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Banking & Finance Chapter 1

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  1. 1. 1 THE BUSINESS OF BANKING 1.1 Introduction to Banking 1.2 Role of Banks in the Economy 1.3 How the Banking System Works 1.4 Other Financial InstitutionsSlide 1 © South-Western Publishing
  2. 2. Lesson 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO BANKING GOALS Define the business of banking Identify trends in modern bankingSlide 2 © South-Western Publishing
  3. 3. WHAT IS A BANK? A bank is a business. Banks sell their services to earn money. Banks must earn a profit to survive.Slide 3 © South-Western Publishing
  4. 4. A UNIQUE BUSINESSThe services banks offer to customers have to do almost entirely with handling money for other people. Money is a medium of exchange—an agreed upon system for measuring values of goods and services. Money shows how much something is worth.A bank is a financial intermediary for the safeguarding, transferring, exchanging, or lending of money. An intermediary is a facilitator acting between parties. Banks facilitate the flow of money throughout our economy.Slide 4 © South-Western Publishing
  5. 5. TYPES OF BANKS Commercial banks Retail banks Central banksSlide 5 © South-Western Publishing
  6. 6. BANKING TODAY Traditionally, banking was viewed as a solid and slow-moving industry. Banking today is an exciting, fast-moving, around-the-clock, around-the-world activity.Slide 6 © South-Western Publishing
  7. 7. MERGERS A merger occurs when one or more banks join or acquire another bank or banks. Mergers increase the size of banks, giving them more resources. Mergers decrease the number of banks. Mergers have created an opening for a new wave of small local banks.Slide 7 © South-Western Publishing
  8. 8. TOP TEN LARGESTBANKS WORLDWIDE (Ranked by size of assets) Bank Country Mizuho Financial Group Japan Citigroup United States Deutsche Bank Germany JP Morgan Chase Co. United States Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi Japan HSBC Holdings United Kingdom Hypo Vereinsbank Germany UBS Switzerland BNP Paribas France Bank of America Corp. United StatesSlide 8 © South-Western Publishing
  9. 9. TECHNOLOGY Impact on bankers Accounting, auditing, and examining functions have been taken over by fast and efficient technology. Funds transfer, record keeping, and financial analyses have become instantaneous. Impact on consumers Automated teller machines (ATMs) “Smart” cards Online bankingSlide 9 © South-Western Publishing
  10. 10. COMPETITION As government regulations have changed, competition between banks has become fiercer. Banks compete with each other and with other businesses that sell financial services.Slide 10 © South-Western Publishing
  11. 11. Lesson 1.2 ROLE OF BANKS IN THE ECONOMY GOALS List banking activities that contribute to economic stability Explain how banking expands the economySlide 11 © South-Western Publishing
  12. 12. BANKS AND ECONOMICS Money is a medium of exchange and the basis of the modern economy. Banks and other institutions play a critical role in performing services that are essential to the functioning of an economy.Slide 12 © South-Western Publishing
  13. 13. KEEPING YOUR MONEY SAFE Record keeping Identification Enforcement Transfer security Sound business practicesSlide 13 © South-Western Publishing
  14. 14. SPREADING THE WEALTH Banks play a key role in transferring money to provide growth and stabilizing the monetary supply. Bank lending makes money available to consumers and businesses to make purchases they might not otherwise be able to make.Slide 14 © South-Western Publishing
  15. 15. TRANSFERRING Between banks Between banks and individual customers Between banks and industry Between banks and governments Between governmentsSlide 15 © South-Western Publishing
  16. 16. LENDING Loans to businesses Loans to governments Loans to individuals Credit cards Home loans Automobile loansSlide 16 © South-Western Publishing
  17. 17. CREDITWORTHINESS Evaluating the creditworthiness of customers is a banking function that affects the economy at large. Banking policies and regulations regarding creditworthiness and the ratio of loans to deposits help guarantee a secure financial environment.Slide 17 © South-Western Publishing
  18. 18. GUARANTEEING THE MONEY In the United States, banks and the government work together to form the banking system and to make sure the money supply is adequate, appropriate, and trustworthy. Much of this guarantee is backed through the central banking function of the Federal Reserve. Individual banks work with the government to implement monetary policy, perform exchange functions, and defeat counterfeiters of currency. Banks guarantee their own policies.Slide 18 © South-Western Publishing
  19. 19. THE SUBSTANCE OF SOCIETY A great part of the economic system is psychological. Banks are at the heart of our financial system, and their effect on your life cannot be calculated.Slide 19 © South-Western Publishing
  20. 20. Lesson 1.3 HOW THE BANKING SYSTEM WORKS GOALS Explain how banks acquire money to do business Identify new services that banks offer to stay competitiveSlide 20 © South-Western Publishing
  21. 21. MONEY AT WORK Banks earn money in various ways. Most of their income comes from the interest that people or businesses pay as they repay a loan. When banks lend money, they put it to work.Slide 21 © South-Western Publishing
  22. 22. THE SPREAD The difference between what a bank pays in interest and what it receives in interest is called the spread, or net interest income. The spread is not pure profit. The spread is income, or revenue. Profit is what is left of revenue after costs are deducted.Slide 22 © South-Western Publishing
  23. 23. OTHER FUNDS In addition to interest income, banks have other sources of income. They charge for various services such as rental of safe-deposit boxes, account maintenance fees for checking accounts, fees for online bill payments, and ATM transaction fees. Banks make money on investments. Banks may have funds at their disposal from stockholder investments.Slide 23 © South-Western Publishing
  24. 24. ASSETS AND LIABILITIES An asset is anything of value. In financial terms, that usually means money. A liquid asset is anything that can readily be exchanged, like cash. A liability, in financial terms, is a cash obligation.Slide 24 © South-Western Publishing
  25. 25. TWO PRINCIPLES OF BANKING A bank’s liabilities exceed its reserves. A bank’s liabilities are more liquid than its assets.Slide 25 © South-Western Publishing
  26. 26. BANKS WORKING FOR YOU Banking has changed radically in the last 20 years. Large regional banks have huge resources. Smaller banks use the flexibility that sometimes comes with smaller size to their advantage.Slide 26 © South-Western Publishing
  27. 27. CHANGES IN TRADITIONAL SERVICES Branch locations Extended hours Drive-up windows Variety of checking accounts Savings options Personal serviceSlide 27 © South-Western Publishing
  28. 28. NEW SERVICES Credit cards Innovative lending Automated teller machines (ATMs) Smart cards Online bankingSlide 28 © South-Western Publishing
  29. 29. Lesson 1.4 OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS GOALS Explain depository financial institutions Explain nondepository financial institutionsSlide 29 © South-Western Publishing
  30. 30. TYPES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS Depository intermediaries Obtain funds from the public Use the funds to finance their business Nondepository intermediaries Do not take or hold deposits Earn their money by selling specific services or policiesSlide 30 © South-Western Publishing
  31. 31. DEPOSITORY INTERMEDIARIES Commercial banks Savings and loan associations Mutual savings banks Credit unionsSlide 31 © South-Western Publishing
  32. 32. NONDEPOSITORY INTERMEDIARIES Insurance companies Trusts companies/pension funds Brokerage houses Loan companies Currency exchangesSlide 32 © South-Western Publishing