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Chronicles of journalism


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Chronicles of journalism

  1. 1. History Facts ” nationality” of journalism or how it’s done in other countries     ” A news sense is really a sense of what is important, what is vital, what has color and life - what people are interested in. That's journalism.”  Burton Rascoe
  2. 2. <ul><li>Journalism was born in Europe first in XVII century. To Russia it came one century later. With time passing journalism gained more importance in people’s lives. Today journalism is one of the leading powers in the world. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Jobs in journalism vary immensely, so it is important to decide exactly what path you wish to take. Here are just a few types of journalists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Newspaper reporters cover stories for community, metropolitan or national publications. Stories are often fast-breaking, so you must be flexible and able to think on your feet. Deadlines are typically tight, so be prepared to write with speed and accuracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Investigative reporters are employed by newspapers, magazines and television networks. Investigative journalism entails getting to the bottom of stories about politics, crime and various scandals. Necessary traits include the ability to discern fact from fiction and being a resourceful researcher. This is a &quot;no fluff&quot; type of job. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><ul><li>3.Foreign correspondents are employed by a media source in one country and stationed in a foreign land. They often cover government, religion, situations of political unrest, and are frequently placed in potentially dangerous environments. Although this line of journalism can be well-paying and quite high profile, in addition to the danger, foreign correspondents must travel extensively and often for extended periods of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.Broadcast journalists include television and radio reporters and news anchors. Such journalists specialize in &quot;straight reporting,&quot; with an emphasis on concise--rather than in-depth--coverage. In addition to needing sharp reporting and research skills, broadcast journalists must also have pleasing voices and a certain level of physical attractiveness. A less often considered area of broadcast journalism are writers of documentaries for both film or television. Documentaries give a journalist the opportunity to delve deeper into stories of interest. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><ul><li>5.Photojournalists use both film and still images to capture news events. Photojournalists are widely employed by all sources of media, including newspapers, magazines and television. An artistic eye as well as the ability to choose just the right moments to record for history are necessary. Photojournalists must be &quot;in the moment&quot; and are in place at events ranging from celebrity-rich awards shows to natural disasters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.Sports journalists report on popular sports for the radio, newspaper, and even online. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Online journalists focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on the 24/7 news cycle that‘s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>available on the web; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these journalists need to be fast. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Journalism is considered one of the most dangerous jobs of the 21 st century. Next to being a soldier, where it’s part of your job description to have people shooting at you, journalism rates as one of the most dangerous jobs in the world </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Journalists in Iraq are not only facing the danger that comes with working in a war zone, they are being hunted down and assassinated simply because they are suspected of cooperating with western news agencies, because of their religious or political affiliation, or because their murderers believe that killing journalists will advance their aims,&quot; said Timothy Balding, CEO of the Paris-based WAN </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists have been killed in 19 other countries this year: Afghanistan (1), Angola (2), Bangladesh (1), Brazil (1), China (2), Colombia (4), Democratic Republic of Congo (1), Ecuador (2), Guatemala (1), Guyana (6), India (2), Indonesia (1), Lebanon (2), Mexico (1), Pakistan (3), Russia (1), Somalia (1), Sri Lanka (5), Sudan (1), Turkmenistan (1) and Venezuela (2). </li></ul><ul><li>Several press freedom organizations track the number of journalists killed each year. The numbers vary based on the criteria used by different associations. WAN’s figures include all media workers killed in the line of duty or targeted because of their work. It also includes cases where the motive for the killings is unsure or where investigations have not been completed. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>No matter which branch of journalism interests you, there are a number of necessary traits that are common to all. Journalists must be inquisitive and have a &quot;nose for news.&quot; Good journalists must employ high ethics at all times. They must verify facts, be trustworthy with sensitive information and occasionally, must be willing to protect the source of their information if revealing it would put someone at risk. Additionally, they must be able to relate well to a wide variety of people and to adapt to constantly changing circumstances. Lastly, an unbiased attitude is required for almost all areas of journalism; these jobs require a neutral reporting of facts rather than opinions. The one exception to this rule is for columnists, who are employed specifically to offer personal commentary. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Sensationalism. It is sensationalistic news. Let me explain it: yellow journalism is when someone makes up news to attract readers. This first started in 1898 between Joseph Pulizter and William Randolph Hearst, who were owners of two New York newspapers (and they were also rivals). </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Journalism does not pursue truth in an absolute or philosophical sense, but it can--and must-pursue it in a practical sense. This &quot;journalistic truth&quot; is a process that begins with the professional discipline of assembling and verifying facts. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Journalists should be as transparent as possible about sources and methods so audiences can make their own assessment of the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Journalist should be accurate. Accuracy is the foundation upon which everything else is built--context, interpretation, comment, criticism, analysis and debate. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Newspaper journalists research and write stories for publication in local, regional and national press. Increasingly, they are also expected to write ‘platform neutral’ pieces, which will appear in print, online and in broadcast form.  </li></ul><ul><li>Junior reporters are allocated work from the news desk and submit stories to the news editor, who passes it on to a team of sub-editors. Multi-tasking may be involved on smaller papers, covering photography, sub-editing, illustration and layout. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper journalists cover many topics, including news, politics, culture, sport and science. They also write about local and national events, entertainment, lifestyle and human interest stories. Correspondents cover specific geographical areas, or specialist subjects. Feature writers produce more in-depth pieces with a personal voice. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Typical work activities include: </li></ul><ul><li>interviewing people in a range of different circumstances; </li></ul><ul><li>building contacts to maintain a flow of news, e.g. police and emergency services, local council, community groups, health trusts, press officers from a variety of organizations, the general public, etc.; </li></ul><ul><li>seeking out and investigating stories via your contacts, press releases and other media; </li></ul><ul><li>attending press conferences and asking questions; </li></ul><ul><li>attending a variety of events, such as council meetings, magistrates' court proceedings, football matches, talent contests, etc; </li></ul><ul><li>answering the phones on the news desk and reacting to breaking news stories; </li></ul><ul><li>working closely with the news team, photographers and editors; </li></ul><ul><li>recording interviews and meetings using shorthand or technical equipment; </li></ul><ul><li>producing concise and accurate copy according to the newspaper's house style, and to strict deadlines - daily papers may have several each day; </li></ul><ul><li>writing short ‘fillers’ to entertain, and researching and writing longer feature articles, sometimes for subsidiary publications and supplements; </li></ul><ul><li>creating and uploading news content for the newspaper website. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Many journalists focus their energies into reviews of particular art-based projects, such as movies, songs, albums, etc. A critic may start out on an unpaid or ‘little paid’ basis until he or she becomes a respected member of the critic community and makes contacts. Well-respected critics have the power to literally make or break a book, a movie, or an album. Many people are terrified of critics, but a compassionate critic with a real feel for his or her industry could make a very lucrative and interesting career. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Begin your job hunt at least a few months before you plan to start working at your new employer. Even when newspapers and magazines are in hiring mode, they tend to move slowly when hiring reporters. </li></ul><ul><li>Many jobs openings are announced the old-fashioned way: word-of-mouth. So, talk to alumni and professors, attend job fairs and conferences and make cold calls to places you'd like to work at. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Here are some of the most known and popular newspapers in America- </li></ul><ul><li>Wall Street Journal (New York)- 1,752,693 ; USA Today (Virginia)- 1,671,539 ; </li></ul><ul><li>New York Times (New York)- 1,086,293 ;Los Angeles Times(California)- 1,078,186 ; </li></ul><ul><li>St. Petersburg Times(Florida)- 314,427 ; Washington Post(District of Columbia)- 763,305 </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>1.”Izvestia”-comes out everyday. politics, culture, sport, medicine, TV program, weather. </li></ul><ul><li>2.”Nezavisimaya gazeta”- one of the leading newspapers. Concentrates on political, social and cultural sides of Russia inside and outside. </li></ul><ul><li>3.”Arguments and facts”-electron version of the real paper. </li></ul><ul><li>4.”Komsomolskaya Pravda”-coming out since 1925. Has an electron version. Articles on politics, economics, life, science, culture and sport. Has PDA and WAP versions. </li></ul><ul><li>5.”Kommersant”- newspapers and magazines. money, power, home, autopilot. </li></ul><ul><li>6.”Novaya gazeta”- daily newspaper. Articles about real facts, situations, problems in social and political lives. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>It's wrong to assume journalists lie because that's what they like to do and not everybody does lie. Credibility is a big thing with journalism and people get sued more than you'd think because of libel. </li></ul><ul><li>Most journalists don't. Fake, fictional journalists do. But no matter what piece of work someone writes it will always be biased to some degree. </li></ul><ul><li>It may happen for such reasons </li></ul><ul><li>as to sensationalize a story, a good </li></ul><ul><li>story sells copies and the journalist </li></ul><ul><li>is rewarded with a higher salary, </li></ul><ul><li>more newsworthy reports, fame, etc. </li></ul>
  18. 20.      “ People may expect too much of journalism. Not only do they expect it to be entertaining, they expect it to be true.”  Lewis H. Lapham “ It's amazing that the amount of news that happens in the world every day always just exactly fits the newspaper.” Jerry Seinfeld We can't quite decide if the world is growing worse, or if the reporters are just working harder.  ~ The Houghton Line , November 1965
  19. 21. Quotes “ Trying to determine what is going on in the world by reading newspapers is like trying to tell the time by watching the second hand of a clock. ” ~Ben Hecht In the real world, the right thing never happens in the right place and the right time.  It is the job of journalists and historians to make it appear that it has.  ~Mark Twain “ The secret of successful journalism is to make your readers so angry they will write half your paper for you.”  ~C.E.M. Joad