Keynote Speech: The Issue of Water Governance in the Americasl for march 15 12
The Issue of (Good) WaterGovernance in the Americas World Water Forum Marseille – March 15, 2012 Karin Kemper Sector Manager, Environment and Water Resources Latin America and the Caribbean Region The World Bank
Presentation OutlineA few Thoughts about Water Governance,Good Water Governance and IWRMThe experience with attempts at GoodGovernance - A Global StudyWhat do the Study Results Mean for GoodGovernance globally and in the Americas?Conclusions
A few Thoughts aboutWater Governance, Good Water Governance, and Integrated Water Resources Management
What is Water Governance ?UNDP and Global Water Partnership definewater governance as a “range of political,social, economic and administrative systemsthat are in place to develop and managewater resources and the delivery of waterservices, at different levels of society”.
So What is Good Water Governance?• Combined Commitment of government and various groups on civil society, particularly at local/ community levels, together with the private sector.• Ethical Issues - Transparency, Equity & Fairness are fundamental requirements• Responsibility & Accountability - Each institution must know & take responsibility for what it does.• Inclusiveness, participation, predictability & responsiveness - Decision-making & implementation must be inclusive & communicative with governments, civil society, & the private sector each having clear roles to play with shared responsibilities on the basis of public-private partnerships.• Coherence - Policies & actions must be coherent, requiring political leadership and responsibility on the part of institutions at different levels to ensure a consistent approach within a complex system.
So what’s the difference between (Good) Water Governance and Integrated Water Resources Management?Governance provides the context withinwhich Integrated Water ResourcesManagement can be applied (accordingto GWP)
IWRM encompasses the Subsidiary Principle The principle of Managing Water Resources at the Lowest Appropriate Levels, i.e. decentralization of decision making powers => certainly an ambition of Good Governance in IWRM
What Has Been the Experience with Attempts at Good Governance (or the Subsidiary Principle of IWRM)? -Results from a Global Study
Global Study on the Principle of ManagingWater Resources at the Lowest Appropriate Levels (RBM Decentralization)When and why does it (not) work inpractice?What can we learn fromexperiences around the world toadvise countries facing reformneeds? *World Bank with University of Indiana and support from INBO and LANBO
Defining RBM Decentralizationincrease in transparency in decision making, andincrease in stakeholder involvement in decisionmakingMeasuring decentralization by taking intoaccount: The existing institutional framework The process The political economy and The results
Three Main Study Elements1. Extensive literature review of decentralization experiences2. A global survey and analysis of 83 river basin organizations3. In depth comparative case study analysis of 8 basins
Distribution of responses and data collection efforts by continents Continent Questionnaires Responses Eliminated Retained in the data sent setAfrica & Middle East 18 14 2 12 (66)aLatin America 118 37 2 35 (30)North America 5 5 0 5 (100)East Asia-Pacific 7 7 3 4 (57)Europe 49 40 13 27 (26)Total 197 103 20 83 (42) In parentheses are percent of retained questionnaires of those that responded 12
Organizational Features of River Basin Organizations StudiedOrganizational features ranged from Statecorporation (Indonesia) to non-governmentalorganization (Canada)Management problems included scarcity anddrought, floods, pollution, inter-sectoral conflict,mega-city urbanization, and erosion–usuallycombinedRBO responsibilities ranged from planning andconsultation only, to infrastructure O&Mresponsibilities, collecting water charges,water quality monitoring to licensing ofwater uses and water allocation
CONCLUSIONS FROM THEECONOMETRIC/SURVEY AND CASE STUDY ANALYSES 15
Study ResultsHigh wealth or other endowments helpful but notessential to successDifficult water resource problems often stimulate,rather than deter, development of basinorganizations and stakeholder participationPresence of water user organizations positivelyassociated with reform successAdequate revenues, and financial autonomy to userevenues within the basin, contribute to successConsistency of central government support is vitalReforms often take a long time. 16
What do the Study Results Mean for GoodGovernance globally and in the Americas?
Institutional arrangementsDecentralization/Management at the LowestAppropriate Level is not a panacea – it has to be doneright don’t just copy approaches but look for theright features that fit a certain country or basin -> recent discussion about scale – what IS the lowest appropriate level?Champions are really important, but they don’t lastforever…. Early institutionalization is key! 18
Political EconomyPolitical economy is important: vested interests tokeep things as they are existed in all casesBasins with complex problems and highly politicalissues may encounter difficult decentralizationprocessesGood Governance is a moving target….. ExampleAustralia, Ceará/BrazilCrises may help to push reform, but persistentrecurring problems such as scarcity or flooding arealso good incentives 19
Finances!Predictable budget and budget decisionmaking is important for stakeholders toremain interested in decentralizationGovernments have little to lose withdecentralization: determined, stronggovernment support, including financial,will remain important
ConclusionThere is a clear case for ‘Good Governance’ to achieve better resultsWe need to look at scaleConsistent financing is a key issueWRM is dynamic, and so is its Governance-> urbanization in LAC, climate change, food crisis and increasing energy demand are important drivers for change