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Remote sensing agriculture drought monitoring methods and Small water rentention measures by János Fehér

Remote sensing agriculture drought monitoring methods and Small water rentention measures by János Fehér

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Remote sensing agriculture drought monitoring methods and Small water rentention measures by János Fehér

  1. 1. Drought demonstration projects: Remote sensing agriculture drought monitoring methods and Small water retention measures Dr. János Fehér Hon. Associate Professor University of Debrecen and GWP Hungary National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 1
  2. 2. Drought demonstration project - 1 Small water retention measures National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 2
  3. 3. Natural water retention vs. Small water retention • Natural water retention – Permanent or temporary water bodies and measures that enable water retention on site (of its origin) – Natural appearance enabling diverse ecosystem services (not only water retention) – Activities focusing on prolongation of the water cycle by increasing the capacity to retain rainwater (slow drain), stop pollution and reducing energy losses of water and sediment movement. • Small water retention means not only the retention of surface water with water or damming up watercourses, but also agricultural practices, phyto land improvement and afforestation to increase the retention of soil, regulation of rivers such as changes in cross-section troughs and longitudinal slope and the use of natural floodplains and landscape depressions. National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 3
  4. 4. •Main objective is to address nature and landscape values and co- operation with the stakeholders (especially farmers) in order to regard flooding not only as a threat but also as an opportunity for broad rural development, nature restoration, recreation, “enrichment” of the habitat and (last but not least) for a new approach to water. • Measures include both - small scale hydraulic structures - non-technical activities reforestation restoration of wetlands re-meandering of rivers and soil structure improvement. Objectives National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 4
  5. 5. Case studies summarize experiences from already implemented projects in Poland, Slovakia Hungary, and Slovenia. Based upon critical analysis, tools for systematic application of non-traditional measures are developed. These include: - the use of GIS tools for optimization of a system of small water retention measures in the landscape. - systems and methods for water retention in rural areas Recommendations for - legislation - integration of these measures into national flood and drought protection plans - financing and - role of local communities in application of these measures. Outputs National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 5
  6. 6. Case studies from Slovenia 1. Restoration of Alpine stream in order to increase water retention capacity • Conceptual design for hydropower plant 2. Restoration of degraded river due to combined sewer overflow • Conceptual design for municipality 3. Retention and treatment of storm water at industrial site • Implemented project, private owner 4. Retention and treatment of agricultural runoff • Research project Case studies from Poland 5. Small water retention in forest area - Pisa Forest 6. Small water retention in national parks - Białowieża National Park 7. The programme of „Small Retention in Forest” 8. Piskurka reservoir Case studies from Hungary 9. Making space for water - a Bodrog River case study 10. Complex water retention action programme at the Nagyszéksós Lake water system 11. Marsh protection in Egyek–Pusztakócs area 12. Water infrastructure including small water retention supporting land and water management - Cigánd flood mitigation reservoir. Case studies (non-exhaustive list) National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 6
  7. 7. Systems and methods for water retention in rural areas Water resources Systems and methods Landscape (habitats) retention Systems shaping the proper structure of land use • Structure of arable lands, grasslands, forests, „ecological lands”, constructed wetlands • Afforestation, development of buffer zones, clusters of bushes, woodlands, development of bruises and terraces • Increase of the area of wetlands, peat bogs and restoration of the area Soil retention Cultivation systems shaping water retention in soil profile • Improvement of soil structure, limiting of drainage, liming, proper agrotechnology, increase of content of organic matter in soil Soil and ground water Drainage – cultivation systems limiting surface runoff • Increase of soil permeability • Anti-erosion measures, phyto drainage, agro drainage • Regulated outflow from the drainage system • Ponds and infiltration wells (also for outflow of rainwater from sealed surfaces) Surface water Hydrotechnical systems of water distribution and storage • Small water reservoirs • Regulated outflow from ponds and small water reservoirs • Water storage in drainage ditches, channels etc. • Retention of outflow from drainage systems • Increase of river valley retention National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 7
  8. 8. Case study Water infrastructure including small water retention supporting land and water management The Cigánd flood mitigation reservoir National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 8
  9. 9. Year Flood level (cm) National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 9
  10. 10. 10 Historical responsesHistorical responses National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 10
  11. 11. Current response „Renewal of Vásárhelyi Plan” –Provide protection against 1:100 year floods –Reduce the level of 1:1000 year flood by about 1 m –Provide opportunities to nature development and land use change National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 11
  12. 12. Feasible interventions on the open flood plain for reducing flood levels Open flood plain Main river bed Side branch 1. Relocation of flood levees, increase of open flood plain 2. Heighten flood levees 3. Reducing flood plain elevation by dredging 4. Feasible transformation of river regulation works 5. Deepening of the main river bed by dredging 6. Dredging of river branches 7. Removal of buildings, other constructed structures 8. Change of land use 9. Removal of summer dikes from open flood plain 10. Construction of flood peak mitigation reservoir 12 National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 12
  13. 13. 13 Legend Planned reservoirs Existing reservoirs National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 13
  14. 14. 14 The first six reservoirs to be completed in 1st phase of Vásárhelyi Plan National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 14
  15. 15. Drought formation in 2003 PAI (°C/100 mm) serious drought average drought moderate drought extraordinary drought National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 15
  16. 16. Cigánd-Tiszakarád Flood Peak Mitigation Reservoir 25 km2 16 National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 16
  17. 17. Cigánd-Tiszakarád Flood Peak Mitigation Reservoir 25 km2 17 National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 17
  18. 18. • The current system is kept for each element • Flexible, adaptable to the needs in better way • Phased implementation is possible (adapting to tender opportunities) • It should help the drainage and water retention • Increase the use of the river water with the intake opportunity • It should comply with all kinds of farmers' water demand expectation (storage, fishing, flooding, wetland, arable, grassland) • The farmers could utilize the support aids in an optimal way. National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 18
  19. 19. National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 19
  20. 20. Drought demonstration project - 2 Remote sensing agriculture drought monitoring methods National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 20
  21. 21. Background National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 21
  22. 22. •To develop a process, which can provide information for estimating relevant drought indexes and drought related agricultural yield losses more effectively from remote sensed spectral data. •New calculation method, which provides early information on physical implementation of drought risk levels Objectives National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 22
  23. 23. Central Europe - Carpathian Basin - Lowland part of the Tisza River Basin National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 23 Study area
  24. 24. NDVI Time Series Land use mask Calibration with yield statistical data Meteorological Data Calibration with Drought Index Soil Physical Data Calibration with available water content SDSS Classification Plant Specific Drought Risk Evaluation (1 – 5 risk levels) National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 24
  25. 25. Five major steps were carried out for the MODIS(1) NDVI(2) calibration: 1.Re-projection of MODIS data 2.Mask building for data extraction (arable lands, plain area by counties) 3.Extraction of MODIS NDVI time series by masks (Maize: 0-0.35 NDVI, Wheat: 0.35 – 1 NDVI) 4.Acquiring data matrix from NDVI images (mean values from every extracted NDVI images) 5.Normalization of extracted NDVI data matrix and yield data (1)MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (2) NDVI - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Data acquisition and processing National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 25
  26. 26. ArcGIS model for creating mask and extraction of wheat and maize sites National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 26 Data acquisition and processing
  27. 27. (Source: KSH and INSSE) Green: optimal (wet) years Red: drought affected years Blue: extreme precipitation Normalized yield of maize and wheat (2000-2012) Identification and calibration of drought risk level National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 27
  28. 28. 05 05 05 05 05 Dry year Wet year MODIS NDVI values for arable land in Békés County, Hungary (June – September) National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 28 Identification and calibration of drought risk level
  29. 29. Reference spectral curves were generated in order to determine the Watch, Early warning, Warning, Alert and Catastrophe levels of NDVI Watch: When plant water stress is observed in sensitive phenological phases. Early Warning: When relevant plant water stress is observed. The available soil moisture is close to critical, and it is suggested for farmers to start preparation of intervention. Predicted potential yield loss is up to 10%. Warning: When plant stress translates into significant biomass damage, and there is time to start the intervention actions. Potential yield loss is up to 20%. Alert: When farmers expect irreversible vegetation damage with real negative profit, and they have to consider to give up additional cultivation actions in crop production in that actual vegetation period. Potential yield loss is up to 30%. Catastrophe: When serious damages and profit loss mitigation is necessary. Potential yield loss is up to 40%. Identification and calibration of drought risk level National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 29
  30. 30. Drought risk and signalling NDVI levels for maize and wheat Identification and calibration of drought risk level National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 30
  31. 31. 2003 (drought affected year) 2008 (optimal year) Risk levels Tisza catchment Hungarian part of T.c. Jász- Nagykun- Szolnok Hajdú- Bihar Tisza catchment Hungarian part of T.c. Jász- Nagykun- Szolnok Hajdú- Bihar Wheat (area %) Catastrophe 38.44 45.38 59.08 34.80 11.99 13.42 15.73 4.77 Alert 8.25 8.27 7.84 7.70 5.05 5.23 5.40 3.30 Warning 8.29 7.96 6.99 8.03 0.45 4.41 4.62 3.04 Early Warning 10.59 9.75 7.50 10.69 8.30 8.09 8.75 6.13 Watch 7.18 6.42 4.51 7.82 10.14 9.69 10.57 9.06 No yield loss 27.25 22.22 14.07 30.96 64.07 59.15 54.92 73.70 Maize (area %) Catastrophe 51.77 51.86 66.06 20.92 24.54 19.85 21.24 10.74 Alert 2.94 8.06 2.11 1.80 2.78 1.90 2.15 1.27 Warning 8.93 8.11 6.62 7.03 9.92 6.87 6.92 4.97 Early Warning 8.93 7.83 6.46 8.92 11.90 8.83 9.73 6.77 Watch 8.38 2.51 5.99 10.18 12.46 10.61 11.52 9.54 No yield loss 19.05 21.63 12.76 51.16 38.39 51.94 48.44 66.70 Percentage of affected areas with different drought risks for wheat and maize (100% is the total area of investigated region) Drought risk evaluation and mapping National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 31
  32. 32. 2008 National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 32 Drought risk evaluation and mapping
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention and your work to save our Planet for the next generation! National Consultation Drought Dialogue - Pristina, Kosovo, 12 November 2014. 33

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