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What is architecture?

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  1. 1. 0<br />Three-Dimensional Art<br /> Sculpture<br /> Architecture<br /> Craft & Design<br />
  2. 2. 0<br />“The mother art is architecture. Without an architecture of our own, we have no soul of our own civilization.”<br /> –Frank Lloyd Wright<br />
  3. 3. 0<br />Introduction<br />What is architecture?<br />Why is architecture important to us?<br />Why does architecture, of all the arts, have the greatest impact on our lives?<br />
  4. 4. What is Architecture?<br />Architecture is the art of building. <br />It satisfies a basic, universal human need for shelter. <br />An architect is an artist who designs structures to enclose residential, commercial, or public space. <br />Architects work with construction technologies, building materials, topography, contractors, and governmental regulations within a project budget to satisfy their clients' wants and needs.<br />
  5. 5. Architecture<br />Architecture - The art and science of designing buildings, and other structures to meet our personal and communal needs.<br />It is also a vehicle for artistic expression in three-dimensions.<br />The architect mediates between the client and the selected site.<br />
  6. 6. Architectural Materials<br />Stone, Wood, Concrete, Iron, Steel <br />
  7. 7. Dolmen, Megalithic. Donegal, Ireland<br />
  8. 8. STONE CONSTRUCTION<br />Massive and virtually indestructible. <br />Symbol of strength and permanence.<br />expresses warmth<br />Terms:<br />Kivas - Circular underground communities centers created by the native American Cliff dwellers. <br />Adobe - dried mud used in architectural construction.<br />
  9. 9. Post and Lintel Construction<br />
  10. 10. Post and Lintel Construction<br />Stonehenge, Megalithic, Wiltshire, England<br />
  11. 11. Cliff Dwellings, Mesa Verde, Colorado (Native American, Pre-Columbian).<br />
  12. 12. Dry Masonry<br />Walls of Fortress of Machu Picchu, Urubamba Valley, Peru (Incan, 1490–1530).<br />
  13. 13. Stone as a favored material<br />Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak (Egyptian, XVIII dynasty, 1570–1342 BCE).<br />
  14. 14. Stone as a favored material<br /> Ictinos and Callicrates. The Parthenon, The Acropolis, Athens, Greece<br />
  15. 15. The Arch<br />Arches span distances without the use of interior supports.<br />They provide support for other structures, such as roofs.<br />They, also, serve as symbolic gateways, as in the Arch of Triumph in Paris, France.<br />
  16. 16. Rounded Arches<br />Rounded arches enclosing square bay<br />
  17. 17. Pointed Arches<br />Pointed arches enclosing rectangular bay.<br />
  18. 18. Tunnel or barrel vault<br />
  19. 19. Groin vaulting<br />
  20. 20. Ribbed vaulting: Groin vault showing ribs that carry greatest loads<br />
  21. 21. Flying buttress<br />
  22. 22. Notre Dame Cathedral, Gothic, Paris, France<br />
  23. 23. Notre Dame Cathedral, Gothic, Paris, France<br />
  24. 24. Stone is an elegant Gothic structural method for examples see:<br />Cathedral of Notre Dame<br />Pointed arches<br />Groin vaulting<br />Ribbed vaulting<br />Flying buttresses<br />Ample fenestration<br />Stained glass windows<br />
  25. 25. Domes<br />Domes are hemispherical forms<br />They are rounded when viewed from underneath<br />They are extensions of the principle of the arch<br />They are capable of enclosing a vast amount of space<br />Pendentives - triangular surfaces used to support the dome on a square base. <br />Piers - structures under the pendentives that the load of the dome is transferred to<br />Veneers - thin facades<br />
  26. 26. Dome<br />
  27. 27. The Pantheon, Rome<br />
  28. 28. HagiaSophia, Byzantine Church, Istanbul<br />
  29. 29. Other Uses of Stone in Construction<br />Stone is rarely used today as a structural material<br />Expensive to quarry and transport<br />Mostly stone veneers are used<br />Decorative stone used on façades<br />Stone slabs are used for entry halls, patios, and gardens.<br />
  30. 30. Wood Construction<br />Advantages:<br />Attractive<br />Versatile<br />Abundant/Renewable<br />Light<br />Can be worked onsite with portable hand tools<br />Variety of colors and grains<br />Weathers well<br />Can be painted<br />Can be used on the façade or as a structural material<br />Disadvantages:<br />Warps<br />Cracks<br />Highly flammable<br />Termites<br />Rot<br />
  31. 31. Post and Beam Construction<br /> Similar to post-and-lintel construction<br /> Vertical and horizontal timbers are cut and pieced together with wooden pegs<br /> The beams allow for windows, doors, and interior supports<br /> Supports another story or roofs<br />
  32. 32. Postandbeam construction<br />
  33. 33. Post and Beam<br />
  34. 34. Trusses<br />Trusses - Lengths of wood, iron, or steel pieced together in a triangular shape<br />Trusses span larger distances<br />Trusses are used as design and engineering elements<br />
  35. 35. Trusses<br />
  36. 36. Balloon Framing<br />An American construction building technique.<br />A product of the Industrial Revolution (early 20th century)<br />Mass production and assembly of materials<br />Originally “balloon framing” was an insulting term due to the fact that people were skeptical that it would work. <br />
  37. 37. Balloon framing.<br />
  38. 38. Cape Cod–style houses built by Levitt & Sons, Levittown, NY (c. 1947–1951).<br />
  39. 39. CAST IRON CONSTRUCTION<br />Cast-Iron<br />Was also a product of the 19th century’s Industrial Revolution<br />It was a welcome alternative to stone and wood<br />Allowed for the erection of taller buildings with thinner walls<br />Has great strength but is heavy<br />Prefabrication <br />Steel-cage construction<br />
  40. 40. Engraving of Sir Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace, London (1851).<br />
  41. 41. GUSTAVE EIFFEL. Eiffel Tower, Paris (1889).<br />
  42. 42. Steel-Cage Architecture<br />Very strong metal with some carbon and other metals<br />Harder than cast iron and very expensive; however, less of the material needs to be used<br />Skeletal forms of steel result in “steel cages”<br />Façades and inner walls are hung from the skeleton<br />
  43. 43. Terms<br />Steel - strong metal of iron alloyed with small amounts of carbon and a variety of other metals. <br />Steel cages - skeletal forms onto which I-beams can be riveted or welded. <br />Pilasters<br />
  44. 44. Steel-cage construction.<br />
  45. 45. Louis Sullivan. Wainwright Building, St. Louis, MO (1890).<br />
  46. 46. “Less is more.”<br />–Ludwig Miës van der Rohe<br />
  47. 47. REINFORCED CONCRETE<br />Reinforced Concrete - (or ferroconcrete)<br />Steel rods and/or steel mesh are inserted into wet concrete.<br />Steel is inserted at points of greatest stress before hardening.<br />Advantages: <br />Less susceptible to pulling apart at stress points<br />The concrete prevents the steel from rusting. <br />Can span great distances then stone<br />Supports more weight then steel<br />Can take on more natural shapes.<br />
  48. 48. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT. Kaufmann House (“Fallingwater”), Bear Run, PA (1936). <br />
  49. 49. MOSHE SAFDIE. Habitat, Expo 67, Montreal (1967).<br />
  50. 50. STEEL-CABLE ARCHITECTURE<br />Steel-cable bridges are not new. The Asian culture has made suspension bridges for thousands of years. <br />Steel Cable - many parallel wires are intertwined so that they share the stress of the load. <br />Advantages:<br />Strong <br />Flexible<br />Can sway during weather and traffic conditions<br />
  51. 51. Figure 11.18, p.228: JOHN A. ROEBLING. Brooklyn Bridge, New York (1869–1883).<br />
  52. 52. SHELL ARCHITECTURE<br /> Modern materials and engineering methods now enclose spaces with inexpensive shell structures.<br /> Shells are capable of spanning greater spaces<br /> Constructed from reinforced concrete, wood, steel, etc.<br /> Concept as old as the tent or new as a geodesic dome<br />
  53. 53. BUCKMINSTER FULLER. United States Pavilion, Expo 67, Montreal (1967).<br />
  54. 54. NEW MATERIALS, NEW VISIONS<br />New idea in architecture: “If you can think it, we can build it.”<br />Global architects now adopt high-tech metals and methods.<br />Different visions concerning assembling designs and buildings have created new and interesting buildings. <br />Architects are also using unorthodox building materials.<br />
  55. 55. EERO SAARINEN. Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, Gateway Arch, St. Louis, MO (1966).<br />
  56. 56. Discussion Questions:<br />Why is architecture so important to us as humans?<br />Why is architecture an artform and a science (engineering)?<br />