The Industrial Revolution began in England and                     soon spread to nearby countries.•Social Criticism•Inven...
 English author 1812-1870 Dickens was a social critic, he  was aware that we live in a  society where we must treat  one...
   Original cover of The    Posthumous Papers of    the Pickwick Club    (commonly known as    The Pickwick Papers),    t...
   First edition front piece of    A Christmas Carol (1843)
   Front    piece of    the first    edition of    Oliver    Twist    (1838).
   First Edition cover of    David Copperfield    (1850)
Dickens family on theirporch at Gads Hill Place
 New Ways of Working  Industrial Revolution—greatly increased output   of machine-made goods.  Revolution began in Engl...
 The Agricultural Revolution Paved the Way  Enclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences   or hedges  Wealthy landow...
   Rotating Crops     Crop rotation—      switching crops each      year to avoid depleting      soil     Livestock bre...
 Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England  Industrialization— a move to machine production   of goods  Britain’s ...
   Changes in the                                 Textile Industry                                COTTON is King        ...
Spinning Jenny: James Hargreaves
Arkwright’s Water Frame
carding                                     machine-                                     replaced the                    ...
 Power Loom, and Spinning Mule (next slide) sped up production, improved quality.                      Edmund Cartwright...
Samuel Crompton’s Spinning Mule:combo Water Frame/Spinning Jenny
 Factories—                                           buildings that                                           contain   ...
•Pitiful conditions in factories gave rise to the ideologyof SOCIALISM; Society owns the means ofproduction… “Social Owner...
   Watt’s Steam Engine     Need for cheap, convenient      power spurred development      of steam engine     Watt impr...
Steam engine                             designed by                             Boulton & Watt.                          ...
   Water Transportation     Robert Fulton builds first      steamboat, the Clermont, in      1807     England’s water t...
Fulton’s North River Steamboat as it appeared in 1807, later named Clermont
   Steam-Driven    Locomotives     In 1804, Richard      Trevithick builds first      steam-driven locomotive
Trevithicks No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, andillustrated after being rescued circa 18...
The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little isknown about it, including whether or not it a...
Trevithicks 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railwaylocomotive is in the National Waterfront Muse...
 In 1825, George  Stephenson builds  worlds first railroad line. He is called the “Father  of Railways”. His rail gauge...
Liverpool-Manchester Railroad  Entrepreneurs build railroad from  Liverpool to Manchester
 Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829)
A cutaway view of the cylinder and steam valve of the replica Rocket
Rocketreplica
 Railroads Revolutionized Life   Railroads spurred industrial growth, created jobs   Cheaper transportation boosted ind...
Gentlemen,it is themicrobeswho willhave thelast word.―LouisPasteur
 3 of 5 of his children died of childhood  diseases; which may have been the driving  force behind his drive to save peop...
 Discovered weak forms of diseases could be  used as immunization (rabies, anthrax,  chicken cholera) Introduced the wor...
NAPOLEON3rd ESTATECOLUMBIAN EXCHANGE: The Great ExchangeREFORMATION
The beginnings of industrialization
The beginnings of industrialization
The beginnings of industrialization
The beginnings of industrialization
The beginnings of industrialization
The beginnings of industrialization
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The beginnings of industrialization

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The beginnings of industrialization

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution began in England and soon spread to nearby countries.•Social Criticism•Inventions•Factories & Labor•Transportation•New Discovery
  2. 2.  English author 1812-1870 Dickens was a social critic, he was aware that we live in a society where we must treat one another accordingly. He was eager to reveal the often shameful ways in which we behave, and to make careful judgments about how we might act with greater decency, generosity, and fairness to one another. –Joel Brattin, PBS His writings are charged with anger towards the social conditions that surrounded him.
  3. 3.  Original cover of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (commonly known as The Pickwick Papers), the first novel by Charles Dickens.
  4. 4.  First edition front piece of A Christmas Carol (1843)
  5. 5.  Front piece of the first edition of Oliver Twist (1838).
  6. 6.  First Edition cover of David Copperfield (1850)
  7. 7. Dickens family on theirporch at Gads Hill Place
  8. 8.  New Ways of Working  Industrial Revolution—greatly increased output of machine-made goods.  Revolution began in England 1750s.  1750-1850  Population BOOM=Lots of people to work in factories
  9. 9.  The Agricultural Revolution Paved the Way  Enclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges  Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmers.  Enclosures allowed experimentation with new agricultural methods
  10. 10.  Rotating Crops  Crop rotation— switching crops each year to avoid depleting soil  Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply. Satellite image of rotated crops: green (corn), paler (sorghum), yellow (wheat), & brown (harvested field; fallow)
  11. 11.  Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England  Industrialization— a move to machine production of goods  Britain’s Natural Resources & Geography—coal, iron, rivers, harbors  Expanding economy in Britain encouraged investment  Britain had all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital
  12. 12.  Changes in the Textile Industry  COTTON is King  YARN  WOOL  Weavers work faster with flying shuttles and spinning jennies  Water frame uses water power to drive spinning wheelsJohn Kay’s Flying Shuttle
  13. 13. Spinning Jenny: James Hargreaves
  14. 14. Arkwright’s Water Frame
  15. 15. carding machine- replaced the hand process of combing out the fibers before they can be spun into yarn or thread. “Carding” is a mechanical process that breaks up locks and unorganized clumps of fiber and then aligns the individual fibers so that they are more or less parallel with each other. This enabled them to be more easily spun into thread. The old method was done by hand using these tools.
  16. 16.  Power Loom, and Spinning Mule (next slide) sped up production, improved quality. Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom
  17. 17. Samuel Crompton’s Spinning Mule:combo Water Frame/Spinning Jenny
  18. 18.  Factories— buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing  Sir Richard Arkwright combined power, machinery, semi- skilled laborers, and material in ONE central locale.  Modern factory system  A working, middle class emerges & the rise of theWORK: day in, day out=11 HOUR work day modern citySame work OVER AND OVER AND OVER!!!
  19. 19. •Pitiful conditions in factories gave rise to the ideologyof SOCIALISM; Society owns the means ofproduction… “Social Ownership”•Wealth equally distributed•Others did NOT want reform, especially the owners,entrepreneurs, and bosses, they stated it would:Destroy $$Capital$$, weaken competition, and takeaway power of the NATION in comparison to othercountries
  20. 20.  Watt’s Steam Engine  Need for cheap, convenient power spurred development of steam engine  Watt improved steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton  Boulton—an entrepreneur— organizes, manages, takes business risks.  Steam Engine=mechanical motion; drives the machines Matthew Boulton James Watt
  21. 21. Steam engine designed by Boulton & Watt. Engraving of a 1784 engine.Reproduction of James Watts Steam Engine
  22. 22.  Water Transportation  Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807  England’s water transport improved by system of canals
  23. 23. Fulton’s North River Steamboat as it appeared in 1807, later named Clermont
  24. 24.  Steam-Driven Locomotives  In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotive
  25. 25. Trevithicks No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, andillustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement,Vol. XIX, No. 470, January 3, 1885.
  26. 26. The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little isknown about it, including whether or not it actually ran.
  27. 27. Trevithicks 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railwaylocomotive is in the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea
  28. 28.  In 1825, George Stephenson builds worlds first railroad line. He is called the “Father of Railways”. His rail gauge of 4 feet 8½ inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the worlds standard gauge.
  29. 29. Liverpool-Manchester Railroad  Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester
  30. 30.  Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829)
  31. 31. A cutaway view of the cylinder and steam valve of the replica Rocket
  32. 32. Rocketreplica
  33. 33.  Railroads Revolutionized Life  Railroads spurred industrial growth, created jobs  Cheaper transportation boosted industry; people moved to cities
  34. 34. Gentlemen,it is themicrobeswho willhave thelast word.―LouisPasteur
  35. 35.  3 of 5 of his children died of childhood diseases; which may have been the driving force behind his drive to save people from disease many diseases are caused by the presence and actions of specific micro-organisms Study of Germ Theory: was the reason for changed medical practices in hospitals Made significant breakthroughs in causes & preventions of diseases
  36. 36.  Discovered weak forms of diseases could be used as immunization (rabies, anthrax, chicken cholera) Introduced the world to the concept of viruses, tiny organisms that may lead to mild to severe illnesses in humans, animals and plants… WATCH: NPR Virus video
  37. 37. NAPOLEON3rd ESTATECOLUMBIAN EXCHANGE: The Great ExchangeREFORMATION

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