Basalt Fibres




Bankverbindung:BAWAG P.S.K. Account 48810-810-923 Bank code 14000, UID ATU57572736,
                    ...
Basalt is well known as rock found in virtually every
                           country around the world. Its main use is...
In their physical properties (strength, elasticity) basalt fibers
               considerably exceed mineral and glass fib...
THERMAL BEHAVIOUR

Good resistances against low and high temperatures characterize Basalt. Basalt is
non-combustible and e...
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

The specific tenacity (ratio: rupture stress divided by density) of basalt fibres
exceeds that of s...
Technical Data „stone“ Fibre Basalt



                Properties                      Unit          Value
    Thickness  ...
CHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR


Basalt fibers have good acid and solvent resistances, surpassing those of E-glass
fibers and many min...
BASALT FIBRES AS REINFORCEMENT FOR COMPOSITES


Basalt is mainly used (as crushed rock) in construction, industrial and hi...
Property               Glass-plastic   Basalt-plastic
      Tensile (MPa)                     140         10 (300)
      T...
Mechanical properties

Typical tensile strengths varies greatly:
E-glass: 3.4±0.7 GPa for fibres and 0.86-1.27 GPa for rov...
FIELDS and APPLICATIONS
where Basalt Fiber Products are known to - or can - be applied with benefit

1. Surface & Air Tran...
Safety Data Sheet
                     According to 91 / 155 / EWG and 93 / 112 / EG

Print Date: 31 March 2005           ...
Safety Data Sheet
                     According to 91 / 155 / EWG and 93 / 112 / EG

Print Date: 31 March 2005           ...
Safety Data Sheet
                     According to 91 / 155 / EWG and 93 / 112 / EG

Print Date: 31 March 2005           ...
Safety Data Sheet
                     According to 91 / 155 / EWG and 93 / 112 / EG

Print Date: 31 March 2005           ...
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  1. 1. Basalt Fibres Bankverbindung:BAWAG P.S.K. Account 48810-810-923 Bank code 14000, UID ATU57572736, BIC (SWIFT) BAWAATWW
  2. 2. Basalt is well known as rock found in virtually every country around the world. Its main use is as a crushed rock used in construction, industrial and highway engineering. However it is not commonly known that basalt can be used in manufacturing and made into fine, superfine and ultra fine fibers. Comprised of single-ingredient raw material melt, basalt fibers are superior to other fibers in terms of thermal stability, heat and sound insulation properties, vibration resistance and durability. Basalt continuous fibers offer the prospect of a completely new range of composite materials and products. Basalt products have no toxic re-action with air or water, are non-combustible and explosion proof. When in contact with other chemicals they produce no chemical reactions that may damage health or the environment. Basalt replace almost all applications of asbestos and has three times its heat insulation properties. Basalt based composites can replace steel and all known reinforced plastics (1 kg of basalt reinforcement equals 9.6 kg of steel). The life of basalt fiber pipes, designed for a variety of applications, is at least 50 years without maintenance or electrical or technical protection. Basalt fibers together with carbon or ceramic fibers as well as various metals is the most advanced and exciting area of application, as they can develop new hybrid composite materials and technologies. Basalt's special properties reduces the cost of products whilst improving their performance. More than hundred specific unique manufacturing techniques using basalt fiber materials and products have been developed and patented in Ukraine. Basalt fibers are new unique and economic products with superior properties to similar one in present use like as glass fibers. In thermal conductivity, articles made of basalt fibers are 3 times as efficient as those made of asbestos, and superior to glass and mineral fibers. The application temperature of articles made of basalt fibers markedly higher (from -260 to 900°C).
  3. 3. In their physical properties (strength, elasticity) basalt fibers considerably exceed mineral and glass fibers. Due the elasticity of micro- and macrostructure, basalt fibers are vibration-resistant compared to similar products. This property is of particular importance in mechanical construction and civil engineering. For example, when buildings are erected near highways, railways and underground, whereas under vibration cushions of mineral and glass fibers experience damage and finally disintegrate, basalt slabs are vibration-resistant and, hence, more durable. In chemical properties basalt fibers are more resistant to aggressive media i. e. acids and alkalis. Therefore pipes made of basalt fibers may be used in the chemical production for transporting hot acids, in the construction of sewerage systems, transportation of aggressive liquids and gases, loose materials, etc. Dielectric properties of basalt-plastics, in particular volume resistance of basalt fibers are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of fiberglass. Basalt fibers can be used in various branches of industry fully replacing cancerous asbestos and to a considerable degree glass fibers and metals. The processing technologies of basalt fiber conforms to traditional technologies of glass fiber processing (fabrics, roving, chopped strands, GFRP). Thanks to their excellent properties basalt fiber may be used for manufacturing of thermo and alkali resistant articles (tanks, pipes, GFRP, warm insulating materials) and as ecological harmless substitute for asbestos.
  4. 4. THERMAL BEHAVIOUR Good resistances against low and high temperatures characterize Basalt. Basalt is non-combustible and explosion proof. In pure form it does not release toxic combustion products. In applications with stress on the fibers, (continuous filament) Basalt fibres perform relatively better than E-glass fibres in the temperature range +300 to 500 °C. We have learnt however that the true comparative performances at high temperatures of E-glass fibers vs. continuous filament Basalt fibers is best obtained by considering the key functional parameters of the final product - made from the two fibers - in its specific end-use application. In application with very low stress on the fibers, temperatures around +1250 °C - the flame temperature - can be sustained continuously without loss of fabric integrity. The melting temperature of Basalt is about 1400 °C. The material hence having excellent resistance to fire, Basalt fabrics are ideally suited for fire protective applications. Flame barrier fabrics as e.g. a stand-alone fire curtain or a component in an end product (such as a fire blocking interliner in a train seat construction) grant hours of protection against fire.
  5. 5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES The specific tenacity (ratio: rupture stress divided by density) of basalt fibres exceeds that of steel fibres, many times. Basalt is roughly 5 % denser than glass. The tensile modulus (E modulus, Young modulus) of basalt fibers is higher than the one of E-glass fibers. This makes Basalt fibers & fabrics attractive for the reinforcement of composites. The low elongation - perfectly elastical up till rupture - results in dimensionally very stable fabrics. Basalt textiles show sufficient suppleness and drapeability. They exhibit good fatigue resistance. The yarn shows low friction coefficients vs. most materials. The basalt fabrics, as they come from the weaving loom, present however several shortcomings which actually prevent readily further applications. These are: high instability - due to the low friction coefficient of the material - resulting in: unravelling of the fabric at the edges, and it being easily damaged by pointed objects or during transportation and handling very low stichability and seam strength skin irritation - the high rigidity and low elongation of basalt filaments (somewhat like carbon fibers) result in the continuous filaments showing rupture points. These stiff filament ends penetrate the skin, when rubbed over the fabric breaks when folded over and pressured at the fold the solution to the issues above may not be detrimental to the intrinsic high temperature and fire blocking properties of the Basalt fabric. When subjected to flames, fire may not propagate on the fabrics' surface, no corrosive or toxic gasses may emanate, and a minimal level of smoke may be generated.
  6. 6. Technical Data „stone“ Fibre Basalt Properties Unit Value Thickness Mikrons 9 – 23 Density g/cm³ 2,7 Thermal Conductivity W/mk 0,031- 0,038 E-Modulus GPa 90 – 100 Moisture absorption < 0,1 Tensile MPa 3800 – 4100 Elongation % 4 Temperature resistance: °C min. operating temp. -260 max. operating temp under pressure +450 max. operating temp without presure +650 max. operating temp at flammable +1200 point +1450-1650 Melting point dielektric Constant Compared to 1-2 x > E-Glass chemical resistance, retention of weigth in % after 3 hrs: H2O 99,6 0,5N NaOH 93,4 2N NaOH 65,4 – 77,3 2N H2SO4 66,4 – 98,5
  7. 7. CHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR Basalt fibers have good acid and solvent resistances, surpassing those of E-glass fibers and many mineral and synthetic fibres. Basalt fibers have better resistance to alkalines than E-glass fibers. The inert basic material possesses, in addition to its corrosion resistance, also good resistances to UV-light and biologic contamination. It does not become radio-active after irradiation. In pure form, it is free of odour and has low soiling sensitivity. Absorption of humidity comes to less than 0.1 % at 65 % relative air humidity and room temperature. Basalt fibres show excellent quot;wet abilityquot; of - or a natural adhesion to - a broad range of binders, coating compounds and matrix materials in composite applications. This property can be further enhanced through optimized surface treatment.
  8. 8. BASALT FIBRES AS REINFORCEMENT FOR COMPOSITES Basalt is mainly used (as crushed rock) in construction, industrial and high way engineering. One can also melt basalt (1300-1700°C) and spin it into fine fibres. When used as (continuous) fibres, basalt can reinforce a new range of (plastic and concrete matrix) composites. It can also be used in combination with other reinforcements. Some possible applications of basalt fibres and basalt-based composites are: thermal and sound insulation/protection (e.g. basalt wool, engine insulation), pipes, bars, fittings, fabrics, structural plastics, automotive parts, concrete reinforcement (constructions), insulating plastics and frictional materials. This wide range of possible applications results from its wide range of good properties. Basalt has good thermal, electrical and sound insulating properties. It can replace asbestos in almost all its possible applications (insulation) since the former has three times the latter’s heat insulating properties. Furthermore, the fibre diameter (comparable with E-glass fibres, can be controlled in order to prevent uptake of harmful ultra-fine fibres. Because of its good electrical insulating properties (10 times better than E-glass), basalt fibres are also incorporated into printed circuit boards, resulting in superior overall properties compared to conventional components made of fibreglass. It is also used in other electro technical applications such as extra fine resistant insulation for electrical cables and underground ducts. Because of its thermal insulating properties it is already used as fire protection in the form of fabrics or tapes. Automotive, aircraft, ship and household appliances are also made. These are made with thermosetting resins, such as epoxy and (phenolic) polyesters. Possible techniques involve prepregs, laying out, winding, direct pressure autoclaving, and vacuum moulding. Other, structural basalt composite components (such as pipes and rods) are made from unidirectional basalt reinforcement. In combination with its high specific strength (9.6 times as high as steel), high resistance to aggressive media, and high electrical insulting properties, this results in specialty products such as insulators for high voltage power lines. Basalt composite pipes can transport corrosive liquids and gases. The same equipment as for fibreglass pipes can be used for this. These pipes are reported to be several times stronger than glass-fibre ipes. Next table illustrates this:
  9. 9. Property Glass-plastic Basalt-plastic Tensile (MPa) 140 10 (300) Tensile E (GPa) 56 70 (160) Density (kg/m³) 1900 1700 Therm. Cond. (kcal/m h °C) 0.5 0.3 12 Volume resistivety ( /m) 10 4x10 Values in brackets are for basalt/carbon pipes. Due to basalt’s low thermal conductivity, deposition of salts and paraffin’s inside the pipes is also reduced. Basalt fibres can also be used in machine building because of their good frictional, heat and chemical resistance. Comparison between glass- and basalt fibres With regard to their chemical composition glass and basalt fibres are somewhat alike, but for some components there are differences: w% in E- w% in Compound glass basalt SiO2 52-56 51.6-57.5 Al2O3 12-16 16.9-18.2 CaO 16-25 5.2-7.8 MgO 0-5 1.3-3.7 B2 O 3 5-10 - Na2O 0.8 2.5-6.4 K2O 0.2-0.8 0.8-4.5 Fe2O3 0.3 4.0-9.5 Several basalt compounds may vary, but especially the SiO2 content may vary largely. Only SiO2 percentages above 46% (‘acid basalt’) are suitable or fibre production.
  10. 10. Mechanical properties Typical tensile strengths varies greatly: E-glass: 3.4±0.7 GPa for fibres and 0.86-1.27 GPa for rovings (density: 2.52-2.63 g/cm³) Basalt: 1.43±0.59 GPa for fibres and 0.69–0.92 GPa for rovings (density: 2.6-2.8 g/cm³) Basalt also has a higher modulus (82-110 GPa) than E-glass (68-73 GPa). [5-6] Several basalt (‘B’) and E-glass (‘G’) were tested (‘f’ for fibre tests and ‘r’ for roving tests); the results are given in the next table. Tensile Tensile E Sample (MPa) (GPa) B1 (r) 860 ± 63 76.6 ± 3.3 B2 (r) 835 ± 83 73.5 ± 2.5 B3 (r) 650 ± 68 70.4 ± 7.4 B3 (f) 1662 ± 599 74.8 ± 3.6 G1 (r) 1630 ± 136 63.1 ± 3.2 G2 (r) 1115 ± 51 75.9 ± 1.5 G2 (f) 1362 ± 412 67.6 ± 2.1 As expected, basalt has a lower strength and a higher modulus than E-glass. In non- standard conditions, however, basalt could prove to be stronger than E-glass.
  11. 11. FIELDS and APPLICATIONS where Basalt Fiber Products are known to - or can - be applied with benefit 1. Surface & Air Transportation * Fire protected seats in planes, trains, ships, subways, … * Fire proof floorings & ceilings * Airplane life jacket pouches * ... 2. Specialty furniture * Fire proof mattresses (for hospitals, hotels, etc) * Fire proof seating * ... 3. Electricity and Electronics * Power: fire resistant cable construction components as fillers, braidings, tapes * Transformer stations: screens, protection, insulation * Motor insulation: tapes * ... 4. Construction * Fire protective wall, floor & ceiling panels. Fire proof curtains and partitions for indoors and outdoors * Heat insulation in heating systems, power generation, incinerators * Roofing: rigid and flexible roof covers with raised fire resistance * Fire protective clothing * Fire resistant floor coverings: backing, reinforcement * Fire resistant interior decoration ...
  12. 12. Safety Data Sheet According to 91 / 155 / EWG and 93 / 112 / EG Print Date: 31 March 2005 Page 1/4 1. Identification of the substance / Preparation and the Company / Undertaking 1.1 Product name: Basalt Continuous Fiber (BCF) Roving: BCF 13.100/200/300/…/2600.KV2, BC9-150-P8 BCF 13.100/200/300/…/1200…/2600.KV., BC12-800-P8 Chopped Fibers: BCF 13.3/6/9/…/87.KV1, BCF 13.3/6/9/…87.KV5 Basalt Twisted Yarn BC9-330x1x2-P8 1.2 Manufacturer / Supplier: Filter Fabric Consulting Gmundnerstraße 9/3 A-4861 Schörfling Austria 1.3 Telephone number: Office Tel/Fax: +43 (0) 7662 57905 e-mail: m.schobesberger@aon.at 2. Composition / Information on Ingredients 2.1 Chemical description: SiO2 50-58%; Al2O3 14-18%; CaO 5-10%; MgO 4-9%; Fe2O 5-10%; Na2O 2-5%; K2O 0,8-3%; other <2 2.2 Hazardous ingredients: No hazardous components 3. Hazards Identification 3.1 Description of potential hazards: none 3.2 Specific hazards for persons and the environment: none 3.3 Classification System: none 4. First Aid Measures 4.1 Inhalation: not applicable 4.2 Ingestion: not applicable 4.3 Skin contact: not applicable 4.4 Eye contact: not applicable 5. Fire-Fighting Measures fire class A 5.1 Appropriate extinguishing agent(s): the product is none flammable 5.2 For safety inappropriate extinguishing agent(s): none 5.3 Particular hazards caused by the material, combustion products or resulting gas: none 5.4 Special safety equipment needed for fire-fighting: none
  13. 13. Safety Data Sheet According to 91 / 155 / EWG and 93 / 112 / EG Print Date: 31 March 2005 Page 2/4 6. Accidental Release Measures 6.1 Personal precautions: no special measures are necessary 6.2 Environmental measures: no special measures are necessary 6.3 Methods for cleaning up: sweep, vacuum or wash away 7. Handling and Storage 7.1 Handling: no special measures are necessary 7.2 Handling during a fire and/or explosion: the product is none flammable 7.3 Storage: store product in a dry environment 7.4 Storage class: not applicable 8. Explosion Controls / Personal Protection 8.1 Personal protection equipment: 8.1.1 General protection and hygienic measures: no special measures are necessary 8.1.2 Respiratory protection: not applicable 8.1.3 Hand protection: not applicable 8.1.4 Eye protection: not applicable 8.1.5 Body and skin protection: not applicable 9a. Physical and Chemical Properties 9a.1 Appearance: Form: volcanic rock Color: gray to black Odor: odorless 9a.2 Change of state: Melting point / area of melting temperatures: 1450°C Boiling point / flash point: not applicable Flammability / Auto flammability: not flammable Igniting temperature: not applicable Explosive properties: not applicable
  14. 14. Safety Data Sheet According to 91 / 155 / EWG and 93 / 112 / EG Print Date: 31 March 2005 Page 3/4 9b. Physical and Chemical Properties 9b.1 Vapor pressure: not applicable 9b.2 Density: 2,7 g/cm³ 9b.3 Solubility in water: not permeable 9b.4 Viscosity: not applicable 10. Stability and Reactivity 10.1 Materials to avoid: none 10.2 Thermal decomposition: not applicable 10.3 Hazardous reactions: not applicable 10.4 Hazardous decomposition products: not applicable 10.5 Stability: stable 11. Toxicological Information 11.1 Acute toxicity: not applicable 11.2 Irritable impact: eventual dust exposure 11.3 Skin: not applicable 11.4 Eyes: just like any foreign matter possible irritation may occur, do not rub your eyes, rinse with water 12. Ecological Information 12.1 General Information: basalt is ecologically safe, ecologically recognized and specially suited for multiple applications (reuse) 13. Disposal Considerations 13.1 Waste from residues / Unused products: disposable in accordance with local and national regulations 13.2 Contaminated packaging: disposal (i.e. ARA-Sammelsystem)
  15. 15. Safety Data Sheet According to 91 / 155 / EWG and 93 / 112 / EG Print Date: 31 March 2005 Page 4/4 14. Transport Information not described as a dangerous good by transportation regulations, if possible transport the product in a dry environment 15. Regulatory Information 15.1 Labeling according to European eGefStoffV / EG: not necessary to label the product 15.2 National regulations: not applicable 15.3 Labeling according to VbF: not applicable 15.4 Water hazard classification: WGK 0 (self estimation): in general no water damage 16. Additional Information The above information is based on laboratory testing and literary research and support all facts enclosed in this safety data sheet from the last print of date. The information explains safety relevance of the properties and requirements of the products. With new issues of this safety data sheet, the out dated safety sheets lose their credibility.

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