Cees de Haan Consultant World Bank Where are the livestock - in what systems, what genetic background and what do they eat...
Overview of presentation <ul><li>Production and consumption trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Livestock Revolution </li></u...
Production and consumption trends
Trends World Meat Production and Trade  Source FAOSTAT
Consumption levels  Source FAOSTAT
Trends  Global food consumption growth Source OECD-FAO 2008
Drivers
Demand drivers  Population Growth  Source: UN 2003 millions
Demand drivers Urbanization number of persons Source: UN 2003
Demand drivers  Higher income, higher meat consumption Source Delgado et al (1999)
Demand drivers Income Growth Per capita GDP growth rates at market prices Source: WB 2005
Supply Drivers:   Livestock Technology index; 1961=100 Source:  LLS (2006)
Supply drivers Genetics Source Collin et al (2008)
Supply drivers Narrowing genetic base <ul><li>Holstein-Friesian now in 128 countries, Large White pigs in 117. </li></ul><...
Supply Drivers   Grain prices and regional use Maize, US, US$ per bushel, deflated Source:  LLS (2006) and FAOSTAT
Supply drivers Feed categories consumption Source FAOSTAT
Where are they?
Where are they? Estimated distribution of livestock production systems Source:  LLS (2006)
Trends Regional meat production Million metric tons Source:  LLS (2006)
Where are they? Production systems Source:  LLS (2006)
Where are they?  Geographical shift over time <ul><li>Four movements </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed w/access to local markets...
Where are they? Location of industrial pig sector in southern Viet Nam Source:  LLS (2006)
Where are they? South Brazil - Geographical shifts  1992 - 2001 period  Hens birds/year/mun. Soy bean tons/year/mun. Human...
Where are they? Enterprise form <ul><li>Livestock is important for the poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 950 million ha...
Some Implications for global public goods Environment Social equity Public Health
Environmental effects <ul><li>Negative: </li></ul><ul><li>Use one third of arable land,  contributed to 20 percent rangela...
The equity implications <ul><li>Smallholders are not benefitting from Livestock Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China: 70...
The health implications <ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Zoonotic and potential pandemic diseases; </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Conclusion <ul><li>Reduce consumption? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely in the developing world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make ...
Editorial: Meat and the Planet  …… ..  There are no easy trade-offs when it comes to global warming — such as cutting back...
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Trends in Livestock Production and Consumption - Cees de Haan, World Bank

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During a workshop at the London International Development Centre on 12 June 2009, Cees de Haan reviewed production and consumption trends for meat and dairy products.

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  • Basically the story for the meat sector is that the growth which characterised the previous decade will slow and growth in the various meats while lower will be more stable cross meats. Review the figures.
  • Trends in Livestock Production and Consumption - Cees de Haan, World Bank

    1. 1. Cees de Haan Consultant World Bank Where are the livestock - in what systems, what genetic background and what do they eat? With some implications
    2. 2. Overview of presentation <ul><li>Production and consumption trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Livestock Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demand and supply drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including feed and genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems and location </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for the three public goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity, environment and health </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Production and consumption trends
    4. 4. Trends World Meat Production and Trade Source FAOSTAT
    5. 5. Consumption levels Source FAOSTAT
    6. 6. Trends Global food consumption growth Source OECD-FAO 2008
    7. 7. Drivers
    8. 8. Demand drivers Population Growth Source: UN 2003 millions
    9. 9. Demand drivers Urbanization number of persons Source: UN 2003
    10. 10. Demand drivers Higher income, higher meat consumption Source Delgado et al (1999)
    11. 11. Demand drivers Income Growth Per capita GDP growth rates at market prices Source: WB 2005
    12. 12. Supply Drivers: Livestock Technology index; 1961=100 Source: LLS (2006)
    13. 13. Supply drivers Genetics Source Collin et al (2008)
    14. 14. Supply drivers Narrowing genetic base <ul><li>Holstein-Friesian now in 128 countries, Large White pigs in 117. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 7544 local breeds 1491 are at risk. Highest share in Europe and Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>Policies often promote exotic breeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidized or free AI and subsidized feed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice and extension etc. </li></ul></ul>Source: FAO (2007)
    15. 15. Supply Drivers Grain prices and regional use Maize, US, US$ per bushel, deflated Source: LLS (2006) and FAOSTAT
    16. 16. Supply drivers Feed categories consumption Source FAOSTAT
    17. 17. Where are they?
    18. 18. Where are they? Estimated distribution of livestock production systems Source: LLS (2006)
    19. 19. Trends Regional meat production Million metric tons Source: LLS (2006)
    20. 20. Where are they? Production systems Source: LLS (2006)
    21. 21. Where are they? Geographical shift over time <ul><li>Four movements </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed w/access to local markets </li></ul><ul><li>Close to markets (poor transport infrastructure) </li></ul><ul><li>Close to feed resources (developed transport infrastructure) </li></ul><ul><li>In areas characterized by low human population density (environmental regulations) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Where are they? Location of industrial pig sector in southern Viet Nam Source: LLS (2006)
    23. 23. Where are they? South Brazil - Geographical shifts 1992 - 2001 period Hens birds/year/mun. Soy bean tons/year/mun. Humans persons/year/mun. Swine heads/year/mun.
    24. 24. Where are they? Enterprise form <ul><li>Livestock is important for the poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 950 million have livestock at least as a part of their livelihood, be it for income, food security, traction and fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smallholders dominate in most developing countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia: Only 3 percent poultry meat from large farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India: 5.5 percent of national workforce in dairy sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But larger commercial enterprises are substituting in middle income countries. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Some Implications for global public goods Environment Social equity Public Health
    26. 26. Environmental effects <ul><li>Negative: </li></ul><ul><li>Use one third of arable land, contributed to 20 percent rangeland degradation, </li></ul><ul><li>18 percent of anthropogenic GHG emission </li></ul><ul><li>15 percent of global agriculture water evapo-transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-diversity threat to 306 of the 825 terrestrial eco-regions and loss of domestic animal genetic resources </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for carbon sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>Energy savings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>¼ cultivated w/ animal traction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer savings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could supply 50 percent of nutrients </li></ul></ul>GHG emission per kg product declining?
    27. 27. The equity implications <ul><li>Smallholders are not benefitting from Livestock Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China: 70 million poultry farm exits between 1996 and 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil: 30 percent decline in dairy farmers around Rio between 1997 and 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand: Major decline in smallholder poultry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But is a push or a pull?? </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. The health implications <ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Zoonotic and potential pandemic diseases; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One new emerging disease each year , of which 75 percent zoonotic. Economic impact considerable; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of 1415 known pathogens, 62 percent of animal origin; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.6 million annual TB fatalities of which 2-15 percent (?) of bovine origin; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food borne pathogens important contributor to diarrheal diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contribution to obesity and other food related health risks </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of critical nutrients to vulnerable groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong relationship between intake of animal source food and growth, cognitive behavior in children and pregnant and nursing women morbidity </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Conclusion <ul><li>Reduce consumption? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely in the developing world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make it safer and more sustainable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internalize externalities but will result in higher price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase the share of the poor in the benefits of the Livestock Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher environmental (GCC) and public health risks </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Editorial: Meat and the Planet …… .. There are no easy trade-offs when it comes to global warming — such as cutting back on cattle to make room for cars. The human passion for meat is certainly not about to end anytime soon. As “Livestock’s Long Shadow” makes clear, our health and the health of the planet depend on pushing livestock production in more sustainable directions. NYT, December 27, 2006

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