Growing up during the
APARTHEID ERA
A view of South Africa from theA view of South Africa from the
inside by Marianne J Du...
Growing up during the APARTHEID ERA
 As a child growing up at the time apartheidAs a child growing up at the time aparthe...
My first awareness that there was a difference between
black & white was when we’d fetch my dad from work at
night, and on...
• Black people didn’t own anything during that era –Black people didn’t own anything during that era –
no houses, no cars ...
• When we left the mall, I recall a park at the entrance with
a few park benches. As we walked, we noticed a
policeman hav...
I remember our domestic worker veryI remember our domestic worker very
well– she’d been with us for as long as Iwell– she’...
This was the malignant diseaseThis was the malignant disease
called ‘apartheid’ – and the vastcalled ‘apartheid’ – and the...
• The National Party (NP) introduced apartheid as The National Party (NP) introduced apartheid as 
part of its campaign in...
• In terms of the Population Registration Act of In terms of the Population Registration Act of 
1951 all South Africans w...
Apartheid law
A complex network of laws sustained aA complex network of laws sustained a
hierarchical structure of discrim...
• Those who openly opposed apartheid were considered
communists and the government passed draconian
security legislation t...
By 1969 the first cracks in the NP’s By 1969 the first cracks in the NP’s 
edifice of control appeared with edifice of con...
On June 16, 1976, some 10,000
schoolchildren in Soweto
demonstrated against the
imposition of the Afrikaans
language in sc...
 The war in Namibia and South Africa’sThe war in Namibia and South Africa’s
destabilization of its neighbours haddestabil...
 In February 1990 the new president, F. W.In February 1990 the new president, F. W.
de Klerk, proclaimed a formal end tod...
 In April 1994 South Africa held its firstIn April 1994 South Africa held its first
democratic, non-racial elections.demo...
 A body known as the A body known as the Truth andTruth and
Reconciliation CommissionReconciliation Commission was set up...
Despite the declared end of apartheid, the long Despite the declared end of apartheid, the long 
years of state-enforced d...
We refer to ourselves asWe refer to ourselves as
the ‘rainbow’ nation andthe ‘rainbow’ nation and
rightly so! Our country ...
• In 1995 we hosted the Rugby World Cup a 
few months after our first democratic 
elections. Rugby was always seen as a ‘w...
François Pienaar receiving the trophy
from the president´s hands.
Mr. Mandela with Webb trophy
That day, all of us, no matter who we
were or what we did for a living, felt a
part of something so unbelievable;
somethin...
• The work of art is not yetThe work of art is not yet
complete …there are still socomplete …there are still so
many piece...
• The Pledge of the Peaceful Silent Majority reads asThe Pledge of the Peaceful Silent Majority reads as
follows:follows:
...
Nelson Mandela, icon of peace
Nelson Mandela is an icon of peace, and a wise man that everybody turns to for advice on how...
Growing up during the  apartheid era
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Growing up during the apartheid era

  1. 1. Growing up during the APARTHEID ERA A view of South Africa from theA view of South Africa from the inside by Marianne J Du Toitinside by Marianne J Du Toit 2009-20102009-2010
  2. 2. Growing up during the APARTHEID ERA  As a child growing up at the time apartheidAs a child growing up at the time apartheid was at its peak, the ‘wrongs’ of it wasn’twas at its peak, the ‘wrongs’ of it wasn’t immediately evident to me. Things were prettyimmediately evident to me. Things were pretty ‘normal’ as far as I was concerned – I went to‘normal’ as far as I was concerned – I went to school with all the other white kids, we had aschool with all the other white kids, we had a domestic working cleaning our house, mydomestic working cleaning our house, my mom was a homemaker and my dad worked inmom was a homemaker and my dad worked in a large factory.a large factory.
  3. 3. My first awareness that there was a difference between black & white was when we’d fetch my dad from work at night, and on our way there, you’d see black people, walking hurriedly from work to their homes in the townships. The rule at that time was that at 6.00pm, a siren would sound, which meant that no black people were allowed on the streets after that time. If they were accosted by the police, they had to show their ‘passbook’ (a form of identity), and if they couldn’t produce this, they were arrested and put in jail – no questions asked.
  4. 4. • Black people didn’t own anything during that era –Black people didn’t own anything during that era – no houses, no cars and if memory serves meno houses, no cars and if memory serves me correct, they weren’t allowed to have accounts ofcorrect, they weren’t allowed to have accounts of any kind. The realisation hit home one day, when Iany kind. The realisation hit home one day, when I accompanied my mom to the mall for someaccompanied my mom to the mall for some shopping. I needed to go to the bathroom and as weshopping. I needed to go to the bathroom and as we walked, I noticed our bathroom door had a sign on it.walked, I noticed our bathroom door had a sign on it. It read:It read: ‘Whites Only’‘Whites Only’. A little further away, I noticed. A little further away, I noticed the bathrooms for the black people, and what athe bathrooms for the black people, and what a contrast it was. Where our bathroom was neat andcontrast it was. Where our bathroom was neat and tidy, theirs reeked of urine and hadn’t been cleanedtidy, theirs reeked of urine and hadn’t been cleaned for God-knows how long.for God-knows how long.
  5. 5. • When we left the mall, I recall a park at the entrance with a few park benches. As we walked, we noticed a policeman having an argument with a black woman seated on the bench, a small child in her arms. Eventually she got up reluctantly, picked up her child and a few bags of shopping, and left the park. When we got closer, I immediately saw the reason why she was asked to leave … she sat on a bench ‘reserved’ for Whites only. I looked at my Mom and asked her why this was happening. She looked at me and answered; ‘because itbecause it is the law in our country.’is the law in our country.’ Whites sit on a bus stop bench with blacks twoWhites sit on a bus stop bench with blacks two weeks after the city of Johannesburg in Southweeks after the city of Johannesburg in South Africa allowed blacks to travel on 'whites-only‘Africa allowed blacks to travel on 'whites-only‘ buses in February, 1990.buses in February, 1990.
  6. 6. I remember our domestic worker veryI remember our domestic worker very well– she’d been with us for as long as Iwell– she’d been with us for as long as I could remember, and I loved her. Shecould remember, and I loved her. She had a daughter who’d come to visithad a daughter who’d come to visit once in a while, and I remember the 2 ofonce in a while, and I remember the 2 of us playing for hours, making up allus playing for hours, making up all kinds of fantasies as we played. Tracykinds of fantasies as we played. Tracy was my friend, and it didn’t matter to mewas my friend, and it didn’t matter to me that her skin was black … I never reallythat her skin was black … I never really saw that … all that mattered to me wassaw that … all that mattered to me was that she was someone I could play with.that she was someone I could play with. The 2 of us would often eat together tooThe 2 of us would often eat together too … on a blanket, under the tree we’d… on a blanket, under the tree we’d enjoy the food her mother had preparedenjoy the food her mother had prepared for us. Not everyone thought the samefor us. Not everyone thought the same as I did, not everyone was as tolerant oras I did, not everyone was as tolerant or sympathetic to the life the black peoplesympathetic to the life the black people were subjected to.were subjected to.
  7. 7. This was the malignant diseaseThis was the malignant disease called ‘apartheid’ – and the vastcalled ‘apartheid’ – and the vast implications it had on a countryimplications it had on a country and its people. If after readingand its people. If after reading about this you still feelabout this you still feel discrimination against anydiscrimination against any other racial group, then Iother racial group, then I suggest you try imagine how itsuggest you try imagine how it is living under suchis living under such circumstances.circumstances.
  8. 8. • The National Party (NP) introduced apartheid as The National Party (NP) introduced apartheid as  part of its campaign in the 1948 elections and part of its campaign in the 1948 elections and  with its victory, apartheid became the governing with its victory, apartheid became the governing  political policy for South Africa until the early political policy for South Africa until the early  1990s. Although the official policy of apartheid is 1990s. Although the official policy of apartheid is  generally associated with the NP victory, it built generally associated with the NP victory, it built  on a long history of racial segregation and on a long history of racial segregation and  discriminatory laws intended to ensure indefinite discriminatory laws intended to ensure indefinite  white supremacy. The migrant labour system, white supremacy. The migrant labour system,  based on special land reserves and highly based on special land reserves and highly  restrictive pass laws; masters’ and servants’ laws restrictive pass laws; masters’ and servants’ laws  which hampered African trade union which hampered African trade union  organization; the job colour bar, which reserved organization; the job colour bar, which reserved  work defined as skilled for whites only; and work defined as skilled for whites only; and  urban influx control were all established in the urban influx control were all established in the  wake of the discovery and exploitation of South wake of the discovery and exploitation of South  Africa’s vast mineral resources.Africa’s vast mineral resources.
  9. 9. • In terms of the Population Registration Act of In terms of the Population Registration Act of  1951 all South Africans were classified by race: 1951 all South Africans were classified by race:  “European” (white); “Native”, later “Bantu” “European” (white); “Native”, later “Bantu”  (African); “Coloured”; and “Indian” (Asian). (African); “Coloured”; and “Indian” (Asian).  • These racial definitions determined every aspect These racial definitions determined every aspect  of life: where individuals lived, what jobs they of life: where individuals lived, what jobs they  held, what type of education they received, held, what type of education they received,  whom they could marry, even where they were whom they could marry, even where they were  buried. Apartheid laws prohibited most social buried. Apartheid laws prohibited most social  contact between races, and authorized contact between races, and authorized  segregated public facilities (such as reserving segregated public facilities (such as reserving  certain beaches for the use of whites only, or certain beaches for the use of whites only, or  stipulating separate entrances in post offices).stipulating separate entrances in post offices).
  10. 10. Apartheid law A complex network of laws sustained aA complex network of laws sustained a hierarchical structure of discrimination,hierarchical structure of discrimination, exploitation, and deprivation, in whichexploitation, and deprivation, in which Coloureds and Indians formed oppressedColoureds and Indians formed oppressed minorities in relation to whites, but hadminorities in relation to whites, but had considerable privileges compared toconsiderable privileges compared to black Africans. They were segregated inblack Africans. They were segregated in specifically defined suburbs in the so-specifically defined suburbs in the so- called white or common areas, in terms ofcalled white or common areas, in terms of the Group Areas Act.the Group Areas Act. Only those black Africans needed in theOnly those black Africans needed in the white-controlled economy were allowedwhite-controlled economy were allowed into the urban areas.into the urban areas.
  11. 11. • Those who openly opposed apartheid were considered communists and the government passed draconian security legislation that, in effect, turned South Africa into a police state. • After peaceful demonstrations were called by the PAC against the pass laws, protestors were fired on by the police at Sharpeville in March 1960, killing 67 black Africans and wounding nearly 200 others. The government banned the ANC and PAC after what became known as the Sharpeville Massacre.
  12. 12. By 1969 the first cracks in the NP’s By 1969 the first cracks in the NP’s  edifice of control appeared with edifice of control appeared with the the  founding of the Black founding of the Black  Consciousness Movement by the Consciousness Movement by the  charismatic leader Stephen Biko, charismatic leader Stephen Biko,  who was later murdered by the who was later murdered by the  police while in their custody in police while in their custody in  19771977. A wave of strikes in 1972 and . A wave of strikes in 1972 and  1973 signalled the resurgence of 1973 signalled the resurgence of  worker militancy, while the worker militancy, while the  independence of neighbouring independence of neighbouring  Angola and Mozambique as well as Angola and Mozambique as well as  Zimbabwe and Namibia added to Zimbabwe and Namibia added to  the ferment of the times.the ferment of the times.
  13. 13. On June 16, 1976, some 10,000 schoolchildren in Soweto demonstrated against the imposition of the Afrikaans language in schools. When the police fired on the students, popular protest reached a new level and shattered much-fostered illusions of the stability of the apartheid state. Soweto student uprising ‘76
  14. 14.  The war in Namibia and South Africa’sThe war in Namibia and South Africa’s destabilization of its neighbours haddestabilization of its neighbours had become increasingly costly for the Southbecome increasingly costly for the South African government in men and money.African government in men and money. The ANC began to enjoy renewedThe ANC began to enjoy renewed support and publicity inside the country;support and publicity inside the country; prominent businessmen visited itsprominent businessmen visited its leaders in exile, and members of theleaders in exile, and members of the government began talks with its still-government began talks with its still- imprisoned leader, Nelson Mandela.imprisoned leader, Nelson Mandela.
  15. 15.  In February 1990 the new president, F. W.In February 1990 the new president, F. W. de Klerk, proclaimed a formal end tode Klerk, proclaimed a formal end to apartheid with the lifting of the ban on theapartheid with the lifting of the ban on the ANC and the PAC, and the release ofANC and the PAC, and the release of ANC leader Nelson Mandela from prison,ANC leader Nelson Mandela from prison, after a worldwide campaign.after a worldwide campaign. Nelson Mandela together with FW de Klerk at press conference
  16. 16.  In April 1994 South Africa held its firstIn April 1994 South Africa held its first democratic, non-racial elections.democratic, non-racial elections.  On May 8, 1996, South Africa adopted aOn May 8, 1996, South Africa adopted a new post-apartheid constitution thatnew post-apartheid constitution that embodied a unique set of fundamentalembodied a unique set of fundamental human rights. Under it racial, religious,human rights. Under it racial, religious, and gender discrimination are prohibited;and gender discrimination are prohibited; education, health, housing, food, andeducation, health, housing, food, and water are fundamental human rights; andwater are fundamental human rights; and freedom of expression and other politicalfreedom of expression and other political rights are protected. This was a majorrights are protected. This was a major achievement after two years ofachievement after two years of negotiation.negotiation.
  17. 17.  A body known as the A body known as the Truth andTruth and Reconciliation CommissionReconciliation Commission was set up bywas set up by act of parliament in 1995act of parliament in 1995 “to enable South“to enable South Africans to come to terms with their pastAfricans to come to terms with their past on a morally accepted basis and toon a morally accepted basis and to advance the cause of reconciliation”advance the cause of reconciliation”.. Archbishop Desmond Tutu
  18. 18. Despite the declared end of apartheid, the long Despite the declared end of apartheid, the long  years of state-enforced discrimination and years of state-enforced discrimination and  deprivation have left a difficult legacy.deprivation have left a difficult legacy. Whites still hold economic power despite the Whites still hold economic power despite the  growth of a small black middle class, while black growth of a small black middle class, while black  Africans suffer the brunt of extremely high Africans suffer the brunt of extremely high  unemployment, poor education, appalling unemployment, poor education, appalling  housing, and impoverished living conditions.housing, and impoverished living conditions.   Nevertheless, the ending of apartheid and the Nevertheless, the ending of apartheid and the  establishment of democratic non-racial rule in establishment of democratic non-racial rule in  South Africa remains one of the major South Africa remains one of the major  achievements of the 20th century.achievements of the 20th century.
  19. 19. We refer to ourselves asWe refer to ourselves as the ‘rainbow’ nation andthe ‘rainbow’ nation and rightly so! Our country isrightly so! Our country is made of so manymade of so many different and diversedifferent and diverse cultures, and despite ourcultures, and despite our differences, we all strivedifferences, we all strive to make this transitionto make this transition process as successful asprocess as successful as possible. There are,possible. There are, however, a few thingshowever, a few things that hamper ourthat hamper our progress – crime,progress – crime, unemployment, racialunemployment, racial xenophobia – to namexenophobia – to name but a few, but we remainbut a few, but we remain positive that we willpositive that we will prevail and succeed.prevail and succeed.
  20. 20. • In 1995 we hosted the Rugby World Cup a  few months after our first democratic  elections. Rugby was always seen as a ‘white’  sport and often other races would jeer the  players. This time, however, the whole country  stood behind our national rugby team, TheThe SpringboksSpringboks. I think a lot of it had to do  because our (then) President, Nelson  Mandela, supported them 100%.  • I still recall when Mr. Mandela asked François  Pienaar how it felt to win in front of 47 000  people (the attendees at Ellis Park), Pienaar  smiled and answered; ‘We won in front of 45 million South Africans’.
  21. 21. François Pienaar receiving the trophy from the president´s hands. Mr. Mandela with Webb trophy
  22. 22. That day, all of us, no matter who we were or what we did for a living, felt a part of something so unbelievable; something I think we might’ve given up on … the feeling of HOPEHOPE – the belief that we can overcome our differences and make this beautiful country of ours a place we could all be proud of. My Africa – my home.My Africa – my home.
  23. 23. • The work of art is not yetThe work of art is not yet complete …there are still socomplete …there are still so many pieces of the painting thatmany pieces of the painting that need attention. We’re a work inneed attention. We’re a work in progress, and I do believe thatprogress, and I do believe that we would succeed in ourwe would succeed in our endeavours, and leave behind aendeavours, and leave behind a legacy we can all be proud of...legacy we can all be proud of...
  24. 24. • The Pledge of the Peaceful Silent Majority reads asThe Pledge of the Peaceful Silent Majority reads as follows:follows: • I am proudly South African.I am proudly South African. • I publicly declare my opposition to any form ofI publicly declare my opposition to any form of prejudice and discrimination.prejudice and discrimination. • I believe in the right of every individual to be treatedI believe in the right of every individual to be treated with dignity and respect.with dignity and respect. • I will strive to build bridges and break down barriersI will strive to build bridges and break down barriers between myself and my neighbour.between myself and my neighbour. • I will treat others as I want them to treat me.I will treat others as I want them to treat me. • I celebrate the unique role I play in ensuring aI celebrate the unique role I play in ensuring a prosperous future for the diversity of peoples whoprosperous future for the diversity of peoples who make up our Rainbow Nation.make up our Rainbow Nation. • I endorse the vision of our great leader, Mr NelsonI endorse the vision of our great leader, Mr Nelson Mandela who said: “Never, never, never again shall itMandela who said: “Never, never, never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience thebe that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer theoppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world.”indignity of being the skunk of the world.” • I will invest in our future: I undertake to instil theseI will invest in our future: I undertake to instil these values in our children.values in our children. Archbishop Emeritus TutuArchbishop Emeritus Tutu
  25. 25. Nelson Mandela, icon of peace Nelson Mandela is an icon of peace, and a wise man that everybody turns to for advice on how to solve their countries' problems and promote good ideas. He was not afraid to criticize the policies of President George W. Bush, and Israel, or the campaign against Islam. He also directly contributed to South Africa's success in winning the right to host to the 2010 FIFA World Cup, in what represents a historic "masterstroke," The world has the right to be proud of Nelson Mandela, for he is a true legend that is living amongst us.

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