Editorial the total CEE population lives in such small and dispersed communities. Providing these people with the appropriate sanitation will and strengthening of river basin organisa- tions. Dear reader, improve the environmental conditions and The beginning of the year was marked by I am pleased to introduce Water Talk 1/2006, promote social and economic development many important events, such as the World the newsletter of the Central and Eastern Eu- of the rural areas. Wetland Day on February 2, the World Water ropean water stakeholders. This issue brings Day on March 22 as well as the largest glo- insight into GWP CEE activities and news Based on an invitation from Ukraine stake- bal water festival, the World Water Forum on from our partner’s organisations throughout holders to assist them in IWRM planning, March 16-22. This year, GWP is celebrating the region. GWP CEE in the cooperation with the State its 10th anniversary in August in Stockholm. Committee on Water Management organised Dear readers, you are all invited to contrib- Last year, GWP CEE launched a new initia- the ﬁrst stakeholders meeting in Ukraine on ute to Water Talk with your stories and news. tive on sustainable sanitation in rural set- December 1-2, 2005. The meeting set up a If you would like to receive more copies or tlements under 2000 inhabitants. A recent framework for improved co-ordination and simply have any comments on this issue, feel study, carried out by the Country Water Part- communication on water- related issues, free to contact us. nerships indicated that 20 to 40 percent of practical application of IWRM, establishment Editor and other water management organizations; theThe GWP CEE family gets bigger CREDIT: GWP CEE/R. MULLER Ukrainian Scientiﬁc Institute of Water Manage- ment and Ecology Problems; Ukrhydrometcenter; Institute of Water Engineering and Land-reclama- tion of UAAS; NGO “Ukrainian Rivers Network”; the Ukrainian Center for Water and Environmen- tal Projects (UCEWP); NGO MAMA-86; Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Chemistry of Water of UNAS; the Closed joint-stock company “Ukrvod- proekt” and the State Institute of Management and the Economics of Water Resources. At the end of the meeting, the participants repre- senting a variety of state, regulative, water man- agement, academic, business and civil society organisations, adopted the so called Bortchini res- olution. In the resolution, they decided to launch an interim initiative group on the establishment of the Ukrainian Water Partnership (UWP). The tasks of the interim initiative group will include the dis- tribution of information on GWP, preparationParticipants of the stakeholders meeting in Kiev and submission of the UWP application forms toTO ASSIST UKRAINE IN IWRM PLANNING, GWP the next section, the Ukrainian stakeholders pre- both GWP and Ukrainian authorities, in coopera-CEE IN COOPERATION WITH THE STATE COMMITTEE sented activities of their respective organisations tion with other interested Ukrainian organizations.ON WATER MANAGEMENT ORGANISED THE FIRST and institutes. During the discussion, the partici- Starting from voluntary participation in GWP andEVER STAKEHOLDERS MEETING IN KIEV, UKRAINE pants expressed their appreciation of GWP assis- sharing its principles and approaches, participantsON DECEMBER 1-2, 2005. tance which contributes to the Implementation of the interim initiative group have also decided to Plan agreed at the WSSD, creates a joint platform share the temporary responsibilities between theOn behalf of the State Committee on Water Man- for improved co-ordination and communication group members and selected the following pri-agement (SCWM) of Ukraine, Vasyl Stashuk, the on water- related issues, assists in the applica- mary focal points: Anna Tsvetkova, NGO MAMA-Chair of SCWM, gave a warm welcome to all par- tion of IWRM and supports the establishment and 86 and Andriy Demydenko, UCEWP. As a result ofticipants. Alan Hall and Bjorn Guterstam from the strengthening of river basin organisations and of the stakeholders meting, GWP Partner’s organiza-GWP Secretariat in Stockholm then presented an appropriate legal frameworks. tions established the Ukrainian Water Partnershipintroduction to GWP, its network and principles The participants included high level representa- in February 2006.of IWRM planning. Members of the GWP CEE Re- tives of the following organizations: the Stategional Council and the Regional Secretariat con- Committee on Water Management (SCWM) of For more information on the Ukrainian Watertinued by providing information about GWP CEE Ukraine with its river basin management organiza- Partnership, please contact Anna Tsvetkova atgovernance, major achievements, activities, work- tions (Siversky-Donets, Dnipro, Dniester, Crimea), firstname.lastname@example.org and Andriy Demydenkoplans and expectations regarding new members. In oblast branches (Volyn, Trans-Carpathia, Odessa) at email@example.com.
Interview with RNDr. Libor Ambrozek age system). Furthermore, the support may be provided within the framework of the drink- ing water supply to the municipalities, in casesMinister of Environment, Czech Republic where there exists reasonable justiﬁcation re-IN CONTINUING WITH OUR SERIES OF INTER- ess which promotes the coordinated devel- garding the unsatisfactory quality or quantityVIEWS WITH THE MINISTERS OF THE ENVIRON- opment and management of water, land and of drinking water. The beneﬁciaries might be le-MENT FROM THE 11 CENTRAL AND EASTERN related resources, in order to maximize the gal persons established for non-business pur-EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, WHICH ARE PART OF resultant economic and social welfare in an poses, particularly public utility organizations,THE GWP CEE REGION, WE BRING YOU OUR IN- equitable manner without compromising the municipal and regional governments, civil as-TERVIEW WITH THE MINISTER OF THE ENVIRON- sustainability of vital ecosystems. How do sociations and associations of municipalities,MENT OF CZECH REPUBLIC, LIBOR AMBROZEK. you see the challenges of IWRM implemen- allowance organizations and other entities es- tation in practice in the Czech Republic? tablished by generally binding legal regulations LIBOR AMBROZEK was Regarding the vision of the Integrated Wa- and whose activities are not business activities born in Hodonin, Czech ter Resources Management, I should point pursuant to the Commercial Code. Finally, re- Republic on 2 August out that there are shared competences in the garding the experience from the present pro- 1966. He studied sys- area of water policy between the Ministry gramming period, the assessment of costs for tematic biology at the of Environment and the Ministry of Agricul- fulﬁlment of the priority of the Environment College of Natural Sci- ture. The delegation for the 4th World Water Operational Programme related to water man- ence of Charles Uni- Forum, which took place in March in Mexico, agement for the programming period 2007 – versity in Prague. Af- was composed of representatives from both 2013 is expected to amount to 109 billion CZKter graduation he worked as a naturalist at the ministries. Considering the water policy com- (EUR 3,893 billion).Masaryk Museum in Hodonin. In 1991 he joined petences of the Ministry of Environment, thethe Department of the Environment of the Dis- main subject to be brought forward is Wa- Water Talk: WFD is the most complex set oftrict Authority in Hodonin, where he worked in ter and Environment, particularly water qual- goals, tools and commitments in the EU waterthe Section of Nature Conservation. Ambrozek ity improvement and the protection of water sector to date. Two of the main WFD goals arebecame a member of the Christian Democratic in the Czech Republic, key problems of water the protection and improvement of water eco-Union - Czechoslovak People’s Party (KDU-CSL) policy, i.e. drought, ﬂooding, water pollution, system quality and sustainable, balanced andin 1990. In June 1996 he was elected a mem- and solutions to such problems. Equally im- equitable water use. This directive providesber of the Deputy Chamber of the Parliament portant is the development and strengthening broad opportunities for public participationof the Czech Republic. From 1996 to 1998 he of national monitoring mechanisms and goals in river basin management and is probablyworked as a member of the Agriculture Com- that are related to the current preparation of transposed into Czech legislation. What domittee thereof. Since 1996 he has been a mem- monitoring programmes according to the Wa- you think? How can the participation of theber of the Committee for Public Administration, ter Framework Directive. It is also important to public and NGO’s be ensured during imple-Regional Development, and the Environment, solve problems at the regional level, to cooper- mentation of this directive and especially inwhere he was repeatedly elected the Chair of ate in the area of boundary waters and last but preparation of river basin management plansthe Subcommittee for Environmental and Land- not least to develop river basin management which must be completed by 2009?scape Protection. In 1996 he became a mem- plans in relation to the evaluation and man- Our principal objectives are to raise publicber of the Council of the State Environmental agement of ﬂood risks. awareness of water protection, the series ofFund, serving as its Chair since 1998. Within the events in their surroundings and to stimulateshadow cabinet of the Four-Coalition he was Water Talk: Implementation of EU legisla- the active participation of all interested parties.responsible for the shadow ministry of the en- tion for the new members, which entered the All these aspects create the premise of publicvironment. He is the Chair of the Expert Com- EU in May 2004, means an opportunity for consultations. During the year 2008, the publicmission for the Environment of the KDUCSL. improving the environmental infrastructure will have an opportunity to present individualHe was also elected as a member of the Depu- with co-ﬁnancing from EU funds. To which proposals of river basin plans, or more precise-ty Chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Re- measures in the area of water protection, ly during the year 2006, consultations concern-public for this Party. He has been active in the management and use is the support from ing a schedule of preparation plans are expect-ﬁeld of nature conservation and environmental Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund for the ed; consultations related to the main problemsprotection. He holds several non-paid positions programming period of 2004-2006 directed concerning the plans are going to be held infor non-proﬁt environmental organizations. He and who might beneﬁt from that support? 2007, which means that the public should beis the Chair of the Czech Union of Nature Con- How much funding is needed for improv- involved in the very early stages of the plan-servationists, the largest non-government or- ing and developing the environmental water ning process.ganization active in this area. Furthermore, he infrastructure in the near future, i.e. in the One of practical examples of public participa-is the Chair of the Board of Directors of the Bi1e next programming period 2007-2013? tion in the Czech Republic was the establish-Karpaty Education and Information Centre, and Support can be provided for the build-up ment of an advisory forum for a pilot plan fora member of the Board of Directors of the In- and modernization of wastewater treatment the Orlice River in order to integrate the publicstitute for Environmental Policy. He automat- plants (WWTP) and the extension of sewerage into the planning process, mediate informationically resigned all of these positions upon his systems, as for example the construction, re- and obtain comments on outputs of differentappointment as Minister of the Environment of construction, intensiﬁcation or extension of process phases. Although the Orlice River is athe Czech Republic in 2002. wastewater treatment plants to meet the re- small sub-basin and it is probably not possible quirements of Directive 911271/EEC and also to use such a structure for the whole river ba-Water Talk: GWP deﬁnes the Integrated Wa- for the purpose of more efﬁcient treatment of sin area in most other cases, the public will playter Resource Management (IWRM) as a proc- storm water (in the case of a combined sewer- an important role in the planning process. They 2
will have the possibility to participate in tasks Water Talk: Global climate changes in thehandled in the framework of committees estab-lished for particular river basin areas form of ﬂash ﬂoods and heavy storms are affecting all countries in the region of Cen- Calendar of Events tral and Eastern Europe. Which arrange- GWP CEE Regional Council MeetingWater Talk: The implementation of EU Di- ments and measures should be adopted in April 7-9, 2006rectives will be an important factor in miti- order to reduce the results of this threat? Bratislava, Slovakiagating the agricultural impact on the envi- The Czech government adopted Flood Con-ronment; however, it is necessary to involve trol Strategy establishing goals related to Tool Box seminar in CACENAfarmers in the practical realization of envi- improvement of the measures system and May 4-5, 2006ronmental legislation. What kind of meas- implementation of preventive measures com- Nukus, Uzbekistanures for mitigating impacts and enhancing bining landscape and technical measures. The Danube Dayenvironmental beneﬁts are applied in the main task of the landscape measures is to June 29, 2006Czech Republic? create balance between economic develop- Countries of the Danube River basinIn the Czech Republic, a political tool called ment, area urbanization and landscape reten-“Cross-Compliance” combining environmental tion capacity. In addition, technical measures GWP Consulting Partners Meetingprotection and agricultural production, has be- aim to mitigate flooding effects by retaining August 18-19, 2006gun its probation period. An integration effort some volume of water and decreasing water Stockholm, Swedenof basic ecological standards into agricultural peak discharge or limiting water diffusion. Itpractice has become an important pillar of the is also important to limit economic activities GWP 10th AnniversaryCommon Agricultural Policy reform in the last within flooding areas. Tasks have been es- August 20, 2006decade. “Cross-Compliance” contains various tablished to decrease the erosion effects of Stockholm, Swedenenvironmental and other standards that farm- surface runoff across the landscape and to Stockholm Water Weekers are obliged to comply with in order to get water courses and to slow down precipita- August 20-26, 2006subsidies. The probation period is instrumental tion outflow. The most effective way of pro- Stockholm, Swedenfor the preparation of administration, function- tection is prevention, systematically imple-ality testing of control systems and risk analy- mented within hydrological river basins. Such IWRM Symposiumses. Full operation is expected to be launched in problems must be resolved within the frame- September 26-28, 2006January 2009. work of an international context. Bochum, GermanyGWP CEE at the IV World Water Forum AT THE IV WORLD WATER ments of the system. It presents both the prin- water boards, but above all with the mass me- FORUM, GWP CEE RE- ciples for building a precipitation and water level dia and the local community. The translation and GIONAL COUNCIL CHAIR, monitoring system and preparing forecasts and publication of the English version was ﬁnanced LIVIU NICOLAE POPESCU, disseminating warnings, and the things the lo- by GWP CEE, edited by the Polish Committee PRESENTED AN EXAMPLE cal community should know so that its members’ for the Global Water Partnership and published OF SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC responses to warnings will be effective. The last in collaboration with the WMO/GWP AssociatedPARTICIPATION IN RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT part focuses on one of the most important el- Programme on Flood Management (APFM).IN THE SESSION “IWRM IN FEDERATIVE COUN- ements guaranteeing system effectiveness –co- The World Water Forum is an initiative of theTRIES” ON MARCH 18. operation. Not only with institutions, such as World Water Council aiming to raise awareness the hydro-meteorological institutes or regional on global water issues. The First Forum was heldIn addition, Roman Konieczny from the Institute in Morocco (1997), the Second in the Netherlandsof Meteorology and Water Management pre- (2000), the Third in Japan (2003) and the Fourth insented a recent publication on ﬂoods “In Time for Mexico City in March 2006, under the overarch-the Flood”. The book is dedicated to local deci- ing theme of “Local Actions for a Global Chal-sion makers, mainly the local governments which lenge”. The IV World Water Forum was focused onhave to deal with ﬂash ﬂoods. The ﬁrst part an analysis of experiences and knowledge shar-brings information on the operational principles ing. The Forum has already been established asof warning systems, describes characteristics of an open, multi-stakeholder participatory process,the “ideal” system, as well as Polish and foreign which builds on the knowledge, experience and in-examples of solutions undertaken in a similar put of the global water community and seeks tospirit. The second part deals with the most im- enable multi-stakeholder participation and dia-portant data and information which needs to be logue to inﬂuence water policy-making at the lo-obtained or prepared before one begins to plan cal, regional, national and global levels, thus en-the building of a local ﬂood warning system. Thisincludes an analysis of the structure of possible In Time suring better living and respect for the principles of sustainable development to achieve the Millen-ﬂood losses, the amount of response time thatmust be provided to entities at risk and the costs for the Flood nium Development Goals. The World Water Fora are built on the knowledge and experience of dif- A METHODOLOGICAL GUIDE TO LOCAL FLOOD WARNING SYSTEMSof both investment in and exploitation of moni- Institute ferent types of organizations active in the global of Meteorologytoring and warning systems. The third part is a and Water Management water policy. It is founded on the principles of col- Polandcompendium of knowledge concerning the ele- laboration, partnership and innovation. 3
No wetland protection means which are now largely non-existent in most countries. “How can you save wetlands if you don’t even have a list of where they are?” says no EU water protection, says DEF Wolf. DEF will push for better access to infor- mation to, and greater public participation in, developing national water protection plans. CREDIT: J. SEFFER al assessments earlier prepared “Civil society can offer valuable support in- by Danube countries of the sta- cluding information, experiences, lessons and tus of their water resources did experts.” The progress of Danube national not adequately include wetlands, governments in including wetland protection says DEF. measures in their national plans will be mon- The DEF campaign will encour- itored by DEF – results will be publicly dis- age national water planners to seminated on Danube Day, June 29, 2006 and learn more about, and better World Wetlands Day 2007. apply, wetland protection. Inter- DEF NGOs also held a number of local ac- national organizations such as tions on February 2 in Danube countries to the International Commission promote World Wetlands Day. These included for the Protection of the Dan- press conferences in Germany and Czech Re- ube River (ICPDR), UNDP-GEF public on the importance of wetlands and their Peatbog at Vysne Temnosmrecianske tarn in High Tatras Danube Regional Project (DRP), role in ﬂood prevention. Public awareness will AN INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO PRO- WWF and the Ramsar Convention Secretariat be raised with wetland tours in Hungary and TECT DANUBE WETLANDS AND WATERS WAS have all produced helpful tools to assist plan- Croatia, and explanations of the threats from LAUNCHED BY THE DANUBE ENVIRONMENTAL ners in their efforts. DEF also supports a new planned navigation projects to wetlands in Ro- FORUM (DEF) ON FEBRUARY 2, THE WORLD DRP project that will produce new guidelines mania. And a national wetland conference and WETLANDS DAY. and best practices for wetland protection. new protected wetland sites will be launched The DEF campaign has support from the Sec- in Slovenia. “We believe that these planning processes do retariat of the global Ramsar Convention on not consider wetlands seriously enough,” says Wetlands which coordinates World Wet- Further information and contacts: DEF spokesman Johannes Wolf. “This cannot lands Day. Danube Environmental Forum Secretariat, continue because water cannot be properly pro- A key gap to be ﬁlled, says DEF, is the devel- Monika Chrenkova, tel: +421 2 657 300 50, tected without protecting wetlands.” Nation- opment of national inventories of wetlands e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.Wetlands Day – Water plants help Danube meet EU lawA NEW PROJECT WAS LAUNCHED ON FEBRU- The water plants are located in ‘wetlands’ - plac- (DEF). DEF is the largest network of Danube en-ARY 2 TO BETTER USE NATURAL DANUBE WATER es where water and land naturally cooperate to vironmental NGOs in the Danube River Basin.PLANTS FOR REDUCING WATER POLLUTION. protect water, animals, plants and humans. Be- The DEF campaign will encourage national wa- sides absorbing pollution, wetlands provide nu- ter managers to adequately incorporate wetland merous other valuable services including help- protection into their national plans. The DRP ing to reduce the impacts from ﬂoods and also continues to fund a project implemented providing homes for important ﬁsh and plant by the WWF Danube-Carpathian Programme to species. “The DRP encourages Danube coun- prepare new policies for wetlands rehabilitation tries to value wetlands more in their efforts to and protection. This includes local pilot proj-Danube countries need to reduce water pollu- meet EU law,” says DRP Expert Peter Whalley. ects in Croatia, Romania and Slovakia.tion to meet EU water protection legislation, “We also hope Danube wetlands will be better CREDIT: P. CSAGOLYknown as the Water Framework Directive, by protected in the future.” Some 80% of Danube2015. This includes non-EU countries shar- wetlands and ﬂoodplains have been lost due toing the Danube River Basin that voluntarily past human activities, from river channellingagreed to meet EU water law. Danube coun- to making room for farmland. “Danube ﬂood-tries are now making plans to ensure that plains are among the most important remainingwaters within their national boundaries are ﬂoodplains in Europe,” says Tobias Salathe fromclean and protected by 2015. The new project, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.funded by the UNDP-GEF Danube Regional The DRP is also supporting a local campaign inProject (DRP), will encourage national water Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro. Its goal is tomanagers to use water plants to help reduce protect the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve and Winter wetland in Hungarypollution and to include such actions in their its wetlands from illegal garbage dumping, tree Further information: Paul Csagoly, Communica-national plans to clean Danube waters. Out- cutting and hunting. The Zasavica campaign tions Expert, UNDP-GEF Danube Regional Proj-puts from the project will include guidelines was launched today on International Wetlands ect, tel: +43 1 26060 4722, mobile: +43 664and case studies where water plants have sig- Day as part of the larger International Wetlands 561 2192, e-mail: email@example.com,nificantly improved water quality. Campaign by the Danube Environmental Forum website: www.undp-drp.org 4
Hoce Rainfall Water Treatment Plant in Slovenia CREDIT: L. BORKOTHE HOCE RAINFALL WATER TREATMENT PLANT(RWTP) WAS BUILT IN 2001 BY THE SLIVNICA –PESNICA HIGHWAY (HW) IN THE AREA OF THESTAVBAR GRAVEL PIT IN HOCE, SLOVENIA.Its purpose is to treat rainfall water from theSlivnica - Pesnica HW, between the 2.6 km mark-er to the 5.5 km marker. During the period fromJune 2001 to 2002, when the RWTP experimen-tal operation took place, the Slovenian Institutefor Ecological Engineering supervised the indi-vidual parts of the installation and steering ofthe installation through a processor in order todeﬁne the hydraulic load and monitor the oper-ation of the installation. RWTP drains 2500 me-ters of the HW, which is 26 meters wide; the av-erage outﬂow coefﬁcient is 0.84.The Hoce RWTP consists of the following func-tional parts: discharge object for the disburdening of Rainfall water treatment plant in Hoce high water overﬂow into percolators during dent, probably a consequence of the inad- ﬂow from the cleaning device do not exceed showers equate performance of the humus and ﬁlter MAC (Maximal Allowed Concentrations) limit sedimentation tank - oil separator and pol- layer during the time of construction. The in- values, which are determined in the Decree on lution trap during showers for mechanical ﬁltration tank was sanitized in December 2002. the Emission of Substances and Heat by Waste- treatment of critical rainstorms of polluted In one part of the inﬁltration tank the surface water Disposal into the Water and Public Sew- wastewater (WW) (intensity 15 l /s.ha) humus layer was replaced with more permea- age System (Ofﬁcial Journal of RS, No. 47/05) inﬁltration tank for additional treatment of ble material. Also the linking pipeline between for outﬂow into a water ﬂow; neither exceed- 10-year rainfall water in ground ﬁlter the inﬁltration tank and retention basin was ed the values of rainfall which ﬂows into the retention basin for 100 year rainfall water built. In the later phase of the operation of cleaning device. intake shaft which protects the inﬁltration the Hoce RWTP, this will enable the elimina- While comparing the results at the inﬂow and tank and retention basin during high ground- tion and detaining of the inﬁltration tank and outﬂow, we can see the difference between con- water levels from buoyancy lifting power redirection of water via that pipeline into the centrations. The concentrations at the outﬂow pumping station for draining and pumping retention basin. These interventions enable the are as a rule even higher than the concentra- of puriﬁed and detained rainfall water out of undisturbed operation of the facility during tions at the inﬂow. In our opinion this is a con- the gravel pit into the Polanski Brook maintenance. Every two years the main drain- sequence of the fact that old water remains in age pipeline, which continues underneath the the oil separator and other parts of the cleaningThe central purifying is performed in the inﬁl- inﬁltration tank to the pump station basin, device after it is “pushed” there by new rainfalltration tank where the treatment device is lo- should be examined with a camera to detect water coming from the highway. When watercated. It is a mechanical-biological device and any possible washing out and stagnation of stays in the cleaning device for a longer peri-is intended for the purifying of suspended and ﬁlter material in this part of the pipeline and if od of time, concentrations of several dissolveddissolved substances. It consists of a retention necessary, it should be washed out. substances in it increase, and after the old wa-basin with a bottom of sand ﬁlter and humus On the basis of the experimental operation anal- ter is substituted with new water because oflayer sown with grass. Part of the RWTP also in- ysis, it is estimated that hydraulic measurement rainfall, concentrations in the outﬂow are alsocludes a monitoring and control device with a and device operation supervision be carried out slightly increased.sensor system and processor. It enables hydrau- according to the project demands. Three sam- In February 2002, the Geological Institute oflic measurement and management of the built ples were taken to determine the quality of the Slovenia signed a contract with DARS (“theinfrastructure. Microprocessor units monitor wastewater from the Hoce rainfall water treat- Company for State Roads of the Republic ofthe RWTP operations. An industrial computer ment plant on the Slivnica-Pesnica highway. Slovenia”) about monitoring surface and under-records measurement of hydraulic parameters. The ﬁrst monitoring point (M1) is located on ground waters on the Fram-Slivnica highway.The measurement is carried out continuously; the inﬂow drainage into the oil separator; the The chemical monitoring was carried out in 6the computer saves the data every minute. The second monitoring point (M2) is located at the measuring places for underground water and inperiod of measurement is divided into a dry pe- outﬂow drainage from the oil separator and the 3 measuring places for surface water. Accordingriod (a period of constant measurement) and a third monitoring point (M3) represents the tap to the project, the measurements were carriedrainfall period (a period of dynamic measure- in the pumping station. All three samples were out every three months on the surface ﬂowsment), in which the inﬂuence of rain on hydrau- taken on October 24, 2003 at the beginning of and piesometers. All the analyses and sam-lic parameters is clearly seen. the rainy season. pling were carried out according to valid stand-During the experimental operation, the low From the measurements of the quality of rain- ards and validated standard methods. On somepermeability of the inﬁltration tank was evi- fall it can be stated that the values at the out- roads in the inﬂuential HW area, hand meas- 5
uring of levels of underground waters has also Waters (Ofﬁcial gazette 11/ 20002). In our opin- 47/1997). The inﬂuence of the highway was notbeen carried out. ion this is the result of settlement, agricultural evident, which shows that the disappearance ofThe results of the hydrological measuring of activities and industry in the wider area. the puriﬁed outﬂow of HW WW at the cleaningground water levels and water ﬂow volume Other heavy metals appear only occasionally. device into underground water does not rep-within the operated period of measuring do Because only isolated measurement takes place, resent any danger to the quality of the under-not show any unexpected or unusual oscilla- the results cannot be considered as representa- ground water.tion. The monitoring showed that all the three tive. Their appearance demands further obser- To conclude, the measuring of rainfall in theanalyzed ﬂows contain ammonia, nitrites and vation. In two piesometers, increased concen- area of the Hoce RWTP showed that the val-phosphates and traces of copper, chromium, trations of chlorinated solvents and absorbed ues do not surpass the MAC (Maximal Allowedzinc and vanadium. In the summer months, un- organic halogens (AOX) were found. The source Concentrations). During the measuring of thederground water levels were noticeably lower of this pollution cannot be determined, because parameters, which are required by the DARS-and surface ﬂows were drastically reduced. This it appears not only in the piesometer, which is supported project, difﬁculties appeared inwas a consequence of a severe drought in 2003. parallel with the water ﬂow, but also in the pie- measuring places for the determination of theWith autumn rain, the underground water lev- someter which is downstream from the under- volume of surface water ﬂow. The beds in whichels and volume of surface water ﬂow started to ground water ﬂow and the highway location. the measuring is carried out are not adequatelynormalize. Our opinion is that this pollution is connect- maintained. There are also problems connectedThe performed chemical analyses show that the ed with pollution in the wider area. The results with measuring places (unsuitable connectionvalues of some pollutants are higher than the of this monitoring show that the underground of measuring shaft and measuring proﬁle, un-values which are prescribed with regulations. water is not heavily burdened with organic sub- suitable overﬂows).None of the analyzed samples of underground stances. The underground water does not con-water conform to the MACs set up by the De- tain ammonia and nitrates. In 5 out of 6 sam- M. Sc. Liviana Borko, employee of Ministry of thecree of the Underground Water Quality (Ofﬁcial pling places the quality of the underground Environment and Spatial Planing, Inspectorate ofgazette 11/ 2002), neither nor do they conform water conforms to the quality demands in the the Republic of Slovenia for the Environment andto the Decree of the Chemical State of Surface Regulation on the Drinking Water (OJ RS No. Spatial Planning, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.Focus on Sustainable Sanitation CREDIT: B. MACAROLGWP CEE, IN COOPERATION WITH THE ASSOCIATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EXPERTS (ACE SR), ORGANISED AN INTERNA-TIONAL MEETING OF SUSTAINABLE SANITATION EXPERTS ON DE-CEMBER 1, 2005 IN BRATISLAVA.EU Directive 91/271/EEC of May 21, 1991 concerning the collec-tion, treatment and discharge of waste water from urban agglom-erations, as well as the more recent Water Framework Directive,have come to remind us of the necessity of the appropriate dis-posal of all wastewater discharges with the objective of a goodstatus of surface water, groundwater, transition and coastal wa-ters. The “urban wastewater treatment” directive is concernedwith agglomerations of more than 2000 p.e. although Article 7of this directive refers to agglomerations with less than 2000 p.e.,but only concerns those having a collection network. There is nomention of small and dispersed communities where the establish-ment of a collecting system is not justiﬁed either because it wouldproduce no major environmental beneﬁt or because it would in-volve excessive investment and operational costs.The goal of the meeting was to discuss a proposed program withrespect to sanitation systems of small communities. A recentstudy led by Janusz Kindler and carried out by the GWP CEE Coun-try Water Partnerships indicated that such small and dispersedcommunities are inhabited by 20 to 40 percent of the total pop-ulation of the CEE countries. They constitute a large and usuallyless economically successful segment of our societies. Providingthem with appropriate sanitation conditions is one of the basicpreconditions for the overall social and economic development ofthe CEE countries and is not only in concert with the MillenniumDevelopment Goals, but also contributes to IWRM.Based on international experience world-wide, sustainable sanita-tion technologies like urine separating and dry toilet systems, reedbed ﬁlters, macrophyte lagoons, stabilization ponds, constructedwetlands and other “eco-engineered” solutions will provide the Ecoremediation project on the Rizana River, Slovenia 6
CREDIT: B. MACAROLmost desirable solutions for small and dis-persed communities. Their investment costs aregenerally lower than that of the classical urbanwastewater disposal systems and the operatingconditions are simpler, more ﬂexible and requireless energy consumption. They require a loweramount of manpower and less-specialized ser-vice than intensive urban techniques.In the ﬁrst part, Igor Bodik (ACE SR) present-ed the problem of the CEE countries with re-spect to small agglomerations. The CEE region(countries that entered or are approaching theEU membership) is obliged to meet the require-ments of the EU water related legislation thatis primarily focused on agglomerations of morethan 2000 pe. Therefore, most national waterpolicies were adjusted or developed to addressthe requirements of the EU water policy. Finan-cial plans are also tied to the reconstruction orconstruction of sanitation systems in large cit-ies. Igor provided the basic data with respect Constructed wetland in Sloveniato the collection and treatment of wastewaterin Slovakia. He also introduced the concept of of the WWTP. On the contrary, Pawel Blaszczyk for more massive use of eco sanitation is thetechnical options and illustrated a few technical from Poland reported that the Environmental low awareness of decision makers, the popula-alternatives for small agglomerations. Fund and Vojvodina Funds are available for in- tion and surprisingly, some experts in the ﬁeldAfter the introductory presentation, each par- vestments regardless of the size of the com- of traditional sanitation.ticipant presented the national situation with munity, however, future operation costs might According to the participants, sanitation inregards to sanitation systems. Daniel Vrhovšek be the problem. Rolandas Zazerskis from Lithu- small settlements is neither sufﬁciently cov-from Slovenia pointed out that the situation ania discussed the preparation of a new Water ered by national water policies, nor addressedof small communities is rather complicated Act that will require new operators to cover a in national development policies and invest-with the fact that Slovenia is a diverse coun- minimum of 85% of their territory with sanita- ment plans in CEE countries. As a ﬁrst step, theytry of different geographical conditions and of- tion services. Georgi Terzov from Bulgaria add- recommended the development of the Terms often with a special regime (zones of protection, ed that the problem is caused by the negative Reference for this new initiative, carrying outNATURA areas etc). The diversity is also docu- population growth in Bulgaria that complicates an initial survey mapping existing knowledgemented by different “rural” locations; some lo- investment plans in water infrastructure. and collecting case existing studies (availablecalities are tourist centres in the Alps, some are During the brainstorming session, the partici- from EWA, IWA or other sources). The partici-in lowlands where constructed wetlands are pants noted that CEE countries pay special in- pants agreed that the eco remediation approachthe appropriate solution. The past practise was terest to ensure sanitation services for large (using constructed wetlands for treating wasteto connect small communities to larger cities, settlements and thus to comply with the EU water from landﬁlls, etc) should be included inbut that appeared to be a very expensive solu- requirements. Also, the investment policies are the concept of sustainable sanitation. Bettertion. Mr. Vrhovsek also presented eco-remedia- focused on large cities and investment plans sanitation contributes either directly or indi-tion systems in Slovenia. Eco-sanitation issues follow the priorities outlined in regional devel- rectly to the improved health of the local pop-should include ecoremediation, constructed opment policies. On the other hand, decision ulation and therefore, a sustainable sanitationwetlands and reed bed ﬁltration and other al- makers pay much less attention to small set- initiative has to consider not only environmen-ternative technical solutions rather than the tlements, as sanitation and wastewater treat- tal but also health risks.traditional construction of sewage systems ment in these communities is not on the high- In the future, it would be advisable to investi-and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). est agenda of national policies and legislation. gate if and how the river basin managementProf. Wanner from the Czech Republic noted In small villages, local decision makers, i.e., may- plans involve measures for solving sanitationthat one aspect should be taken into account; ors, who do not have sufﬁcient information on problems in rural settlements. The initial map-this refers to the cultural and social develop- alternatives and associated technical and ﬁnan- ping of knowledge should be followed up by ament of small communities. Local people are cial consequences of the technical solutions, survey on technical solutions available for smalloften reluctant to receive advanced sanitation have to deal with sanitation. settlements including economic assessment andservices, as they would have to pay for them. Currently, CEE countries are preparing river ba- taking into consideration speciﬁc geographical,Katalin Zotter from Hungary also pointed out sin management plans that could address some technical, economic and social circumstanc-that about 3.5 million inhabitants have no ac- of the issues related to sanitation in small com- es. Regarding the public, it was recommendedcess to sanitation services and have to rely on munities. However, it is still not clear to what that an awareness campaign to promote theseptic tanks of questionable safety, resulting in extent and how these plans will reﬂect sani- importance of sanitation and the willingnessground water pollution. Helve Laos from Esto- tation problems. Among the local population, of the local population to accept and connectnia added that it is not clear why small set- there is a common understanding that the ab- to sanitation systems be launched. Finally, thetlements should be connected to centralized sence of a proper sanitation system does not proposed initiative should result in the studysanitation systems, as there is no appropri- cause environmental degradation. Also, eco- and guidelines for decision makers on the lo-ate evidence that the pollution contribution of nomic assessment in this ﬁeld does not exist; as cal level in CEE countries. For more informa-these communities exceeds the environmental this comprises a complex mix of economics and tion on sustainable sanitation initiative, pleasebeneﬁts. She also pointed out that water legis- policy, from affordability issues to cost recovery contact the GWP CEE Regional Secretariat atlation sets pollution limits regardless of the size and investment policies. One of the obstacles email@example.com. 7
Eco-economic approaches to setting rates for the use of water resources in Ukraine IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UN- However, the technique that accounts for the calculated on the basis of mean values of es- ION, THE SYSTEM OF TARIFFS FOR INDUSTRI- quality of water in a surface source and is used in timates of water quality for separate indicators AL ENTERPRISES USING WATER FROM SURFACE calculating differential norms of the water rate, and expressed in 7 categories of the quality of SOURCES WAS BASED ON THE BASIN PRINCIPLE. is not acceptable. Earlier it was proposed that the surface water. Ie Values can be used to establish water quality factor be calculated as a ratio of the differential rates for the use of surface waters of Within the system of basins of the Black and maximum (the worst) value of the Water Pollu- different ecological quality. Azov Seas on the territory of Ukraine, five wa- tion Index (WPI) to the theoretical (desired) value Furthermore, the method of differentiating rates ter-management systems and different basic of this index. However, such estimate of the water for the use of water from surface sources involves rates for the use of water were established in quality factor involves a number of disadvantag- adding to (or subtracting from) the established each of them. The differentiation of basic rates es. The calculation of WPI does not include such tariff (norm of charge) of appropriate additional was substantial: for example - from U$0.004/ important ecological indicators of water quality charges (deductions). In order to implement this m3 in the Danube to U$0.024/m3 in the rivers of as total mineralization, chloride and sulfate con- method, the user must have reliable data on the the Azov Sea. The established system of charg- tent, hydrobiological and bacteriological charac- limits of changes for Ie. To conclude, the authors es has three main disadvantages: (1) it does teristics, including saprobic capacity and the lev- proposed a new approach to determine the wa- not take into account the aspects of the wa- el of trophism, biotesting data, and indicators of ter quality factor in establishing the rate for the ter supply of the territories; (2) it does not ful- the level and nature of the radioactive contami- use of water resources. They recommend reﬁn- ly account for the shortage of water resourc- nation of water. ing and revising the system of water-manage- es and (3) it completely neglects differences in Based on the Draft National Standard of Ukraine ment regions and the related tariffs depending the quality of surface waters not only in the “Sources of Centralized Drinking Water Supply” on changes of ecological situation in water bod- country as a whole, but also in the established developed by them, the authors proposed new ies on a regular basis. regions of uniform tariffs. approaches to determine the water quality fac- In 1992, Ukrainian and Russian scientists carried tor. In accordance with the proposed standard, out the ﬁrst detailed study of norms and rules the indicators and specialized classiﬁcations of of establishing differential rates for water intake water quality are separated into several blocks: from the water-management systems. The results organoleptic; indicators of the chemical compo- of this study were not implemented under condi- sition; microbiological; parasite; hydrobiologi- tions of deep economic crisis and slow rates of cal; indicators of radioactive safety, and harmful economic reforms in Ukraine. At present, there is organic and inorganic substances. In this case, a need for the development of new approaches to water quality can be estimated both by each of water rates, which will provide a more reliable es- 78 separate indicators and by complex indica- timation of surface water quality. On the contra- tors (block indices) referring the values obtained ry, rules and regulations regarding the accounting to an appropriate category of water quality. An V. V. Goncharuk and A. P. Chernyavskaya of the water supply of regions and the shortages unambiguous estimation of water quality in a A.V. Dumansky Institute of Colloid Chemistry and of water resources in calculating the differential water body can be performed by calculating an Water Chemistry, norms of rates for the use of water from surface Integral Ecological Index Ie of the quality of sur- Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, sources do not require any changes. face water. Values of block indices and Ie are e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgGWP Consulting Partners Meeting and the 10th AnniversaryStockholm, August 19-21 2006AFTER TEN YEARS, GWP HAS GONE FROM DEFIN- The CP and the 10th anniversary recognize the suc- senting good examples of accomplishments andING AND ADVOCATING THE CONCEPT OF IWRM cessful work done by the GWP network. The theme their impact. During the second day there willINTO A PHASE OF IMPLEMENTATION. of the CP, “The Boldness of Small Steps”, is the met- be four parallel Breakout Groups working dur-The key players in this successful development aphor of GWP accomplishments and their impact. ing two sessions. The theme of the second dayare the GWP regions and countries. On the glo- The CP aims at sharing successful experiences and will be: Challenges Ahead - which tools to usebal arena GWP has mainstreamed its work pro- their self-critically assessments of these Steps. The to achieve our goal. Session One will address is-gramme with the MDGs and the WSSD. The 2005 partners in the GWP facilitation, i.e. governments, sues of the present strategy 2004-2008. Sessiontarget of having the national IWRM plans in place NGOs, professional societies, the donor communi- Two will pick up issues from the first day foror at least having started the process is at the ty, international organisations and others will also discussion.core of GWP’s activities. This work meets a global be invited. The 10th Anniversary will build on the outcomes ofdemand to show real action and progress in the The outline of the CP 2006 Programme is to give the CP with a high-level panel and a wrap-up bybusiness of sustainable development and is the the floor to the regions to play the key roles in the GWP Chair before the celebration.raison d’être of GWP. the Plenary Sessions during the first day by pre- Volume 6, Issue No. 1/2006, April 2006 Water Talk is the ofﬁcial newsletter of Global Water Partnership Central and Easter Europe (GWP CEE) published twice a year. Water Talk assists GWP CEE to promote principles of Integrated Water Resourc- es Management (IWRM) in the region of Central and Eastern Europe. The views and opinions of au- thors expressed in this issue Water Talk do not necessarily reﬂect the views and opinions of GWP CEE. Publisher: GWP CEE - Global Water Partnership Central and Eastern Europe, email@example.com, Editor: Richard Müller, Language Proofreading: Euro VKM, Ltd, Layout and Printing: TYPOCON, Ltd. Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic Registration No: 3244/2004 ISSN: 1336-5525 GWP CEE – Global Water Partnership Central and Eastern Europe, c/o Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Jeseniova 17, 833 15 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel./fax: +421 2 5941 5294, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, http://www.gwpceeforum.org8