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  1. 1. 7 MORTGAGES 7.1 Mortgage Lending 7.2 Mortgage Loan Processing 7.3 Mortgages and the Law 7.4 Government-Backed LoansSlide 1 © South-Western Publishing
  2. 2. Lesson 7.1 MORTGAGE LENDING GOALS Define the term mortgage Identify several types of mortgagesSlide 2 © South-Western Publishing
  3. 3. WHAT IS A MORTGAGE? Today, a mortgage is a note, usually long-term, secured by real property. Essentially, a mortgage places a lien on the property that is not released until the debt is paid. If the mortgage is not paid, the creditor seeks a court-ordered sale of the property called a foreclosure, and the debt is paid from those funds.Slide 3 © South-Western Publishing
  4. 4. FIXED RATE MORTGAGES Fixed rate mortgages, also called conventional mortgages, are loans with a fixed rate of interest for the life of the loan. Payments on the loan are set for the life of the loan. Terms are set for the life of the loan. The most common terms are 30- and 15-year terms.Slide 4 © South-Western Publishing
  5. 5. BALLOON MORTGAGE In a balloon mortgage, the interest rate and payment stay fixed, but at some specified point, the entire remaining balance of the loan is due in one single “balloon” payment.Slide 5 © South-Western Publishing
  6. 6. ADJUSTABLE RATE MORTGAGES  Adjustable rate mortgages (ARMs) are those with rates that change over the course of the loan.  Usually the interest rate and payments are fixed for some period of time at the outset but then change according to some index value.  Some of the things that can vary are:  Interest rate  Adjustment interval  Payment  Periodic cap  Index  Lifetime cap  FormulaSlide 6 © South-Western Publishing
  7. 7. BUY-DOWN MORTGAGE In a buy-down mortgage, the borrower buys down, or prepays, part of the interest in order to get a lower rate. The borrower pays points to the lender at the outset, and the lender agrees to lower the rate so much per point. A point is a value equal to 1 percent of the loan.Slide 7 © South-Western Publishing
  8. 8. SHARED APPRECIATION MORTGAGE (SAM) A shared appreciation mortgage can lower interest rates for borrowers who agree to share later with the lender some part of the amount the house appreciates. Appreciation is the amount that a house increases in value.Slide 8 © South-Western Publishing
  9. 9. REFINANCING Refinancing is starting over with an entirely new loan, using part or all of the loan funds to pay off the old mortgage. If interest rate are low, consumers save money by getting new mortgages at lower rates. Banks and other lenders earn money on fees, points, and closing costs of the new loan.Slide 9 © South-Western Publishing
  10. 10. HOME EQUITY LOANS Equity is the difference between what an item is worth and what is owed on it. Homeowners can use the difference between what they owe and what their homes are worth to secure a loan.Slide 10 © South-Western Publishing
  11. 11. REVERSE MORTGAGES  A reverse mortgage is not used to purchase a home.  It is a form of consumer loan tied to the appreciated value of a property.  In most cases, reverse mortgages are limited to homeowners 62 years or older.  With a reverse mortgage, a homeowner receives a sum from the lender secured by the value of a home and does not pay the loan back as long as he or she lives there. The lender is repaid, including fees and interest, when the borrower sells or dies.Slide 11 © South-Western Publishing
  12. 12. Lesson 7.2 MORTGAGE LOAN PROCESSING GOALS Describe the components involved in obtaining a mortgage Explain the mortgage approval processSlide 12 © South-Western Publishing
  13. 13. OBTAINING A MORTGAGE Lenders typically require a down payment of 5, 10, or 20 percent for a mortgage. A larger down payment lowers the cost of the monthly payment and may affect how the lender views the borrower. Most lenders do not want a person’s housing cost to exceed 25 to 28 percent of gross monthly income. Total debt should not exceed 36 percent.Slide 13 © South-Western Publishing
  14. 14. MONTHLY PAYMENTS Monthly payments to the lender usually consist of PITI or Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance.Slide 14 © South-Western Publishing
  15. 15. PITI  Principal is the remaining unpaid balance of the mortgage.  Interest is the amount that goes toward interest.  Taxes include local real estate taxes.  Most lenders require an amount to be paid to them in advance, called escrow, from which they pay the real estate taxes.  Insurance refers to property insurance and sometimes private mortgage insurance.  Almost all mortgages require the homeowner to maintain adequate property insurance.  Private mortgage insurance (PMI) protects the lender against loan default.Slide 15 © South-Western Publishing
  16. 16. THE APPROVAL PROCESS Application Documentation Underwriting Drawing documents Closing RecordingSlide 16 © South-Western Publishing
  17. 17. Lesson 7.3 MORTGAGES AND THE LAW GOALS Describe consumer protection laws that apply to mortgage lending Describe laws directly related to mortgage lendingSlide 17 © South-Western Publishing
  18. 18. CONSUMER PROTECTION LEGISLATION Truth in Lending Act (TILA) Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) Gramm-Leach-Bliley ActSlide 18 © South-Western Publishing
  19. 19. MORTGAGE LEGISLATION In addition to consumer legislation, other laws exist that relate directly to mortgage lending. Complying with this legislation and documenting compliance requires considerable effort and expense on the part of the financial institutions.Slide 19 © South-Western Publishing
  20. 20. COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT Congress passed the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) of 1977 in response to widespread complaints that some banks refused to lend to residents of certain neighborhoods, a practice called redlining.Slide 20 © South-Western Publishing
  21. 21. HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE ACT The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) of 1974 was a forerunner of the CRA. It requires banks and other financial institutions to record and report data on home lending in order to identify possible discriminatory patterns.Slide 21 © South-Western Publishing
  22. 22. HOME OWNERSHIP AND EQUITY PROTECTION ACT Congress passed the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act (HOEPA) in 1994 to protect consumers against predatory lending. Provisions of this act also apply to second mortgages and refinancing.Slide 22 © South-Western Publishing
  23. 23. REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT Congress enacted the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) of 1974 to protect consumers from hidden costs or expensive surprises at closing time. The law requires disclosures to be provided to the borrower at various times during the transaction.Slide 23 © South-Western Publishing
  24. 24. THE HOMEOWNERS’ PROTECTION ACT OF 1998 The Homeowners’ Protection Act of 1998 requires that lenders drop PMI when equity reaches 22 percent in loans closed after July 29, 1999.Slide 24 © South-Western Publishing
  25. 25. Lesson 7.4 GOVERNMENT- BACKED LOANS GOALS Explain the concept of government-backed loans Identify government-backed programs to encourage home lendingSlide 25 © South-Western Publishing
  26. 26. WHAT IS A GOVERNMENT-BACKED LOAN? Numerous government programs help banks help people get loans. In most of these programs, the banks provide funding and the government absorbs some of the risk.Slide 26 © South-Western Publishing
  27. 27. FEDERAL MORTGAGE PROGRAMS The Federal Housing Administration, established in 1934, supported both homebuyers and banks by replenishing funds available for home lending. Today, there are many such programs with varying missions, services, and operations, but the twin benefits of both supporting homeowners and backing the banking industry continues.Slide 27 © South-Western Publishing
  28. 28. FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (FHA) During the Great Depression Established to help the housing industry get back on its feet Guaranteed loans and provided mortgage insurance Pioneered long-term loansSlide 28 © South-Western Publishing
  29. 29. HUD OFFICE OF HOUSING Today, what was once the FHA is now the Office of Housing and is part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The Office of Housing continues to guarantee FHA loans and provide mortgage insurance.Slide 29 © South-Western Publishing
  30. 30. FANNIE MAE The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) was created in 1938 as part of the FHA. Fannie Mae is a government-chartered corporation that buys mortgages from the originating institutions and either keeps them or exchanges them for securities which it guarantees. Fannie Mae is now an independent corporation.Slide 30 © South-Western Publishing
  31. 31. FREDDIE MAC The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation was created in 1970 as a fully independent corporation. Freddie Mac buys home mortgages from banks and other lending institutions and combines them into large groups, selling interest in the groups to investors.Slide 31 © South-Western Publishing
  32. 32. GINNIE MAE The Government National Mortgage Association is part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Freddie Mac neither buys nor sells mortgages. It backs securities issued by holders of pools of mortgages.Slide 32 © South-Western Publishing
  33. 33. VETERANS ADMINISTRATION (VA) Loans from the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) have helped millions of service men and women get government-backed loans with low down payments. VA loans allow qualified veterans to buy, build, remodel, or refinance a home.Slide 33 © South-Western Publishing
  34. 34. NCHSA  The National Council of State Housing Agencies (NCHSA) is a national organization of Housing Finance Agencies (HFAs) throughout the states that provide and administer programs for lower-income and other people who seek help at the state level to buy or renovate a home.  There are also 350 affiliated profit and nonprofit agencies that work in this field.  These agencies and firms have a variety of programs for affordable housing.Slide 34 © South-Western Publishing
  35. 35. OTHER GOVERNMENT-BACKED LOANS There are many other government-backed loan programs. It is not easy to find every government loan program. The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance is available in government depository libraries and online at www.cfda.govSlide 35 © South-Western Publishing