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An update on the current research that supports the need for physical education in our schools and the importance of regular exercise in our lives. What’s good for the body IS good for the brain! Participate in brain energizers you can share with classroom teachers to keep kids engaged in the classroom.

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  1. 1. Your Brain….on Exercise! Terry Eckmann, Ph.D. Minot State University 701-858-3155
  2. 2. Exercise and Learning <ul><li>Exercise increases neuronal connections </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises increases the number of capillaries surrounding the neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise strengthens the cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise strengthens the corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise fuels the brains with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Increases levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor---BDNF </li></ul><ul><li>Causes Nerve Cells Multiply--Nerve Connections are Strengthened, Neurons are more protected from harm </li></ul>
  3. 3. 30 minutes of Physical Activity
  4. 4. Aerobic Exercise Stimulates BDNF
  5. 5. BDNF Fosters Neuroplasticity BDNF is Miracle Grow for the Brain <ul><li>Brain plasticity refers to the capacity of the brain to modify its structure and function as a result of the interaction with the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>BDNF is the brain's wonder drug. </li></ul><ul><li>BDNF functions to translate activity into synaptic & cognitive connections. </li></ul><ul><li>BDNF enables one neuron to communicate with another </li></ul>Ratey
  6. 6. <ul><li>Exercise increases BDNF which gives neural synapses the tools they need to take information in, process it, associate it, remember it and use it (Cotman, 1995) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Exercise Increases Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus
  8. 8. The brain’s hippocampus <ul><li>Converts short-term memory to long-term memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Recalls spatial relationships in the world around us. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gets Oxygen and Glucose to the Brain Faster
  10. 10. The brain needs oxygen and glucose to function effectively!
  11. 11. Repetitive Gross Motor Movement Strengthens Dendritic Branching
  12. 12. <ul><li>Increasing number of dendritic branches facilitates transmission and storage of information. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Strengthens the Cardiovascular System
  14. 14. When the heart, lungs, and muscles work more efficiently together…oxygen is transported to the brain more efficiently.
  15. 15. Improves mood and elevates stress threshold
  16. 16. Stress and Learning Jensen 1998
  17. 17. Exercise Improves Learning on Three Levels <ul><li>Optimizes mind-set to improve alertness, attention and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares and encourages nerve cells to bind together </li></ul><ul><li>Spurs the development of new nerve cells </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>“ Physical educators, </li></ul><ul><li>facilitate creation of brain cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom teachers help to fill them” </li></ul><ul><li>Ratey </li></ul>Research concludes…exercise is strongly correlated with increased brain mass, better cognition, mood regulation and new cell production.
  19. 19. Physical Education <ul><li>Children engaged in daily physical education show superior motor fitness, academic performance and attitude toward school as compared to their counterparts who do not participate in daily physical education. James Pollatschek and Frank Hagen (1996) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Quality Physical Education Checklist National Association for Sport and Physical Education <ul><li>Physical Education is taught by a qualified teacher with a degree in physical education. </li></ul><ul><li>Do students receive formal instruction in physical education? </li></ul><ul><li>Is physical education class size similar to other content areas to ensure safe, effective instruction? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there adequate equipment for ever student to be active? </li></ul><ul><li>Is appropriate technology incorporated on a regular and continuing basis? </li></ul><ul><li>Are indoor and outdoor facilities safe and adequate? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Quality Physical Education Checklist <ul><li>Is there a written mission statement and sequential curriculum based on state and/or national standards for physical education? </li></ul><ul><li>Are formative and summative assessments of student learning included in the physical education program and are they related to meaningful content objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the program provide for maximum participation for every student? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the program develop physical, cognitive, and affective aspects of each student? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Quality Physical Education Checklist <ul><li>Do the physical education teachers regularly participate in physical education professional development? </li></ul><ul><li>Do physical educators receive student health information and have an emergency plan? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there periodic evaluation by administrators of the physical education performance and teacher performance? </li></ul><ul><li>National Association for Sport and Physical Education </li></ul>
  23. 23. 2004 Research Review <ul><li>Reviewed 850 Studies conducted on the effects of physical activity on school age children </li></ul><ul><li>Studies focused on obesity , cardiovascular fitness , blood pressure , depression , anxiety , self-concept , bone density , and academic performance . </li></ul><ul><li>Study Recommendation : One Hour or MORE of moderate to vigorous physical activity a day!! </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Movement is about living </li></ul><ul><li>and living is about learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Jensen </li></ul>
  25. 25. References <ul><li>Blaydes-Madigan, J. Thinking on Your Feet . Action Based Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Hannaford, C. (1995). Smart Moves . Arlington, VA: Great Ocean Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Jensen, E. (2000). Learning with the Body in Mind. Corwin Press:California. </li></ul><ul><li>Jensen, E. (1998). Teaching With The Brain in Mind . Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Michaud, E., and R. Wild. (1991). Boost Your Brain Power . Emmaus, Pa: Rodale Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollatschek, J., and F. Hagen. (1996). “Smarter, Healthier, Happier.” International Health, Racquet, and Sportscub Association: Boston Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratey, J. (2001). A User’s Guide to the Brain . First Vintage Books: New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratey, J. (2008). SPARK: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain. Little Brown and Company: New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfe, P. (2001). Brain Matters . Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul>