Introduction• Discuss the correlation between motion theories in science at this time and Baroque art.• Discuss the post-Renaissance styles that do not have much in common.• The Baroque period was irregular in its stylistic tendencies, but it gave us many treasured artworks.
The Age of Baroque• This period roughly spans from 1600 – 1750.• This is an age of genius in many fields of endeavor.• The Baroque period in Europe includes a number of post-Renaissance styles that do not have that much in common.
Baroque Art• Baroque - word is believed to derive from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning “irregularly shaped pearl.”• There was a continuation of Classicism and naturalism of the Renaissance.• At the same time, a more colorful, ornate, painterly, and dynamic style was developing.• Motion and space were concerns for artists and architects.• Additional concerns were with the concept of time, the dramatic use of light, and theatricality.
Artistic Styles Baroque Art • In Italy • Outside of Italy • Spain • Flanders • Holland • England • France • Rococo Art
The Baroque Period in Italy• Started in Rome – Perhaps as a reaction to the Protestant Reformation? – Also, in reaction to Mannerism• The Baroque period is also referred to as the Age of Expansion, especially in the arts.• Patron Popes of the Baroque included: – Paul V – Urban VIII – Innocent X
The Artists• Gianlorenzo Bernini• Caravaggio• Artemisia Gentileschi• Francesco Borromini• Diego Velazquez• Peter Paul Rubens• Rembrandt van Rijn• Jan Vermeer• Nicolas Poussin
ArchitectureSt. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome and its expansion and renovation is a good example of Baroque architecture. 1. Expresses Renaissance ideals 2. Stands as a Hallmark of the Baroque style 3. Brings together the works of the finest Renaissance and Baroque artists.• Carlo Maderno was the architect• Gianlorenzo Bernini was the sculptor.
St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome. Pope John Paul II lying in state at the foot of Bernini’s bronze canopy (left) in thetransept of St. Peter’s Basilica, April 6, 2005. Bernini’s St. Longinus can be seen in niche at right.
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger leading Mass in the transept of St. Peter’s Basilica.Mass held April 18, 2005, before cardinals sequestered themselves for their conclave. In the background is Francesco Mochi’s sculpture Saint Veronica (1629).
Gianlorenzo Bernini• Made numerous sculptures for St.Peter’s.• He also designed the piazza!His sculpture David embodies three of five characteristics of Baroque sculpture: – Motion – A different way of looking at space – The concept of time – Drama
GIANLORENZO BERNINI. The Ecstasy of St. Theresa (1645–1652). Marble. Height of group: approx. 11’6”.
Caravaggio• The theatrical Baroque sculpture had its counterpart in painting.• Caravaggio (Michelangelo de Merisi)• Portrayed dramatic movement, tenebrism, emotionally charged subjects, and figures caught in time.• Tenebrism - exaggerated chiaroscuro. Translated as “dark matter” it is often characterized by a small and concentrated light source in the painting or what appears to be an external ”spotlight” directed as a very specific point in the composition.
CARAVAGGIO. The Conversion of St. Paul (1600–1601). Oil on canvas. 90” x 69”.
Artemisia Gentileshi• 1593 - c.1652• Her father was a successful painter in Rome.• Work was emotional and depicted stories and subjects in a different light.• Was raped during her apprenticeship and many historians believe her personal struggles dealing with the trial of her accuser led to an obsession with her work Judith Decapitating Holofernes.• How do you think this might have affected her artwork?
Judith and Holofernes by Caravaggio & Artemisia Gentileschi• Both Baroque paintings are roughly contemporary.• One was created by an Italian male artist and one by an Italian female artist. How do you think gender influenced their artistic styles?• What are the subtle messages offered to us by Gentileschi?
CARAVAGGIO. Judith and Holofernes (c. 1598). Oil on canvas. Approx. 56 3⁄4” x 76 3⁄4”.
ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI. Judith Decapitating Holofernes (c. 1620). Oil on canvas. 72 ½” x 55 3⁄4”.
JACOPO TINTORETTO. Susannah and the Elders (1555–1556). Oil on canvas.
ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI. Susannah and the Elders (1610). Oil on canvas. 66 7⁄8” x 46 7⁄8”.
Ceiling Decoration• Baroque art wanted to combine architecture, sculpture, and painting.• Artist managed to do so on the ceilings of naves and domes of churches and cathedrals.• They created an illusion of depth using trompe l’oeil effects.• They used illusionist devices to create a total, mystical atmosphere.• Compare Baroque ceiling decoration to the Sistine Chapel ceiling
BACICCIO. Triumph of the Sacred Name of Jesus (1676–1679). Ceiling fresco.
Francesco Borromini• Successfully incorporated the Baroque elements of motion, space, and lighting into his architecture.• His work moved from the static to the organic.• Plasticity - the ability of any material, object, or design to change or transform.
The Baroque Period outside Italy• Italian Baroque ideas were used by artists throughout Europe.• Northern artists were interested in realism.• Dutch artists painted everyday scenes and perfected the genre painting.• Spain and Flanders adopted the Venetian use of color and created energetic motion with brushwork.• France and England adopted Baroque’s Classicism.
Spain• Spain was one of the wealthiest countries in Europe at this time, due to the influx of riches from the New World.• The court was lavish in its support of foreign artists, but especially its native talent.The artists:• Diego Velásquez• Francisco de Zurbarán
Diego Velázquez• 1599-1660• Court painter for King Phillip IV. Used: – Baroque techniques and Venetian colors. – Stark contrast in lights and darks – Deep illusionist space – Common folk as models – Harsh realism by using real faces and natural attitudes in his main characters. – Small rough textured brushstrokes that would be the foundation of the impressionist movement.
DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ. Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) (1656). Oil on canvas. 10’5” x 9’ 3⁄4”.
Flanders• After Martin Luther’s Reformation the region of Flanders was divided. – The Northern half became the Dutch Republic, present day Holland. – The southern half became Flanders, Belgium.• The Dutch Republic became Protestant and Flanders became Catholic.• The Dutch painted genre scenes and Flanders artists painted religious and mythological scenes.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens• Most sought after artist of his time.• Ambassador, diplomat, and court painter. Used: – Sculptural qualities in figures – Dramatic chiaroscuro – Color and texture like the Venetians – Theatrical presentation like the Italian Baroque – Dynamic energy and unleashed passion of the Baroque
PETER PAUL RUBENS. The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (1617). Oil on canvas. 7’3” x 6’10”.
Holland• Artists of the Low Countries turned to secular artistic themes.• They followed the Protestant mandate that humans not create “false idols” in any form of art.• The middle class became collectors of art.• Landscape, still-life, and genre paintings were desirable.The artists:• Rembrandt van Rijn• Jan Vermeer
Rembrandt van Rijn• 1602 – 1669• Painted many self portraits that give insight into his life and personality.• Known for large group portraits.• Often focused on the psychology of a certain situation rather than its surface characteristics.• Master of manipulating light.• Rich colors and strokes of heavy impasto.• Died out to fashion and penniless at age 63.
REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. Self-Portrait (1652). Oil on canvas. 45” x 32”.
REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. Syndics of the Drapers’ Guild (1661–1662). Oil on canvas. 72 7⁄8” x 107 1⁄8”.
Jan Vermeer• Typifies the Dutch interest in painting scenes from daily life. Ties to the Baroque style: 1. The single light source 2. The genre subject 3. The bit of mystery surrounding the moment
JAN VERMEER. Young Woman with a Water Jug (c. 1665). Oil on canvas. 18” x 16”.
France• France’s “sun king,” Louis XIV, preferred Classicism, and he created academies and teachers to perpetuate this Baroque style• The French Baroque is a more reserved style, toward RaphaelThe artists:• Nicholas Poussin - main exponent of Classical style in France.Used: – More static staged motion – And, sculptural Raphaelesque figures.
NICOLAS POUSSIN. The Rape of the Sabine Women (c. 1636–1637). Oil on canvas. 60 7⁄8” x 82 5⁄8”.
Architecture• The French king’s taste for the classical extended to architecture.• The Palace of Versailles is one of the grandest monuments in the French Baroque. – Divides into Classically balanced threes. The architects: – Louis le Vaux – Jules Hardouin-Mansart
LOUIS LE VAU and JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART. Palace of Versailles, as seen from the garden (1669–1685).
England• England’s most significant contribution to the arts in the 17th and 18th century was in the realism of architecture. The architects: – Inigo Jones – Sir Christopher Wren • Wren’s masterpiece is the new St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
The Rococo• Rococo is a unique style within the Baroque period and strays further away from Classicism.• It is a more ornate style that shows sweetness, gaiety, and light, painterly and pastel features.• It is chiefly characterized by the representation of leisurely, frivolous, activities of upper class society. The artists (painting): – Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun
JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD. Happy Accidents of the Swing (1767). Oil on canvas. 31 7⁄8” x 25 3⁄8”.
ÉLISABETH VIGÉE-LEBRUN. Marie Antoinette and Her Children (1781). Oil on canvas. 8’8” x 6’10”.
Enlightenment, Revolution, the Scientific, and the NaturalThe Philosophers• Voltaire (1694-1778) – Held that science and rationalism are key to the improvement of the human condition.• Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Believed that feeling and emotions trumped reason and that the return to the natural, or the “primitive state” would lead to the salvation of humankind. – Lead to the demise of the RoccoThe Artists:• Thomas Gainsborough• John Singleton Copley
Discussion Questions:• Why do you think we see such genius in the arts and sciences at this time?• Why is Baroque art different in Italy than in Northern Europe?• Why would modern art develop after the Baroque period?• Why would revolutions be the outcome of the Rococo era?