• 30 years of repeated acts of intense
violence between :
Northern Ireland's Nationalist community
(principally Roman Catholic)
Unionist community (principally Protestant)
• The Unionist vision is for Northern
Ireland to continue with England,
Scotland and Wales as part of the
• Ideology that favours
• of the political and
cultural ties between
the island and Great
• political and social
by a love for Irish
culture, language and
• Today: United Ireland
• “Green Flag”main symbol of Irish
Nationalist on the 19th and early 20th
• Status of Northern Ireland within the
• Domination and discrimination of
Nationalist by Unionist
• Republic of Ireland gained sovereignty in
1922, relations between North and South
• Irish Republican Army (IRA) continued the
struggle to end partition of Ireland.
• 1966-1969 rioting and street fighting
Protestants and Catholics occurred in
• Religious communities became hostile
• British troops were brought in to separate
• They became target to the Catholics and
• IRA´s goal: to eject the British and unify
Northern Ireland with the Irish Republic to
• Protestants remained loyal to the UK.
• Direct rule from London and the presence
of British troops failed to stop the violence.
1968, 5 October
• A civil rights march in Derry was banned by
the Northern Ireland government, who let an
Apprentice Boys* march take place instead.
When civil rights activists defied the ban,
they were attacked by the RUC (Royal Ulster
Constabulary -was the name of the police
force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001) ,
leading to three days of rioting.
*Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide
membership, founded in 1814. They are based
in the city of Derry, Northern Ireland
• Following an Orange Order *parade,
intense riots erupted on the Springfield
Road in Belfast. Violence lasted for three
days, and the British Army used CS gas
for the first time in large quantities.
* Protestant fraternal organisation based mainly in
Northern Ireland and Scotland
• A mural in Derry, Northern Ireland of a young boy in a gas mask
holding a petrol bomb during the Battle of the Bogside, August 1969
• the Social Democratic and Labour Party
(SDLP) was formed.
• Gunner Robert Curtis became the first
British Soldier to die in the Troubles when
he was shot by the IRA
• During street disturbances, British soldiers
shot dead two Catholic civilians in Free
Derry. As a result, riots erupted in the city
• Bloody Sunday - 27 civilians were shot, of
whom 14 were killed by the British Army
during a civil rights march in Derry.
• "Give Ireland Back to the Irish" is a Paul and Linda
McCartney song written in response to the events of
Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland on 30 January 1972.
The song was released on 25 February 1972
• banned by the BBC, Radio Luxembourg and the
Independent Television Authority
• A bomb explodes without warning in the Abercorn
Restaurant on Castle Lane in Belfast. Two are killed
and 130 injured.
• The IRA explode twenty-four bombs in towns and
cities across Northern Ireland. There was also
fourteen shootouts between the IRA and security
• Bloody Friday - within the space of seventy-five
minutes, the PIRA exploded twenty-two bombs in
Belfast. Six civilians, two British Army soldiers and
one UDA member were killed, while 130 were
• 28 june-Northern Ireland Assembly elections
• 4 February M62 coach bombing - twelve people
were killed when a PIRA bomb exploded on a
bus as it was travelling along the M62
motorway in West Yorkshire, England. It was
carrying British Army soldiers and some of their
family members. Nine soldiers and three
civilians were killed.
• The Troubles claimed its 1000th victim
• The PIRA agreed on a ceasefire with the British
government and the Northern Ireland Office.
• Christopher Ewart Biggs, the British
Ambassador to Ireland, and his secretary Judith
Cook, were assassinated by a bomb planted in
Mr. Biggs’ car in Dublin.
11 December Mairead Corrigan and Betty Williams
received the Nobel Peace Prize.
• La Mon restaurant bombing - eleven civilians
and an RUC officer were killed and thirty
wounded by a PIRA (Provisional Irish
Republican Army ) incendiary bomb at the La
Mon Restaurant near Belfast
• The PIRA assassinated Richard Sykes, the
British ambassador to the Netherlands, in Den
Haag. The group also exploded twenty-four
bombs in various locations across Northern
• During a visit, Pope John Paul II appealed for an
end to the violence in Northern Ireland
• 1980: Dunmurry train explosion
1981: Norman and his son's assassination
1982: The PIRA explodes bombs in Belfast
1983: New Ireland Forum
1984: Brighton Hotel bombing
1985: Anglo- Irish Agreement
1986: Northern Ireland Assembly dissolved.
1987: Remembrance Day bombing.
1988: SLDP John Hume and Gery Adams'
meeting: beginning of Peace Process.
1989: Republican solicitor Pat Tinucane's
• Irish National Liberation Army declare a
ceasefire. End of trouble.
2000 Present: The Bloody Sunday Inquiry.
2001: BBC bombing
2007: Northern Ireland Assembly elections
2008: IRA continues bombing
2009: INLA formally adopts peaceful
political means to its aims.
2010: UDA and INLA announced
dicommisation of weapons.