Learning styles are the general approaches –for example, global or analytic, auditory or visual –that students use in acquiring a new language or in learning any other subject.
Dept of Linguistic Science
Defination: The behavior and techniques that
individuals adopt in their efforts to learn L2.
The Good Language Learner (GLL) Strategies
(Naiman, Frohlich, & Stern)
◦ 1. find a learning style that suits you
◦ 2. involve yourself in the language learning process
◦ 3. develop an awareness of language both as system
and as communication
◦ 4. pay constant attention to expanding your language
◦ 5. develop the L2 as a separate system
◦ 6. take into account the demands that L2 learning
advance organisers: planning the learning activity in advance
directed attention: deciding to concentrate on general aspects of
a learning task.
selective attention: deciding to pay attention to specific parts of
the language input or the situation that will help learning.
self-management: trying to arrange the appropriate conditions
for learning - "I sit in the front of the class so I can see the
advance preparation: planning the linguistic components for a
forthcoming language task
self-monitoring: checking one's performance as one speaks
delayed production: deliberately postponing speaking so that
one may learn by listening
self-evaluation: checking how well one is doing against one's
Definition: Characteristics of L2 learners that include a
combination of personality traits and cognitive style.
Field-independent learners (also called analytic learners) like to
concentrate on the details of language, such as grammar rules,
and enjoy taking apart words and sentences.
Field-dependent learners (also known as global learners) focus
on the whole picture and do not care so much about the details.
Impulsive learners take risks with the language. They are more
concerned with speaking fluently than speaking accurately, and
so make more mistakes.
Within processability theory, lemmas are words are
processed without carrying any grammatical
information or being associated with any ordering
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma is the
canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a
set of words (headword). In English, for example, run,
runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme,
with run as the lemma.
In computational linguistics, a stem is the part of the
word that never changes even when morphologically
inflected, whilst a lemma is the base form of the verb.
For example, from "produced", the lemma is
"produce", but the stem is "produc-."
The component of language that is concerned
with words and their meanings.
In linguistics, the lexicon (or wordstock) of a
language is its vocabulary, including its
words and expressions
L2 that functions as a tool for further
learning, especially when books or journals in
a desired field of study are not commonly
published in the learner’s L1.-
Such as Latin, Jewish and other religious
The underlining knowledge of that speaker
has of a language.
To know about the language components.
The use of language knowledge in actual
To know about how to use it appropriately
One of the three questions in language
The question of how children achieve the
final state of L1 development with ease and
success when the linguistic system is very
complex and their cognitive ability is not fully
An emphasis within the social perspective
that is concerned with
◦ Global and national status of L1 and L2
◦ Boundaries and identities
◦ Institutional forces and constraints
◦ Social categories
◦ Circumstances of learning
◦ effects of broad cultural , political and educational
environments on L2 acquisition and use.
Variation in Learner Language
◦ Linguistic contexts:
◦ Psychological contexts
◦ Microsocial contexts
Input and interaction
Interaction as the genesis of language
Acquisition without interaction and
interaction without acquisition
In linguistics, markedness refers to the way
words are changed or added to give a special
meaning. The unmarked choice is just the normal
◦ work/worked( refer to the past) actor-actress
In linguistics, markedness ranges over
phonological, grammatical, and semantic
oppositions, defining them in terms of 'marked'
and 'unmarked' oppositions like honest
(unmarked) vs. dishonest (marked).-wikipeida
Markedness refers to the relative frequency or
generality of a given structure across the world’s
Ekman’s (1977) claim that unmarked features
in L1 are more likely to transfer to L2. and
that marked features of L2 will be harder to
An approach that puts emphasis on the
innate capacity of the language learner rather
than on external factors of language learning.
Refer to the study of all figurative language
and to consider the other tropes as particular
kinds of metaphor (Danesi 2003).
Metaphor, as a widespread feature of
everyday thought and language, represents a
central issue for both L2 ESP instructors and
An expression which involves the substitution
of a similar but figurative element of
language for a literal one, such as love is a
river instead of love is a long process.
The internally focused linguistic framework that follows
Chomsky’s principles and parameters model. This framework
adds distinctions between lexical and functional catergory
development, as well as more emphasis on the acquisition of
feature specification as a part of lexical knowledge.
Chomsky presents MP as a program, not as a theory, following
Imre Lakatos's distinction. The MP seeks to be a mode of inquiry
characterized by the flexibility of the multiple directions that its
The Minimalist Program assumes that the language faculty
consists of a cognitive system ( a computational system and a
lexicon) responsible for storing information, and performance
systems (the ”external” systems A-P and C-P interacting with the
cognitive system at two interface levels of PF and LF respectively)
responsible for using and accessing information.
Inappropriate language production that
results from some kind of processing failure
such as a lapse in memory. Corder (1967)
contracts these with errors and does not
include them within error analysis
Mistakes are performance errors, which
means the learner knows the system, yet
fails to use it. Errors are results of lack of
A store of conscious knowledge about L2 that
is a product of learning (in Krashen’s usage)
and is available for pursposes of editing or
making changes in what has already been
An approach to SLA by Krashen(1978) that
takes an internal focus on learners’ creative
construction of language.
◦ Acquisition and learning are used in producing
language. Acquired competence (subconscious
knowledge) allows the learner to produce
utterances while learned language (conscious
language) serves as a monitor. The monitor allows
correction of the language.
An approach to SLA introduced by Dulay and
Burt (19740 that focuses on the sequence in
which specific English grammatical
morphemes are acquired. Claims are made
for a natural order.
It attempts to understand the nature of
developmental sequences and claims that
second language learners acquire in the same
natural way as children learning their native