Chapter 1 part_1_introduction_to_iwrm


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Chapter 1 part_1_introduction_to_iwrm

  1. 1. Economic and Financial Instruments for IWRM Introduction to IWRM Part 1: Discovering IWRM
  2. 2. Goal and objectives of the session <ul><li>To introduce the importance of water </li></ul><ul><li>To give an indication of the water crisis </li></ul><ul><li>To present the challenge in resolving the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>To define IWRM </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce the importance of a water management framework </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outline presentation <ul><li>Overview of the importance of water </li></ul><ul><li>Water crisis: Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges in addressing crisis </li></ul><ul><li>What is IWRM </li></ul><ul><li>Water management framework and core elements </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of the framework </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The Importance of Water </li></ul><ul><li>Water is essential to human survival (20-40 litres per person daily) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective primary health care </li></ul><ul><li>Fight poverty, hunger, child mortality, gender inequality and environmental damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium Development Goals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Facts on Water Crisis <ul><li>More than 2 billion people suffer from water shortages in over 40 countries; </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water; </li></ul><ul><li>4 out of 10 people in the world do not have access to improved sanitation (very basic facilities); </li></ul><ul><li>2 million tonnes per day of human waste is discharged into water courses; </li></ul><ul><li>Every year 1.6 million children below 5 years old die because of unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reasons for Water Crisis <ul><li>Water resources under pressure from population growth, economic activity, growing competition from many water users; </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawals increased more than twice the rate of population growth; </li></ul><ul><li>Development and pollution are exacerbating water scarcity; </li></ul><ul><li>Uncoordinated development and management of water resources; </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change will impact on water resources. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Challenges <ul><li>Improving access to water (all users) and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Government making this a priority; </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate long-term financing; </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving competition among users and environmental challenges; </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy on-behalf of poor; </li></ul><ul><li>Improved capacity of governments to deliver services to all users; </li></ul><ul><li>Government accountability in meeting the needs of all users. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is IWRM? <ul><li>A systematic process for sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of social, economic and environmental goals and objectives. </li></ul>
  9. 9. IWRM is a paradigm shift. <ul><li>Departs from traditional approaches in three ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cutting and departs from traditional sectoral approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial focus is the river basin; </li></ul><ul><li>Departure from narrow professional and political boundaries and perspectives and broadened to incorporate participatory decision-making of all stakeholders ( Inclusion versus exclusion ). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Interdependency <ul><li>The basis of IWRM is that there are a variety of uses of water resources which are interdependent. </li></ul>The need to consider the different uses of water together
  11. 11. Examples of Competing but Interdependent Uses
  12. 12. The Water Balancing Act <ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing in all sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient use </li></ul><ul><li>Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity ( Natural Scarcity, </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater Depletion) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Options </li></ul>IWRM
  13. 13. IWRM Dimensions
  14. 14. The IWRM Process Governance Health Water Quality Water Supply Floods/Droughts Energy Agriculture Industry Pollution Prev Coastal Mgt. Ecosystem Mgt. Activity Sectors (water uses) Social Development Economic Development Env . Protection Objectives Policy/Inst. Framework Management Institutions Feedback Prosperity IWRM Water and water related policies review and revision IWRM Resource development, management, monitoring, and evaluation IWRM Resource availability/use analysis and allocation
  15. 15. Water Management Framework <ul><li>At the core of the water management framework is: </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of water as an economic and social good; </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralised management and delivery structures; </li></ul><ul><li>Greater reliance on economic instruments; </li></ul><ul><li>Broader participation of stakeholders. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What will a Water Management Framework do? <ul><li>1) Provide framework for analysing policies and options that will guide decisions in relation to: </li></ul><ul><li>Water scarcity; </li></ul><ul><li>Service efficiency; </li></ul><ul><li>Water allocation; and </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental protection. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Facilitate consideration of relationships between the ecosystem and socio-economic activities in river basins. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Think about it <ul><li>Could you give examples from your own country where interdependency of water uses exists? </li></ul>
  18. 18. End <ul><li>The next presentation deals with the principles of water management </li></ul>