Identifying field of research and justifying the choice1. Why is a bird, or flock of birds coming into contact with an airplane an issue?2. When do bird strikes occur?3. What parts of an airplane are most often affected by bird strikes?4. Why Birds Like Airports?5. What can airlines do to reduce the incidence of bird strikes?6. Why Bird Strikes Still Happen…
• Since I selected cabin crew job as my profession it is essential for me to understand the bird hit the types of damage and the effect on the safety of the aircraft and the passengers so that I can assure the passenger and calm them down as very often the passengers get panache during such situations
AcknowledgementI am really thankful for our aviation faculty for helping me to complete this research and I am also grateful to frankfinn for providing an opportunity to learn about Aviation.
HypothesisI propose to study the causes of bird strikes occur, what parts of an airplane are most often affected by bird strikes, Why Birds Like Airports, What dose airlines do to reduce the incidence of bird strikes and Why dose Bird Strikes Still Happen…
Primary and secondary sources Data Primary source Secondary source Internet News papersDiscussion with Magazineaviation faculty
Review schedule Identifying field of10-sec 2010 research and 15-sec 2010 What parts of an Hypothesis airplane are most often affected by 16-sec 201011-sec 2010 What is bird strike? bird strikes?12-sec 2010 Why is a bird, or flock 17-sec 2010 of birds coming into What are airlines do contact with an to reduce the13-sec 2010 airplane an issue? 18-sec 2010 incidence of bird strikes?14-sec 2010 When do bird strikes 19-sec 2010 occur?
Review schedule20-sec 2010 Modifying Habitat 25-sec 2010 The Times of India Modifying Bird recent Bird-hit news21-sec 2010 26-sec 2010 Behavior Modifying Plane22-sec 2010 27-sec 2010 Final review Behavior Why Bird Strikes Still 28-sec 201023-sec 2010 Happen… corrections FAA Wildlife Strike Presentation &24-sec 2010 Database 29-sec 2010 submission
Methods for conducting the research I will go through all the articles in theinternet. I will read all the magazines andall the articles available in it and critically analyze the essential matter ill try and meet the cabin crew who have actually experienced the bird hit and record their experience/statments
Code of ethics1.I shall put in my 100% in doing this project2. I shell be sincere towards my work3. I will not commit plagiarism4. I shill bring my work during the decided time for reviews5.I will not offend the society by touching on any sensitive issues6.I will keep the confidentiality of the matter to my project and to the institute7. I shall not do anything that will spoil the reputation of the frankfinn institute
Definition of bird strike A bird strike or bird aircraft strikehazard is a collision between a bird (oneor more than one) and an aircraft. Geeseand gulls are two birds that often causedamage because of their weight and size.
Why is a bird, or flock of birds coming into contact with an airplane an issue? Birds are athreat to safety for crewand passengers onboard as they cancause a great deal ofdamage to an airplanein a short period oftime. Sometimes thelack of time to recovercan lead to injuries orfatalities.
When do bird strikes occur? Bird strikes most often occur during take-off or landing, or during low altitude flight, when an airplane is most likely to be sharing the same airspace as a bird. Occasionally, they occur at higher altitudes. Take-offs can be particularly dangerous, given the higher speeds and the angle of ascent. If a bird gets caught in an engine during take-off it can greatly affect the functionality of the engine. Not all encounters with a moving airplane and a moving bird lead to major damage. The most common time for damaging bird strikes to occur is during spring and fall migration periods when birds are flying in groups.
What parts of an airplane aremost often affected by bird strikes? Usually theNose, Engine orforward part of anaircrafts wing areaffected.
Why Birds Like Airports Large flocks of birds are hazardous toaircraft, and unfortunately birds enjoy the habitataround many busy airports. Because airports areplaced on the fringe of large urban centers, theyfrequently have large tracts of unused, undevelopedland surrounding them as noise and safety buffers. Itis that undeveloped land that is attractive to birds,particularly as suitable habitat shrinks due to urbanexpansion. Many airports are also near substantialwetlands or drainage ponds – water is a superb noisedampener – which is attractive to migratory waterfowl,gulls and other large birds that can present the mostdangerous threats to aircraft.
What are airlines do to reducethe incidence of bird strikes? Airports have initiatives thatare commonly known as bird managementor bird control. Areas around theaerodrome are made as unappealing aspossible to birds. Also, devices are used toscare off birds - sounds, lights, decoyanimals, and dogs are a few examples.
There are three general ways tominimize airplane bird strikes: 1.Modifying the birds’ habitat, 2.Controlling the birds’ behavior 3.Modifying the aircrafts’ behavior. Airports that have had the mostsuccess with minimizing bird strikes haveemployed all three methods throughvarious techniques.
Modifying Habitat Modifying the habitat surrounding an airportso it will not appeal to birds is an easy way toencourage wild birds to seek alternative roosting andfeeding grounds. Effective measures include:1.Removing seed-bearing plants to eliminate foodsources2.Using insecticides or pesticides to eliminate foodsources for insect-eating birds3.Covering nearby ponds with netting to prevent birdsfrom landing4.Removing brush and trees that serve as attractivenesting sites
Modifying Bird Behavior Several methods can be used to effectivelymodify birds’ behavior so they will not stay near an airport.These techniques do not harm the birds but encourage themto avoid the airport. 1.Using sonic cannons, recorded predator calls and othernoise generators to disrupt birds 2.Using lasers at dawn and dusk to simulate predators andscare birds away 3.Flying trained falcons over roosting areas or training dogsto track through the habitat and teach birds that the area hasmany predators 4.As a last resort, birds may be captured and relocated ifthey cannot be encouraged to leave the area naturally.
Modifying Plane Behavior Learning to work with the birds bymodifying flight paths and schedules can helpminimize bird strikes. While these methods may not befeasible at all airports, they can be used to help theairport work in harmony with the wildlife surrounding it. 1.Training spotters with binoculars and scopes topinpoint hazardous birds areas and directing planes todifferent runways or approaches 2.Using radar equipment to track the movement anddensity of bird flocks to predict their behavior andmanage other control techniques more effectively 3.Adjusting flight times to avoid the busiest hours forbird activity, such as early morning and late evening
Why Bird Strikes Still Happen… Despite the best useof multiple deterrent methodsand wildlifemanagement, airplane birdstrikes still happen. As airportsbecome busier and scheduleflights with greater frequencyand alternative habitatscontinue to shrink, more andmore birds will seek refugenear airports, causingpotentially dangeroussituations. Airports mustconstantly be on the alert forother fliers in the skies, and asnew control and deterrenttechniques are developed, it ishoped that bird strikes cancontinue to be minimized.
• Bird strikes are a significant threat to flight safety, and have caused a number of accidents with human casualties. The number of major accidents involving civil aircraft is quite low and it has been estimated that there is only about 1 accident resulting in human death in one billion flying hours. The majority of bird strikes (65%) cause little damage to the aircraft; however, the collision is usually fatal to the bird.• Most accidents occur when the bird hits the windscreen or flies into the engines. These cause annual damages that have been estimated at $400 million within the United States of America alone and up to $1.2 billion to commercial aircraft worldwide.
FAA Wildlife Strike Database• The FAA Wildlife Strike Database contains records of reported wildlife strikes since 1990. Strike reporting is voluntary. Therefore, this database only represents the information we have received from airlines, airports, pilots, and other sources. (http://wildlife- mitigation.tc.faa.gov/wildlife/ strikeedit.aspx)
Quick Facts On FAA• The FAA has maintained a wildlife strike database since 1990.• The FAA wildlife strike database has recorded over 121,000 (Civil and USAF) wildlife strikes between 1990 and 2010.• 92% of the bird strikes to commercial aircraft occur at or below 3,500 ft AGL (above ground level).• In 2010, 52% of the birds struck were identified to the species level.• During the five years between 2006 - 2010, there was an average of 26 strikes reported each day.
The Times of India recent Bird- hit news• Bird-hit plane lands safely(TNN Aug 9, 2011, 04.20am IST) VISAKHAPATNAM: More than a hundred passengers of a Jet Airways flight coming from Mumbai had a lucky escape after the plane was hit by a bird during landing at Visakhapatnam airport on Monday afternoon. A bird got sucked into the engine a few minutes before the Mumbai-Vizag flight was to land around 12.40 pm. However, the pilot managed to land the plane smoothly. The return flight was cancelled. About 100 passengers, who were to travel to Mumbai for the 1 pm return flight, had to take alternative flights. Some of them cancelled their journey, sources said.
• Kingfisher plane suffers bird hit at airport, passengers safe (PTI Nov 15, 2010, 11.46am IST) MUMBAI: A Kingfisher aircraft from Delhi with 160 people on board Monday suffered a bird hit while landing at the airport here that left its engine damaged. All the 153 passengers and seven crew members who were on flight IT-302 flight are safe, an airline spokesperson said, adding the aircraft has been grounded after the incident that occurred around 9 AM this morning.
• Kingfisher, Air India plane suffer bird hit, tyre burst (Written on 15 Nov, 2010 at 17:14 in India) New Delhi/Lucknow: In two air incidents, an Air India aircraft had a tyre-burst while landing and a Kingfisher plane suffered a bird hit during take-off today but around 300 persons who were on board the planes were safe. Passengers of the Varanasi-bound Air India flight from Mumbai had a miraculous escape as the plane suffered a tyre-burst during landing for a scheduled halt at the Amausi airport in Lucknow this morning, airport sources in Lucknow said.The sources said there were around 150 passengers and crew on board IC-195 and all are safe. Air India officials were not available for comments.
• Delhi-bound plane bird hit, makes emergency landing (Chinmayi Shalya, TNN Oct 9, 2010, 06.34am IST) MUMBAI: Bird menace around the runway at Mumbai airport came in the way of smooth flight movements on Friday morning, forcing one flight to return mid-way and another to do a go-around. A Kingfisher flight to Delhi suffered a bird-hit and returned to Mumbai airport after 12 minutes of being air-borne. Just as the Kingfisher flight took off from Mumbai airport at 6.21 am, the pilot heard a loud thud on the right side and suspected a bird-hit. Since the aircraft, an Airbus A321, had already crossed its decision speed, the pilot was unavailable to abort take-off. He immediately informed the Air Traffic Control (ATC) and asked for a priority landing. The flight landed safely at 6.33 am with 120 passengers on board. The passengers were later moved to another aircraft, which left Mumbai at 8:45 am. Officials said that the engine of the aircraft suffered significant damage and it seemed that a "big bird`` had hit the aircraft. An airline spokesperson confirmed the incident.
• Dabolim: In a second such incident in two days, an Air India flight travelling from Kuwait to Chennai via Goa was hit by a bird while landing at the Dabolim airport on Saturday morning. The flight had 123 passengers and six crew on board. No injuries were reported. Airport officials told TOI that the incident occurred at around 7.45am as the plane was in the process of landing. "Air Traffic Control noticed a bird hit the engine. The bird was comparatively smaller (than Thursdays kite that hit the ArkeFly plane) and the pilot appeared not to have noticed the hit. ATC immediately alerted the pilot. The landing was however smooth and soon after passengers were disembarked, the aircraft was taken to the civil enclave where the damage to the engine was repaired," said airport officials. The flight left for Chennai at 11.05am, almost three hours after its scheduled departure of 8.20am. Meanwhile, the ArkeFly aircraft that suffered damages to its right wing after the bird-hit also left for Amsterdam on Saturday at 11.30am. The plane was repaired by a team of experts flown in especially from the Netherlands .
SummaryThe assignment emphasizes about what the causes of bird strikes occur, what parts of an airplane are most often affected by bird strikes, Why Birds Like Airports, What dose airlines do to reduce the incidence of bird strikes and Why dose Bird Strikes Still Happen…
Conclusion The assignment was a very greatsource of knowledge for me. From thisassignment, I come to know what is a birdstrike. what the causes of bird strikesoccur. what parts of an airplane are mostoften affected by bird strikes. What doseairlines do to reduce the incidence of birdstrikes and Why dose Bird Strikes StillHappen… so , I can conclude that the assignmentwas a great learning experience for me
Feature research If I get a chance to do researchagain, I would like to research on thehospitality. My topic for the research wouldbe on seven star hotels.My question for hypothesis would be-“Dose seven star hotels really existsand if exists then what make thedifference between five star and sevenstar hotels”