WRM Financing in Thailand
Sharing Knowledge on WRM Financing in SEA
3 October 2013
by Dr.Patarapol Kriek-sakul
WRM Financing in Thailand
• Why WRM Financing (Framework)
• Status of WR-M in Thailand
– Status of WR
– Existing Institutions
– Challenges on WRM in Thai Context
• Challenges of WRM Financing in Thailand
Water is limited, difficult to control, easily to be polluted, and could
cause social conflicts and public health,
therefore water resources management
is “everyone business”
Four challenges for water management
The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 identifies four main challenges that
must be addressed through improved management of water resources:
1. Increased competition between water users (farmers, energy suppliers,
industries, households, ecosystems) intensifies to access the resource.
2. Untreated wastewater from cities (primarily in non-OECD countries) and
effluents from agriculture deteriorate water quality in several regions.
3. The number of city dwellers and the value of economic assets at risks of floods
4. The number of city dwellers without access to water supply has increased over
the last two decades. The situation is even direr as regards sanitation.
Four principles provide a framework to help governments ensure
adequate financing is available to effectively manage
o The Polluter Pays principle creates conditions to make pollution a costly
activity, to alleviate pollution, and compensate for welfare loss;
o The Beneficiary Pays principle allows for the sharing the financial burden of
water resources management across public and private actors;
o Equity is often invoked to address affordability or competitiveness issues, when
water bills are disproportionate with users' capacity to pay; and
o Coherence between policies that affect water resources is essential to ensure
that policies are mutually supportive and do not work against each other.
Land Extent: 514,000 sq. km. (51.4 Million ha.)
River Basins: 25 (254 sub-basins)
Rainfall Received Annually: 1,700 Million Mm3
Integrated Basin Management Plan
- Water Resources Potential
- Socio-Economic Data
- Participatory Stakeholders
- Dialogue I
- Dialogue II
Integrated Work Plan
- Organization Plan
- Provincial Plan
- Raw Water Sources Provision
and Development Plan
- Water Allocation and Use Plan
- Water Sources Conservation Plan
- Flood/Drought Control Plan
- Water Quality Improvement Plan
- Structure Measures
- Non-Structure Measures
- Short, Medium and Long-Term Plan
- Dialogue III
- River Basin
Water Supply VS Water Demand
2004 Annual average water runoff
in m3 per person per year
Source: Department of Water Resources (DWR), 2007
Increasing Water Demand
In 2004, the population was 62 million and the average water demand was 57,000 Mm3, of
which 90 percent was used for agriculture.
Water demand in the North-Central and East areas has already exceeded water storage.
Water demand is expected to be 77,000 Mm3 in 2024 when the population is expected to
reach 73 million.
In 2004, the population was 62 million the average water demand was 57,000 M
(90 % for agriculture)
2024, the Water demand is expected to be 77,000 Mm3, population is expected to
reach 73 million.
1989-2003, drought affected 13 million people and destroyed 46 million rai of
agricultural land, costing 4.5 billion Baht (an average of 200 million Baht per
Number of villages with risks for drought by region
In agricultural areas, drought can cause serious damage to local production
and to farmers‟ dwellings.
During 1989-2003, drought affected 13 million people and 46 million rai of
agricultural land, costing 4.5 billion Baht (an average of 200 million Baht per year).
The cost of the 1999 drought alone was estimated at over 1.5 billion Baht.
Farmers facing economic and financial risk due to climate
changes and water-related emergencies
only 33 percent of agriculture
land is irrigated or has access
to small water schemes.
About two million households
benefit from irrigation
and small-scale water
about 857,000 agricultural households do not have access to water for
More than half of the rivers have acceptable water quality, one-third are
degraded or polluted. (WB, 2003)
Expanding wastewater treatment is very capital intensive and is a major
From 95 wastewater treatment plants around th country, there are 7 in Bangkok;
84 in municipalities; 2 in Pattaya; and, 2 in sub-districts.
The designed capacity of these treatment plants is approximately 3 Mm3/day, but
many of them experience low efficiency due to low BOD of the incoming waste.
World Bank Impact Assessment (2011) Loss: 640,049 M
In Agriculture: 17,842 M in Industry: 513,881 M ; in Transport and Communication:
22,879 M ; in Infrastructure: 42,714 M ; in Housing and Accommodation: 45,908 M
Department of Water Resources (DWR) data suggests that during the past 10
years, floods occurred in about 10,000 villages, of which 312 were classified as
high flood risk, where floods occurred 8-10 times a year.
All these villages are located in the North-Central or the Northeast. Most of these
were backwater floods (overflow of rivers and streams). There are an additional
1,577 villages at
risk of flash floods due to heavy rain and rapid water runoff.
National Budget on Water Resources Management
Source: Bureau of Budget (2011)
The total budget for 2010 and 2011 are 1.7 trillion Baht and 2 trillion Baht, respectively. About
0.5-2% have been allocated for water resources management,
Monitoring and Evaluation on WRM investment
Benchmarks-Parameters: Participation Process, Efficiency, Effectiveness,
Output, and Outcome have been applied to different types of investments.
1. Collective decision making in Public Policy Process
• Water allocation. Flexible but with clear guidelines and regulation.
• Access to clean and safe water. Tap water to all communities.
Irrigated water reach the farm plots, especially vulnerable groups or
people at the tail ends.
• Multi-stakeholders engagement.
2. Coping with Risks in WRM
• Guidelines and careful planning to reduce the flood-drought prone
• Improve and have quality control over the natural water resources
for the piped water in the central, north, and northeast regions.
• Standardization of underground water use, especially where there
is no service of piped water.
3. Promoting Water governance
Flexible WRM, responsive to the needs of the stakeholders
and the local context.
Capacity building and institutional development to find the
solutions in water related problems
Legislative framework incorporates indigenous customary law
and traditional environmental management procedures.
Technical assistance in drafting the water laws is an
Regular review and amendment of environmental legislation.