Birth and childhood
Alexander was born in July (the month of Loos Diary of Macedon) in 356 BC Pella,
capital of the Macedonia state. At this time, the genealogy goes back to two major
forms of ancient Greek tradition. The demigod Hercules was founder of the dynasty
ofArgos Macedonians and Neoptolemos, son of the hero Achilles, founded the
royal house of Molossians, a member of which was the Olympics. The legendary
origins of Alexander contributed decisively to the shaping of his character from the
first years of his life. Similarly, the education that his father made sure to get,
especially the assignment of the study the philosopher Aristotle.
in 340 BC Alexander stopped his studies and returned to Pella, where he took an
active part in political life in Macedonia. During the campaigns of Philip trusted the
government of Macedonia in Alexander. At the age of 16 years while his father was
missing in Byzantium, suppressed a rebellion Thracians. At the battle of Chaeronea
in 338 BC, Philip crushed the joint forces of Athens and Thebes, and Alexander led
his cavalry. After the defeat of the Athenians went to Athens in his father's.
Taking the power and prevalence in Greece
° After the assassination of Philip in 336 BC in Aiges, Alexander moved
quickly neutralize all potential claimants to the throne, whom he
conquered. Then he began campaigns to the north and south to
secure its borders. in spring 335 BC Alexander campaigned against
the lllyrians and Trivallon, and he went from Amfipoli to the Balkan in
ten days. After defeating the Thracians there, he went to the Danube,
defeated Trivallous and attempted attack against Geton, which he
had to stop because of the lllyrians. After he turned north and
subjugated the Agrianes and Paeonian, ensuring full sovereignty in
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George Nicholas Papanikolaou
born on May 13, 1883, in Kymi on the island of Euboea,
Greece, died on February 19, 1962
V Greek pioneer in cytology
and early cancer detection,
and the inventor of the "Pap smear".
/ studied at the University of
Athens and received his
'> . . .
medical degree in 1904.
/1910 received his Ph. D.
from the University of Munich, Germany
/1913 he emigrated to the
U. S. in order to work in the department of Pathology of New York
Hospital and the Department of Anatomy at the Weill Medical College
of Cornell University.
~/ Recognition of his work; publication, together with Herbert Traut, of
"Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear" in 1943.
He thus became known for his invention of
’ I the Papanicolaou test, commonly known as
the Pap smear or Pap test, which is used
worldwide for the detection and prevention
of cervical cancer and other cytologic
. diseases of the female reproductive system.
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x 1923; technique of gathering cellular debris from the
lining of the vaginal tract and smearing it on a glass
slide for microscopic examination as a way to identify
cervical cancer. ‘ '
x Study of vaginal ﬂuid in women,
in hopes of observing cellular changes
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over the course of a menstrual cycle. , (5% =
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x "The first observation of cancer cells in the
smear of the uterine cervix, " he later wrote,
"gave me one of the greatest thrills I ever
experienced during my scientiﬁc career. "
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x 1928 medical conference in Battle Creek,
Michigan; screening test for early detection of
cancerous and precancerous cells. at V 1
x 1941; paper on the diagnostic value of vaginal
smears in carcinoma of the uterus.
x 1954; "Atlas of Exfoliative Cytology", thus
creating the foundation of the modern medical
specialty of Cytopathology.
Odysseus Elytis was born on November 2, 1911 in Herakiion, Crete. It was the last of six children of
Panagiotis Alepoudelli and Many Vrana. His father came from the settlement of Panagiouda Kalamiaris
Lesvos was installed in the city of Herakiion in 1895, when together with his brother founded a factory
soap and pyrinelaiourgias. The oldest family name was Alepoudelli lemons, which later transformed into
a fox. His mother came from Pappados of the island.
in the summer of 1928 got the diploma of high school in Grade 7 and 3/11. After pressure from parents,
he decided to study chemical starting special schools for the exams next year. During the same period
came in contact with the work of Cavaphys and Kalvos renewing his acquaintance with the charming
ancient lyric poetry. Discovered while the work of Paul Eluard and the French surrealists, who had
greatly affected his ideas about literature, according to him: ". .. i was forced to watch too unscrupulous
to say the opportunities presented, the essence of the free exercise , the lyrical poetry "
Under the influence of the literary turn, he relinquished the intention to deal with the chemistry and in
1930 entered the Law School of Athens. When in 1933 founded the ideokratiki Philosophy Group at the
university, involving Tsatsos, P. Kanellopoulos, by I. and J. Theodorakopoulos Sykoutris, Elytis was one of
the representatives of students participating in "Saturday Symposia" arranged. At the same time
studying modern Greek poetry Caesar Emmanuel (the Parafono flute), the collections in the glitomou
chazi Theodore's Dora, the Shift (1931) Giorgos Seferis and Poems (1933) by Nikita rand. Enthusiastically
pursued while wandering in Greece.
During the years thatfollowed, Elytis continued the complex intellectual work. In 1978 he
received an honorary Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Saloniki and in 1979 won
the Nobel Prize for Literature. Announcingthe award of the prize by Swedish Academy was
held on 18 October "for his poetry, in a background of Greek tradition, with emotional
strength and mental acumen to life the struggle of modern man for freedom and creation"
Followingthe reasoning of the decision. Elytis attended the standard award ceremony on
December 10, 1979, take delivery of the prize by King Charles Gustavus, and knowing the
world public. The following year presented the gold medal and diploma prize at the Benaki
Museum. The award of the Nobel awards followed in Greece and abroad, among them a
tribute award at a special meeting of the Hellenic Parliament, the nomination of an honorary
doctorate from the Sorbonne University, the founding chair of Modern Greek Studies,
entitled "Seat Elytis" at Rutgers University in New Jersey, and awarded the silver medal
Benson from the Royal Literary Society in London.
He died on March 18, 1996 from cardiacarrest in Athens.
She turned herself from a
heavy woman into a
graceful and glamorous
one after a mid-career
weight loss, which
might have contributed
to her vocal decline and
l the premature end of
“I always felt I heard her
saying something — it was
never just singing notes.
That alone is an art. ”
/ September 1945, Callas made the ~
round of auditions fl :9 if "
/ Contract offered by Edward Johnson, H 4’ l
general manager of the Metropolitan ‘l° , ~
Opera ‘’“‘‘‘Zf. f
/ in a 1958 interview with The New York ~ f 1 '''''
Post; Johnson said “We offered her a V
contract. ..She was right in turning it » —‘— -
down—it was frankly a beginner's ‘ V“ ‘*
contract. " l ’-3
“Yes, but I don't like it. I have to do it,
but I don't like it at all because I don't
like the kind of voice I have. I really
hate listening to myself! ”