Om plant_layout

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Om plant_layout

  1. 1. Facility Layout
  2. 2. Manufacturing Process Layout ..example L L L L L L L L L L M M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G P P A A AReceiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department
  3. 3. Store Layout.. example Sporting Goods Women’s department Furniture Shoes Cosmetics & Jewelry Entry & display area House wares Children’s department Men’s department
  4. 4. When is Facility Layout Necessary? • A new facility is constructed. • Significant changes in production volumes. • New products introduced. • New processes and equipment being installed.
  5. 5. Objective of Facility Layout • Develop an economic layout that will meet the requirements: – Product/service cost – Efficiency of operations – Flexibility – Quality – Building and site constraints
  6. 6. Systematic Layout A Absolutely necessary E Especially important I Important O Ordinary importance U Unimportant X Undesirable
  7. 7. Facility layout enables… • Placement of departments, workstations, machines, storage points within a productive facility. • Smooth work flow (factory) • A particular service pattern (service)
  8. 8. Inputs For Facility Layout • Product/Service • Demand • Objective of the system • Processing requirements • Space
  9. 9. Some Specific Objectives • Minimize delays. • Maintain flexibility. • Use labor and space effectively. • Promote high employee morale. • Provide for good housekeeping and maintenance.
  10. 10. Advantages of Good Layout • Shorter manufacturing times. • Reduced work-in-process inventory. • Reduced floor space. • Substantially reduced material handling costs. • Simplified scheduling and control systems. • Improved product quality. • Enhanced manufacturing flexibility.
  11. 11. Different Types of Layout • Fixed position layout – The equipment is brought to the object being processed. • Process oriented layout – Similar pieces of equipment are grouped together. • Product oriented layout – The pieces of equipment required to make a particular product are grouped together.
  12. 12. Different Types of Layout • Cellular (Group Technology) layout – Pieces of equipment required to make a family of products are put together. • Office layout • Retail/Service • Warehouse
  13. 13. Work Flow Formats • Product Oriented - unbroken workflow beginning to end. Ex : assembly line. • Process Oriented - processing components grouped. Ex : job shop • Project oriented - product in a fixed location Ex : manufactured housing
  14. 14. Work Flow Format ... • Cellular (Group Technology) Layout - grouping into part families of items with similar design or processing characteristics. • Flexible Manufacturing - fully automated cellular systems where transfer of parts and work are automated.
  15. 15. Fixed Position Layout… • Building a ship, bridge, building, etc. • Layout is complicated because of – Limited space – At different stages in the construction process different materials are needed. – Volume of material needed is dynamic. COMPLETE AS MUCH PROJECT AS POSSIBLE OFFSITE
  16. 16. Process Layouts… • Functional groupings of machines or activities that do similar work. • Can handle wide variety of products/services. • Typically low volume, high variety strategy. • Flexibility in equipment and labour assignments. • Compared to product layout, it requires less investment.
  17. 17. Process Layout L L L L L L L L L L M M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G P P A A AReceiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department
  18. 18. Steps in Process Layouts • Construct a matrix showing the flow of materials from department to department. • Determine the space requirements for each department. • Design a trial layout. • Determine the cost of this layout. • Improve the trial layout developed.
  19. 19. Disadvantages of Process Layouts • High handling and material handling costs. • Longer production time. • Higher work-in-process inventory. • Higher worker skill requirement. • More complicated planning and control systems, because jobs do not flow the same routing.
  20. 20. Product Layout… • Organized around product. • High volume, low variety. • Assumptions – Adequate volume for high equipment utilization. – Product demand is stable enough to justify high investment in specialized equipment. – Product is standardized. – Supplies of raw materials and components are adequate and of uniform quality.
  21. 21. Product Layout … IN OUT
  22. 22. Advantages of Product Layouts • High rate of output. • Unit cost is low. • Labor specialization reduces training costs and time. • Material handling cost is low. • High utilization of labor. • Simple planning and control systems.
  23. 23. Disadvantages of Product Layouts • Inflexibility. • Major changes required when product design changes. • Little job satisfaction.
  24. 24. Assembly Lines
  25. 25. ASSEMBLY LINE Raw materials or customer Finished item Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 Material and/or labor Station 1 Material and/or labor Material and/or labor Material and/or labor
  26. 26. For an assembly line, inputs are… • A set of operations to be performed. • A precedence relationship among the operations. • Zoning restrictions.
  27. 27. Line Balancing Line Balancing is the process of assigning tasks to workstations in such a way that the workstations have approximately equal time requirements.
  28. 28. Line Balancing Objective • Minimize the number of stations for a given cycle time (or output rate). • Minimize process time for a given number of stations. • Find an optimal combination of the flexible cycle time and the flexible number of stations.
  29. 29. Cycle Time Cycle time is the maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit.
  30. 30. Process Time Vs Cycle Time • Process Time = time to complete all stations • Cycle time = time spent at any station 1 2 3 4 min 5 min 4 min Process time = 4 + 5 + 4 = 13 Cycle time = 4, 5, 4
  31. 31. Lead Time • Adding in non-value added time (queue time, wait or blocked time … etc.) cycle times makes up lead time. • Order to delivery lead time is a lead time that the customer feels. – From the time the customer places the order to the time the product is delivered. – Effective lead time reduction, is lowering order to delivery lead time, customer feels the improvement.
  32. 32. Cellular Layouts.. Some issues • Group parts or products with similar characteristics into families and set aside groups of machines for their production. • Families may be based on size, shape, manufacturing or routing requirement. • Cellular layouts improve lead times and allows speed as a competitive weapon.
  33. 33. Original Layout 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A B C Raw materials Assembly
  34. 34. Revised Layout 12 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 A BCRaw materials Cell1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Assembly
  35. 35. Layout Issues in Service Organizations • Volume of demand. • Range of types of services offered. • Degree of personalization of the service. • Skills of employees. • Cost of services.
  36. 36. Process Layouts in Service Organizations • Wide variety of services, use a Process Layouts • Libraries – Reference materials, serials, microfilms in separate areas. • Hospitals – X-ray, Surgery, Oncology, Maternity. • Insurance – Claims, underwriting, filing are individual depts.
  37. 37. Product Layouts in Service Organizations • When volume of demand is high. • Customs and Immigration at Airports. • Registration.

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