Science Standard 5-3
The student will demonstrate an
understanding of features,
processes, and changes in Earth's
land and oceans.
5-3.1 Explain how natural
processes (including weathering,
erosion, deposition, landslides,
volcanic eruptions, earthquakes,
and floods) affect Earth's oceans
and land in constructive and
Building up an
existing landform or
forming a new one
This building is being CONSTRUCTED.
or destroying an existing
This building is being DESTRUCTED.
What are natural
How do they affect
land and oceans?
This is a destructive force and
can be chemical or physical. It
causes the surface of the earth
to dissolve, decompose, and
break into smaller pieces.
• Weathering: A slow, destructive
process that breaks rocks into smaller
pieces called sediment.
This is a destructive force. It is
the movement of sediments
and soil by wind, water, and
• The movement of materials away from
• Erosion is destructive.
Tune: "Jingle Bells"
Running down a hill
Or coming down as snow,
Water causes much
Erosion, this we know.
Wave action moves the beach.
A river carves the land.
Everywhere that water goes,
It Carries dirt or sand.
Oh, wind and rain, snow and ice,
Water running free;
These all cause land to erode
With changes we can see.
Wind and rain, snow and ice,
Water running free;
These all cause land to erode
With changes we can see .
Wind blowing in a gale,
Or as gentle as a breeze,
Wears the rock away,
And carries sand with ease.
A hurricane last year,
And glaciers long ago,
Are ways that natural forces use
To change the earth we know.
This is a constructive force. It
builds up new land by dropping
or depositing sediments via
water, wind, or ice.
This is a destructive force. This
is a mass movement of land
due to gravity. Landslides even
occur in the ocean on the
fall, or power
and gas lines
This is a constructive force. During
an eruption, melted rock rises
from deep within the earth and
reaches the surface. They can
also occur under the oceans.
that are built
up under the
This is a destructive force.
Earthquakes are vibrations or a
shaking of the ground caused
by energy that is released from
the Earth’s crust.
Earthquakes under the ocean
can cause huge waves
(tsunamis) that cause great
damage if they come ashore.
This is both a destructive force and
a constructive force. Floods occur
when a large amount of water
covers land that is normally dry.
Rapid erosion can take place, but
new sediment is left behind when
the water recedes.
5-3.2 Illustrate the geologic
landforms of the ocean floor:
We will begin our journey where land
meets the ocean.
Do you know where we are?
Yes. At the beach.
Beaches are the fastest changing part
of the ocean. They change with every
• The continental shelf is where the edge
of the continent slopes down from the
shore into the ocean.
• It is the part of the continent located under
• It is not the deepest part
of the ocean.
• The continental slope is a steep drop-off
at the edge of the shelf.
• It drops to the bottom of the ocean floor,
making the water much deeper.
• A mountain range on the ocean floor.
• Some of these mountains are volcanic.
• Volcanic mountains that ARE NOT found on
the mid-ocean ridges are called seamounts.
For more information on the ridges, visit
• In the center of the highest part of the midocean ridge is a narrow trench called a rift.
• Underwater volcanic activity that adds
mountains to either side of the mid-ocean
ridge occurs at the rift zone.
• The ocean trench is a steep sided
canyon or deep narrow valley in the
bottom of the ocean.
• Trenches are the deepest part of the
ocean basin and deeper than any valley
found on land.
• The ocean basin is located on either side
of the mid-ocean ridge.
• It is made up of low hills and flat plains.
• The flat area of the basin is called the
• This is where seamounts are generally
• These are volcanic mountains not
formed on the mid-ocean ridge.
Compare continental and
Earth is made of solid land.
Some of the land is located
above Earth’s water and some
is located below the oceans.
Explain how landforms above
the oceans are similar to
those found below the oceans.
Low hills or plains
Ocean basin and
5-3.4 Explain how waves,
currents, tides, and storms affect
the geologic features of the
ocean shore zone (including
beaches, barrier islands,
estuaries, and inlets).
The shoreline, or coast, is the
area where the land meets the
ocean. Some shorelines are
rocky. Shorelines made of sand
are called beaches. Shorelines
are always changing because of
wind and water.
Waves can wear away the land
and expose a rocky shore or the
waves can deposit sand along the
shore and form a beach. If the
waves reach the beach at an
angle, the sand is moved along
Currents, called longshore
currents, along the shoreline can
move sand from one location to
Tides can bring in sand, shells,
and ocean sediments at high tide
and leave them behind when the
tide goes out.
Islands are pieces of land
surrounded by water on all sides.
Islands with sandy beaches are
called barrier islands.
These barrier islands are naturally
occurring and function to protect
the mainland from the effects of
waves on its shore. As the waves
deposit sand on the beaches, the
shapes of the barrier islands
Currents can move the sand from
one end of the island to the other.