Key learning / 21st Century skills


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  • Developed by Art Costa, currently a Professor of Education at the state university of California – and were originally called the12 intelligent behaviours.   The “12 intelligent behaviours” were identified and developed by Costa based on a wide range of educational research. The name was changed from ‘intellegent behaviours’ to HOM because Costa thought that a behaviour was something you could do as a once off act, and he wanted something far more habitual.
  • Participants refer to handout *‘ Understanding the HOM.” Give background to activity ie yr 10 exercise Agi does with her class each year to get students to process the HOM. Referring participants to the last page of the handout ‘short term goals’ explain how students must identify their 3 weakest HOM (from the ranking activity participants have just completed) and, for each HOM, they had to identify 3 strategies for how they were going to improve it. The following two slides are excerpts from past year 10 student evaluations of their progress of improving a chosen Hom.
  • One of they ways that the school has encouraged teachers to implement thinking skills into all classrooms is through the appraisal process and forming action learning teams. Being the head of science I am responsilbe for the appraisal and review of some 13 staff. All staff have as their first goal to be part of an action learning team. That team is decided by the individual teachers, as is their AL topic, however, as a facilitator, I strongly encourage staff to focus their AL on implementing aspects of our powerful learning map or our generic skills and attributes chart (which you we be shown by Cara in a little while) One of my science staff formed a team with the music and drama teachers of a year 7 class and decided to focus part of their Al on developing The HOM with their students. Each week, each student had to choose a particular HOM that they would like to improve, and using the 6 thinking hats as a thinking tool and scaffold, they had to fill in an online templete. You have copies in your folders for 2 students and their comments for week 3. Take your time latter to read them.
  • Key learning / 21st Century skills

    1. 1. Learning to Learn
    2. 2. Aims .. * .... To explore why more and more schools are developing "Learning to Learn" curricula; * .... To look at a range of approaches to "Learning to learn"; including 'Alite', 'Building Learning power' and 'Habits of Mind'; * .... To ask how these relate to the idea of a competency based curriculum; * .... To help establish how these approaches are essentially different from study skills.
    3. 3. “ The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” Alvin Toffler Alameda Community Learning Center , California
    4. 5. Building Learning Power
    5. 6. Resilience – being ready, willing and able to lock on to learning. <ul><li>Absorption - Flow; the pleasure of being rapt in learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing distractions - Recognising and reducing interruptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Noticing - Really sensing what’s out there. </li></ul><ul><li>Perseverance - Stickability; tolerating the feelings of learning </li></ul>
    6. 7. Resourcefulness – Being ready, willing and able to learn in different ways . <ul><li>Questioning - getting below the surface; playing with situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Making links - seeking coherence, relevance and meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Imagining - using the mind’s eye as a learning theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning – thinking rigorously and methodically </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalising - making good use of resources </li></ul>
    7. 8. Reflectiveness - being ready, willing and able to become more strategic about learning <ul><li>Planning - Working learning out in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Revising - Monitoring and adapting along the way. </li></ul><ul><li>Distilling - Drawing out the lessons from experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-learning - Understanding learning, and yourself as a learner. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Reciprocity - Being ready, willing and able to learn alone and with others <ul><li>Interdependence - Balancing self-reliance and sociability. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration - The skills of learning with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy and listening - Getting inside others’ minds </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation - Picking up others’ habits and values </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>1. Collecting, analysing and organising information </li></ul><ul><li>2. Communicating ideas and information </li></ul><ul><li>3. Planning and organising activities </li></ul><ul><li>4. Working with others and in teams </li></ul><ul><li>5. Using mathematical ideas and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>6. Solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>7. Using technology </li></ul><ul><li>( The Mayer Report , Mayer, E (Chair) 1992, Key Competencies Report of the Committee to advise the Australian Education Council and Ministers of Vocational Education, Employment and Training, on employment related Key Competencies for post-compulsory education and training. Canberra.) </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Enterprise skills overlap with the Key Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>identified by the Mayer Committee. </li></ul><ul><li>accepting responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>communicating </li></ul><ul><li>initiating ideas </li></ul><ul><li>negotiating for successful outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>planning activities </li></ul><ul><li>taking and managing risk </li></ul><ul><li>being flexible </li></ul><ul><li>evaluating own and others' performance </li></ul><ul><li>making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>organising and managing resources </li></ul><ul><li>solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>thinking creatively. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Queen Elizabeth Community College, Devon <ul><li>Key Skills for Success </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Creative innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Literate in word, number and informatics </li></ul><ul><li>Able to learn new things quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Able to use new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Able and confident communicators </li></ul><ul><li>Great team workers </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally well grounded </li></ul><ul><li>Fit and healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Politically aware citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Self-motivated and responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Possessors of a wide range of interests </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>“ L2 puts exciting learning, study and thinking skills, collaborative problem solving, formative assessment and ICT into the one approach – brilliant” </li></ul><ul><li>Derek Wise Head Teacher, Cramlington Community High School </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>The 5Rs: </li></ul><ul><li>resilience, </li></ul><ul><li>resourcefulness, </li></ul><ul><li>reasoning, </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility and </li></ul><ul><li>reflectivity – </li></ul><ul><li>Together with thinking and ICT skills. </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Resourcefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering </li></ul><ul><li>Reflectiveness </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>School is like the launch pad for a spaceship </li></ul><ul><li>“ All the ‘life support’ systems remain attached until that moment of lift-off when, while it is always in communication with the command centre, the spaceship is ‘on its own.’ So, too, must we prepare students to take command of themselves; to establish feedback systems for self-guidance; and constantly to monitor their own progress toward their destination, making small manoeuvres and mid-course corrections along the way. Similarly, a student’s education must provide experiences by which students gradually learn to take charge of their own learning, to become increasingly more aware of their behaviours and their effects on others, and to strengthen their fortitude and resilience to self-correct and self-modify. Thus, the school becomes a launch pad for a life of self-directed learning.” </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur L. Costa / Bena Kallick </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Strategies for Self-Directed Learning </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>“ A ‘Habit of Mind’ means having a disposition towards behaving intelligently when confronted with problems, the answers to which are not immediately known” </li></ul><ul><li>Costa and Kallick. </li></ul>
    17. 18. “ What behaviours are indicative of the efficient, effective problem solver? Just what do human beings do when they behave intelligently? Research in effective thinking and intelligent behaviour Feuerstein (1980), Glatthorn and Baron (1985), Sternberg (1985), Perkins (1985) and Ennis (1985) indicates that there are some identifiable characteristics of effective thinkers. These are not necessarily scientists, artists, mathematicians or the wealthy who demonstrate these behaviours. These characteristics have been identified in successful mechanics, teachers, entrepreneurs, salespeople and parents – people in all walks of life.” Costa and Kallick. What is a Habit of Mind?
    18. 20. “ I reckon my first goal, ‘managing impulsivity’, is achieved because I tend to control my emotion easily and never show my bad-tempered side. This is shown when I never loss my temper or revenge even though a person offended me. However, ‘creating, imagining and innovating’, is the one where I have put in most effort in because I am lack in creativity and I think I am too indolent to abandon the traditional way of thinking. Furthermore, I think I have to improve my ‘questioning and problem solving’ goal too because I am lack asking questions even though I do not understand something, this is probably due to my shyness which is shown when I tend to be quiet in the class.” A male year 10 student (ESL) YEAR 10 STUDENT EVALUATIONS OF CHOSEN HOM
    19. 21. “ In order to think about my own thinking, I would have to take time out and look through how I came up with the end result. The down side of doing this thinking while also trying to solve the problems is that I can easily forget the method of solving the actual problem. The best time that I could try to think about how I solved a problem (maths questions would be the best time for the thinking process to begin), I will be able to see the way I thought of the method and then I will be able to see of this can be applied to my other questions ( if it was for maths.) Therefore, using metacognition does help in the way that we think and also in the way in which we can use this thinking to aid our situations.” A female year 10 student. YEAR 10 STUDENT EVALUATIONS OF CHOSEN HOM
    20. 24. http:// /
    21. 25. “ The greater part of our happiness or misery depends on our dispositions, and not on our circumstances.&quot; Martha Washington
    22. 26. Stephen Heppell Communication Collaboration Critiquing Creativity
    23. 27. <ul><li>&quot; information-driven curriculum is unlikely to be able to equip young people adequately for adult life in the new century. The National Curriculum is this kind of curriculum. It struggles to cope with the competing demands of subjects and the struggle gets harder as the volume of information increases. Meanwhile it neglects the development of the competences and skills that young people will need to survive and succeed in their future world...&quot; (RSA 2005) </li></ul>
    24. 28. <ul><li>Competences for Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Competences for Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Competences for Relating to People </li></ul><ul><li>Competences for Managing Situations </li></ul><ul><li>Competences for Managing Information </li></ul>
    25. 31. <ul><li>Summary of main findings </li></ul><ul><li>There was some evidence of improved progress in literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Using a competency based curriculum has helped </li></ul><ul><li>improve pupils’ learning after transition from primary, as reflected in value added data. </li></ul><ul><li>Students were more engaged in learning than in previous years. </li></ul><ul><li>Students improved their ability to transfer skills across the curriculum and beyond the school gates. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents were overwhelmingly supportive of the Opening Minds curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers involved in teaching Opening Minds felt invigorated and inspired in their professional lives. </li></ul>
    26. 32. <ul><li>Strands </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing yourself as a learner </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Learning effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Planning future learning effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Taking hold of your learning </li></ul><ul><li>The four (five?) Rs </li></ul>The Island Learner
    27. 33. <ul><li>The nine generic skills are: </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Collaboration skills </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Information technology skills </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Numeracy skills </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Problem-solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Self-management skills </li></ul><ul><li>➩ Study skills </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Learning to Learn - The Way Forward in Curriculum&quot; EDB Sept 2001 </li></ul>
    28. 34. Coaching others / setting learning targets / options Team Learner / learning and team roles Creative thinking … what is it? Strategies for doing it. Learning and thinking together / Learning conversations / individual target setting Critical thinking / PMI / Six thinking hats / Cognitive organisers The attributes of a great learner / what do we mean by success? Questioning Exploratory talk as a learning tool / speaking and listening Language and learning Year 9 Year 8 Approaches to learning Year 7
    29. 35. <ul><li>Year 7 </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of learner am I? </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning and me. </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory talk as a tool for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking and listening triads. </li></ul><ul><li>How to ask the right questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing home learning – and coping with stress </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction to generic learning skills – “The Four Rs”. </li></ul>The Island Learner
    30. 36. <ul><li>Year 8 </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a good learner? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by success? </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive organisers and how to use them. </li></ul><ul><li>Imitating good learning habits / role models / “raiding and reusing”. </li></ul><ul><li>How to persist intelligently. </li></ul><ul><li>How do teams work and learn well together? </li></ul><ul><li>Target setting formality or continual part of iterative learning? </li></ul>The Island Learner
    31. 37. <ul><li>Year 9 </li></ul><ul><li>What is creativity? </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at some strategies for developing creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Review of creative approaches adopted in subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>How to be creative in teams / what are your preferred roles in collaborative learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching others and why it is good for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways of knowing / enquiry and questions </li></ul><ul><li>Planning your future in learning. </li></ul>The Island Learner