Sla glossary


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Some of the glossary from SLA

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  • Learning styles are the general approaches –for example, global or analytic, auditory or visual –that students use in acquiring a new language or in learning any other subject.
  • Sla glossary

    1. 1. Go Yeonghong Ph.D candidate Dept of Linguistic Science
    2. 2.  Defination: The behavior and techniques that individuals adopt in their efforts to learn L2.  The Good Language Learner (GLL) Strategies (Naiman, Frohlich, & Stern) ◦ 1. find a learning style that suits you ◦ 2. involve yourself in the language learning process ◦ 3. develop an awareness of language both as system and as communication ◦ 4. pay constant attention to expanding your language ◦ 5. develop the L2 as a separate system ◦ 6. take into account the demands that L2 learning imposes
    3. 3.  advance organisers: planning the learning activity in advance  directed attention: deciding to concentrate on general aspects of a learning task.  selective attention: deciding to pay attention to specific parts of the language input or the situation that will help learning.  self-management: trying to arrange the appropriate conditions for learning - "I sit in the front of the class so I can see the teacher".  advance preparation: planning the linguistic components for a forthcoming language task  self-monitoring: checking one's performance as one speaks  delayed production: deliberately postponing speaking so that one may learn by listening  self-evaluation: checking how well one is doing against one's own standards
    4. 4.  Definition: Characteristics of L2 learners that include a combination of personality traits and cognitive style.  Visual learners  Auditory learners  Tactile learners  Kinesthetic learners  Field-independent learners (also called analytic learners) like to concentrate on the details of language, such as grammar rules, and enjoy taking apart words and sentences.  Field-dependent learners (also known as global learners) focus on the whole picture and do not care so much about the details.  Reflective learners  Impulsive learners take risks with the language. They are more concerned with speaking fluently than speaking accurately, and so make more mistakes.
    5. 5.  Within processability theory, lemmas are words are processed without carrying any grammatical information or being associated with any ordering rules.  In morphology and lexicography, a lemma is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword). In English, for example, run, runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme, with run as the lemma.  In computational linguistics, a stem is the part of the word that never changes even when morphologically inflected, whilst a lemma is the base form of the verb. For example, from "produced", the lemma is "produce", but the stem is "produc-."
    6. 6.  The component of language that is concerned with words and their meanings.  In linguistics, the lexicon (or wordstock) of a language is its vocabulary, including its words and expressions
    7. 7.  L2 that functions as a tool for further learning, especially when books or journals in a desired field of study are not commonly published in the learner’s L1.-  Such as Latin, Jewish and other religious languages.
    8. 8.  The underlining knowledge of that speaker has of a language.  To know about the language components.
    9. 9.  The use of language knowledge in actual production.  To know about how to use it appropriately
    10. 10.  One of the three questions in language learning.  The question of how children achieve the final state of L1 development with ease and success when the linguistic system is very complex and their cognitive ability is not fully developed.
    11. 11.  An emphasis within the social perspective that is concerned with ◦ Global and national status of L1 and L2 ◦ Boundaries and identities ◦ Institutional forces and constraints ◦ Social categories ◦ Circumstances of learning ◦ effects of broad cultural , political and educational environments on L2 acquisition and use.
    12. 12.  Variation in Learner Language ◦ Linguistic contexts: ◦ Psychological contexts ◦ Microsocial contexts  Input and interaction  Interaction as the genesis of language  Acquisition without interaction and interaction without acquisition
    13. 13.  In linguistics, markedness refers to the way words are changed or added to give a special meaning. The unmarked choice is just the normal meaning. ◦ work/worked( refer to the past) actor-actress  In linguistics, markedness ranges over phonological, grammatical, and semantic oppositions, defining them in terms of 'marked' and 'unmarked' oppositions like honest (unmarked) vs. dishonest (marked).-wikipeida  Markedness refers to the relative frequency or generality of a given structure across the world’s languages.
    14. 14.  Ekman’s (1977) claim that unmarked features in L1 are more likely to transfer to L2. and that marked features of L2 will be harder to learn. ◦ Go-went-gone
    15. 15.  An approach that puts emphasis on the innate capacity of the language learner rather than on external factors of language learning.
    16. 16.  Refer to the study of all figurative language and to consider the other tropes as particular kinds of metaphor (Danesi 2003).  Metaphor, as a widespread feature of everyday thought and language, represents a central issue for both L2 ESP instructors and learners  An expression which involves the substitution of a similar but figurative element of language for a literal one, such as love is a river instead of love is a long process.
    17. 17.  The internally focused linguistic framework that follows Chomsky’s principles and parameters model. This framework adds distinctions between lexical and functional catergory development, as well as more emphasis on the acquisition of feature specification as a part of lexical knowledge.  Chomsky presents MP as a program, not as a theory, following Imre Lakatos's distinction. The MP seeks to be a mode of inquiry characterized by the flexibility of the multiple directions that its minimalism enables.  The Minimalist Program assumes that the language faculty consists of a cognitive system ( a computational system and a lexicon) responsible for storing information, and performance systems (the ”external” systems A-P and C-P interacting with the cognitive system at two interface levels of PF and LF respectively) responsible for using and accessing information.
    18. 18.  Inappropriate language production that results from some kind of processing failure such as a lapse in memory. Corder (1967) contracts these with errors and does not include them within error analysis procedures.  Mistakes are performance errors, which means the learner knows the system, yet fails to use it. Errors are results of lack of systematic competence.
    19. 19.  A store of conscious knowledge about L2 that is a product of learning (in Krashen’s usage) and is available for pursposes of editing or making changes in what has already been produced.  (grammar)
    20. 20.  An approach to SLA by Krashen(1978) that takes an internal focus on learners’ creative construction of language. ◦ Acquisition and learning are used in producing language. Acquired competence (subconscious knowledge) allows the learner to produce utterances while learned language (conscious language) serves as a monitor. The monitor allows correction of the language.
    21. 21.  An approach to SLA introduced by Dulay and Burt (19740 that focuses on the sequence in which specific English grammatical morphemes are acquired. Claims are made for a natural order.  It attempts to understand the nature of developmental sequences and claims that second language learners acquire in the same natural way as children learning their native language.