does the review support every hypothesis? • Does the review support Chapter 5? • Up-to-date, thorough, exhaustive, original? • Can be turned into a book / a monograph?
  27. 27. Tuckman‛s (1999) criteria • Context • Magnitude (number of references) • How empirical & up-to-date • Connectedness to the problem • Well-organized? • Establish significance? • Convincing argument?
  28. 28. Let‛s try an example • Paradigm • Variables • Research Questions • Title • Literature Review Outline
  29. 29. How to improve learning?
  30. 30. Thank you

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