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Printmaking is an indirect means of creating art by transferring an image or design by contact with a matrix such as a block, plate, stone, or screen.

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  1. 1. Two-Dimensional Art <ul><li>Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Printmaking </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Arts </li></ul>0
  2. 2. Printmaking
  3. 3. Printmaking <ul><li>Printmaking is an indirect means of creating art by transferring an image or design by contact with a matrix such as a block, plate, stone, or screen. </li></ul>
  4. 4. PRINTMAKING <ul><li>Matrix - the working surface that transfers the image; i.e., </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Block - Plate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stone - Screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Print - the transferred image. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Printmaking <ul><li>There are four basic manual processes used in </li></ul><ul><li>traditional printmaking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief - wood-cut, wood engraving, linoleum-cut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intaglio - dry point, engraving, etching, aquatint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planography - lithography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stencil - screenprint (silk-screen, serigraphy) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Importance of Printmaking <ul><li>Printmaking is important for two main reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Allows artists to disseminate their work to a larger patronage. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes art more accessible to the general public, not just the wealthy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Printmaking Original Print vs. Reproduction? An original print is a work of art created through contact with a matrix such as a stone, block, plate, or screen that was created by the artist; it must have been printed manually by the artist or under the artist's direct supervision and was approved by the artist for quality and excellence. Printed reproductions of drawings or paintings, no matter how aesthetically pleasing, are not to be considered original prints.
  8. 8. RELIEF PRINTING <ul><li>Types of relief printing include: </li></ul><ul><li>Lino-cut Woodcut Wood Engraving </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix: linoleum or wood block that has been carved with a knife or gouges. (Cut away the areas not to be printed) </li></ul><ul><li>Printing Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Ink is applied to the raised flat surfaces with a roller or brayer. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper is placed over the inked matrix and rubbed or pressed to transfer the image. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Lynd Ward. woodcut
  10. 11. Printmaking > Relief Woodcut <ul><li>Oldest form of printmaking. </li></ul><ul><li>After the invention of the print press it played an important role in book illustration. </li></ul><ul><li>Made by cutting along the grain of the flat surface of a wooden board with a knife. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Hokusai. The Great Wave color wood-cut
  12. 13. Printmaking > Relief Wood Engraving <ul><li>End grain or laminated block to create a hard, non-directional flat surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Burin is used to incise lines instead of using knives or gouges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very fine lines can be made with the burin, and these lines can give more detail and the illusion of tonal gradations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wood engravings were used to illustrate newspapers and books. </li></ul>
  13. 14. PAUL LANDACRE. Growing Corn (1940). Wood engraving. 8 1⁄2 ” x 4 1⁄4 ” .
  14. 15. Printmaking > Relief INTAGLIO <ul><li>Intaglio printing techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>- Engraving - Drypoint - Etching - Mezzotint - Aquatint </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix: metal plate into which lines have been incised. (Cut away the areas print) </li></ul><ul><li>Printing Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Plates are covered with ink which is forced into the grooves. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the ink is wiped off the flat surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Damp paper and plate are run through a press. </li></ul><ul><li>The paper is pressed in the lines and the image is transferred to the paper. The image is printed from ink left below the surface. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Printmaking > Relief Engraving <ul><li>Engraving is an ancient artistic method used to decorate metal surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Engravings on paper appear during the 15th century </li></ul><ul><li>Clean lines on copper, zinc, or steel are made using a burin. </li></ul><ul><li>The harder you push, the deeper the line, the more ink it holds, the darker the resulting line is on paper. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Drypoint <ul><li>Lines are scratched into the metal with a sharp tool. </li></ul><ul><li>A needle is dragged across the surface which leaves a rough edge or metal burr left in its wake. </li></ul><ul><li>This burr creates a soft line instead of a crisp line. </li></ul>
  17. 18. REMBRANDT. Christ Crucified between the Two Thieves (1653). Intaglio , 4th state. 15 ” x 17 1⁄2 ”
  18. 19. Etching <ul><li>Etching is an intaglio process, but there are unique differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pressure is used needle the lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for spontaneous lines </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical process (acid) bites the metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>A metal plate is covered with an acid resist liquid like wax or resin. </li></ul><ul><li>Once dry, the artist scratches through this surface with a needle tool to expose the metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Then you put the plate in acid and it eats away the exposed areas, deepening the lines. </li></ul>
  19. 20. GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO. A Negro (1770). Etching, 2nd state.
  20. 21. HUNG LIU. Untitled (1992). Photo-etching, mixed media. 33 ” x 22 1⁄2 ” .
  21. 22. Mezzotint <ul><li>A technique to create values; does not depend on line. </li></ul><ul><li>Mezzotint comes from the Italian word meaning “half tint”. </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely used today, painstaking and time consuming. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>The entire plate is worked with a mezzotint rocker or hatcher which creates thousands of tiny pits all over the surface. (The hatcher is a curved multi-toothed implement.) </li></ul><ul><li>Then you scrape and burnish the areas that you want to be white. </li></ul>
  22. 23. PABLO PICASSO. The Painter and His Model. (1964). Etching and aquatint. 12 5/8” x 18 1/2”.
  23. 24. Aquatint <ul><li>Technique to create values </li></ul><ul><li>Much easier and quicker than mezzotint </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>A metal plate is evenly coated with a fine powder of acid-resistant resin. The plate is heated making the resin melt and stick to the plate. </li></ul><ul><li>The plate is placed in acid and the exposed surfaces are eaten away. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatint is often used with line etching to make images that have tones that look like wash drawings. </li></ul>
  24. 25. JOSEF ALBERS. Solo V (1958). Inkless intaglio. 6 5/8” x 8 5/8”.
  25. 26. Other Etching Techniques <ul><li>Soft-ground etching - uses aground of softened wax. </li></ul><ul><li>Lift-ground - creates the illusion of brush and ink drawing by brushing a solution of sugar and water onto a resin-coated plate. </li></ul><ul><li>Gauffrage - ink less intaglio </li></ul>
  26. 27. Lithography <ul><li>Lithography or planographic printing - invented in the 19th-century by German playwright Aloys Senefelder. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike relief and intaglio printing, the matrix used in lithography is completely flat. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>A drawing is made with a greasy crayon on a flat stone slab. </li></ul><ul><li>A solution of nitric acir is applied as a fixative </li></ul><ul><li>The surface is then dampened with water. </li></ul><ul><li>The stone is covered with oily ink using a roller. (The ink sticks to the wax but not the water) </li></ul><ul><li>then paper is pressed to the stone and the ink is transferred from the wax. </li></ul>
  27. 28. WANG GUANGYI. Great Criticism: Coca-Cola (1990- 1992). Lithograph. 73 cm x 69 cm.
  28. 29. Serigraphy <ul><li>Serigraphy is also known as silkscreen and screen printing </li></ul><ul><li>Stencils are used to create the design or image </li></ul><ul><li>Silk, nylon, or a fine polyester mesh is stretched on a frame. </li></ul><ul><li>The stencil is applied to the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Paint or ink is forced through the screen using a squeegee </li></ul><ul><li>Photo screen printing - allows the artist to create photographic images on screen covered with a light-sensitive gel. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Monotype <ul><li>Although monotype is a printmaking technique, it also overlaps the areas of drawing and painting. </li></ul><ul><li>The product of monotype is a single, original work </li></ul><ul><li>Brayers and brushes are used; paint and ink can applied, scratched off, and over printed. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>The artist draws or paints with oil paint or watercolor on a nonabsorbent plate or block. </li></ul><ul><li>Fine detail is added by scratching paint off with a sharp implement. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper is pressed to the surface and the image is transferred. </li></ul>
  30. 31. EDGAR DEGAS. The Ballet Master (c. 1874). Monotype in black ink. 22 ” x 27 1⁄2 ” .