The Industrial Revolution began in England and soon spread to nearby countries.•Social Criticism•Inventions•Factories & Labor•Transportation•New Discovery
English author 1812-1870 Dickens was a social critic, he was aware that we live in a society where we must treat one another accordingly. He was eager to reveal the often shameful ways in which we behave, and to make careful judgments about how we might act with greater decency, generosity, and fairness to one another. –Joel Brattin, PBS His writings are charged with anger towards the social conditions that surrounded him.
Original cover of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (commonly known as The Pickwick Papers), the first novel by Charles Dickens.
First edition front piece of A Christmas Carol (1843)
Front piece of the first edition of Oliver Twist (1838).
First Edition cover of David Copperfield (1850)
Dickens family on theirporch at Gads Hill Place
New Ways of Working Industrial Revolution—greatly increased output of machine-made goods. Revolution began in England 1750s. 1750-1850 Population BOOM=Lots of people to work in factories
The Agricultural Revolution Paved the Way Enclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmers. Enclosures allowed experimentation with new agricultural methods
Rotating Crops Crop rotation— switching crops each year to avoid depleting soil Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply. Satellite image of rotated crops: green (corn), paler (sorghum), yellow (wheat), & brown (harvested field; fallow)
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England Industrialization— a move to machine production of goods Britain’s Natural Resources & Geography—coal, iron, rivers, harbors Expanding economy in Britain encouraged investment Britain had all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital
Changes in the Textile Industry COTTON is King YARN WOOL Weavers work faster with flying shuttles and spinning jennies Water frame uses water power to drive spinning wheelsJohn Kay’s Flying Shuttle
carding machine- replaced the hand process of combing out the fibers before they can be spun into yarn or thread. “Carding” is a mechanical process that breaks up locks and unorganized clumps of fiber and then aligns the individual fibers so that they are more or less parallel with each other. This enabled them to be more easily spun into thread. The old method was done by hand using these tools.
Power Loom, and Spinning Mule (next slide) sped up production, improved quality. Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom
Samuel Crompton’s Spinning Mule:combo Water Frame/Spinning Jenny
Factories— buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing Sir Richard Arkwright combined power, machinery, semi- skilled laborers, and material in ONE central locale. Modern factory system A working, middle class emerges & the rise of theWORK: day in, day out=11 HOUR work day modern citySame work OVER AND OVER AND OVER!!!
•Pitiful conditions in factories gave rise to the ideologyof SOCIALISM; Society owns the means ofproduction… “Social Ownership”•Wealth equally distributed•Others did NOT want reform, especially the owners,entrepreneurs, and bosses, they stated it would:Destroy $$Capital$$, weaken competition, and takeaway power of the NATION in comparison to othercountries
Watt’s Steam Engine Need for cheap, convenient power spurred development of steam engine Watt improved steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton Boulton—an entrepreneur— organizes, manages, takes business risks. Steam Engine=mechanical motion; drives the machines Matthew Boulton James Watt
Steam engine designed by Boulton & Watt. Engraving of a 1784 engine.Reproduction of James Watts Steam Engine
Water Transportation Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807 England’s water transport improved by system of canals
Fulton’s North River Steamboat as it appeared in 1807, later named Clermont
Steam-Driven Locomotives In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotive
Trevithicks No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, andillustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement,Vol. XIX, No. 470, January 3, 1885.
The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little isknown about it, including whether or not it actually ran.
Trevithicks 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railwaylocomotive is in the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea
In 1825, George Stephenson builds worlds first railroad line. He is called the “Father of Railways”. His rail gauge of 4 feet 8½ inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the worlds standard gauge.
Liverpool-Manchester Railroad Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester
Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829)
A cutaway view of the cylinder and steam valve of the replica Rocket
Railroads Revolutionized Life Railroads spurred industrial growth, created jobs Cheaper transportation boosted industry; people moved to cities
Gentlemen,it is themicrobeswho willhave thelast word.―LouisPasteur
3 of 5 of his children died of childhood diseases; which may have been the driving force behind his drive to save people from disease many diseases are caused by the presence and actions of specific micro-organisms Study of Germ Theory: was the reason for changed medical practices in hospitals Made significant breakthroughs in causes & preventions of diseases
Discovered weak forms of diseases could be used as immunization (rabies, anthrax, chicken cholera) Introduced the world to the concept of viruses, tiny organisms that may lead to mild to severe illnesses in humans, animals and plants… WATCH: NPR Virus video
NAPOLEON3rd ESTATECOLUMBIAN EXCHANGE: The Great ExchangeREFORMATION