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Marketing	Research
Lecture	3																																												
Marketing	Management	[722G86]
Hugo	Guyader,	PhD	C...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Hugo	Guyader
๏ PhD student in Marketing since 2013.
๏ Multi-method approach to research:
e...
Applied marketing research
The research process
Quantitative methods
Qualitative methods
Today
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Why	Marketing	Research?
• All marketing strategy and tactic decisions require
information ...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
The	Coca-Cola	Company	-	Year	1985
• Taste was the most important cause of Coca Cola’s
decl...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
https://youtu.be/o4YvmN1hvNA
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Pitfalls
Coca Cola lost many many consumers.
‣ First, they assumed that taste was the
deci...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
The	Internet	Age
Increased Internet access in the
last 20 years has made research
availabl...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Marketing	Information	System
(MIS)
People and procedures for
- assessing information
needs...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Customer	Relationship	Management	
• CRM systems: capturing and using customer data from al...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
A man walked into a Target outside Minneapolis and demanded to
see the manager. He was clu...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
“How	Target	Figured	Out	A	Teen	Girl	Was	
Pregnant	Before	Her	Father	Did”
๏ Customer Guest ...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Marketing	Research	in	SMEs	and	NGOs
Need to understand what stakeholders need (i.e. extern...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
International	Marketing	Research
Sourcing secondary data may be difficult
Cultural differe...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
International	marketing	gone	wrong
• "Nothing sucks like an Electrolux." (US)
• Proctor & ...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
FARTFULL	-	marketing	coup?
- Not for sale.
- Going, Speed (“Fart”)
in Swedish.
- Travel (“...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Research	Ethics
• Consumer privacy issues
• Integrity issues
A substantial amount of consu...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Sources	of	Marketing	Information
✓ Internal data: existing collections of consumer/market
...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Pizza	Hut	-	Very	Into	Pizza	(V.I.P.)
Internal database on 40
million households
Customer r...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Marketing	Research	Process
Define	
problem	
and	
objectives
Develop	
research	
plan
Implem...
Exploratory Descriptive Causal
• Goal:	gather	preliminary	
information,	define	
problem,	suggest	
hypotheses	
• Usually	ba...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Primary	Data Secondary	Data
• Information	collected	for	a	
specific	purpose	/	research	
qu...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Secondary	Data
• Nielsen Company
• Qualtrics
• ClickZ
• Ipsos
• Forrester
• Experian
Consu...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Secondary	Data
Internal sources
• CRM (Customer Relationship Management) system
• ERP (Ent...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Secondary	Information
✓ Relevant

-> fits research project needs
✓ Accurate

-> reliably c...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Primary	Data	Collection
• Different approaches
Observation
Survey
Experiment
• Different m...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Sampling
“a	segment	of	the	population	selected	for	marketing	

research	to	represent	the	p...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Sampling
✴ Probability sampling
- Every member of the population has a known
nonzero proba...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Probability	Sampling
• Simple random sampling: Every member of the population has a known
...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Non-Probability	Sampling
• Convenience sampling: people that are most conveniently
availab...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Analyse	and	Report
Data seldom speaks for itself.
Proper data analysis is needed if a stud...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Analyse	and	Report
Communicate results effectively 

(in a way that they can be understood...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Qualitative							Quantitative
Methods
vs.
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Qualitative							Quantitative
• Depends on the research question…
–  What do I want to kn...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Qualitative	Approach
Interpretativism
• Antipositivists hold that researchers should focus...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Quantitative	Approach
Positivism
• Application of natural science methods to social
scienc...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Qualitative Research Quantitative
• quality	
• what,	why,	how	
Focus
• quantify	
• how	man...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Qualitative Research Quantitative
• Discover	ideas	
• Used	in	exploratory	research	
with	g...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Exploratory		
research
Confirmatory	
research
Qualitative	Data	
❖ textual	
❖ visual	
❖ ora...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Marketing	
Research	
Methods
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Observations
• Recorded notes describing observed events
• Search for variation & exceptio...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Mystery	Shopping
‣ Mystery shoppers are sent to make a purchase, and
then fill-out a detai...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Ethnography
What is Ethnography?

Researcher is part of social setting for a prolonged per...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Ethnography
How meaning is created and ways thinking are
conducted
How symbols are working...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Ethnography
Information is gathered while embedded in the
context through observation, fie...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
The	Consumer	Odyssey
• Founding from the Marketing Science Institute in 1986, to buy
for a...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Netnography
1 Holistic marketplace descriptions
2 Communicative and cultural comprehension...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Netnography
➡ 6 steps (Kozinets 2015)
1 Research Planning
2 Entrée
3 Data Collection
4 Int...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Interviews
“A	Conversation	with	a	purpose”			
Obtain as much, as specific, and as useful i...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Interviews
• Interview as a tunnel: focus on events, facts, ideas,
emotions, experiences, ...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Structured	Interviews
• Formal questionnaire
• Ordered questions, asked in a uniform manne...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Unstructured	Interviews
• Open-ended, informal
• No a priori categorisation
• Interviewers...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Semi-structured	Interviews
• Between structured and unstructured interviews
• Open intervi...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Amount	of	Control
Type A B C D
Interviews
Conver-
sations
Unstruc-
tured
Semi-
structured
...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Focus	Groups
Small group interviews/discussions led by a trained moderator,
who poses very...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
ONLINE	Focus	Groups
Advantages
1. Groups can have tremendous geographic diversity.
2. Trav...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Case	Studies
✓ Extensive and detailed examination of the unique features of a
case (organi...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Case	Studies
Methods associated: participant observations,
unstructured interviews, docume...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Case	Studies
‣ Not a methodological choice; but a choice
of what is to be studied (interes...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Surveys
➡ A method of collecting primary from a representative
sample of individuals.
Snap...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Survey	examples • MARKET DESCRIPTION: Determine the size and relative market share of the ...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
• BRAND EQUITY: What is psychological value that a brand holds in the marketplace? A compo...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Surveys
“Measure	what	is	measurable,	

and	make	measurable	what	is	not.”	—	Galileo	
• Meas...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Surveys
• Nominal scales: values are
assigned to an object for
identification or classific...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Surveys
• Reliability: indicator of a measure's internal consistency. Different attempts
a...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Surveys Reliability
Validity
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Survey	Errors
Random sampling error: statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Survey	Errors
B. Administrative error: error caused by the improper administration or
exec...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Survey	studies
A cross-sectional study samples and collect data from various
segments of a...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Door-to-Door	&	
Mall	Intercept
Telephone Mail Internet
Speed Fast Very	fast Slow Instantan...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Facebook
• cheap!
• W.E.I.R.D.
• younger and more educated than general population
• snowb...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Experiments
๏ Natural: only intervene to measure results 

– keep it as organic as possibl...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Experiments
Research question: not exploratory.

Clear, simple, few hypotheses.

Few varia...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Experiments
- Internal validity: the control group eliminates threats of testing (the
'exp...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
You can't buy what you can't see: Retailer practices to increase the
green premium
Hugo Gu...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Eye	Tracking	Experiment
Convenience supermarket mock-up.
5 shelves: tomato sauce, kidney b...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Purpose
Study the impact of in-store information, green price tags and
greenwashing produc...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
http://youtu.be/Mm0g8mVHffE
control group primed group
Fixation Time Average [ms]
0 20001000
Heat Maps
Results	-	Green	Price	Tags
control group primed group
Fixation Time Average [ms]
0 20001000
Results	-	Greenwashing
Heat Maps
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
Findings
✓ Retailers are the gatekeepers between consumers and eco-
friendly products. The...
Hugo	Guyader	—	722G86	Lecture	3
References
‣ Belk: Handbook of Qualitative
Research Methods in Marketing —
2007
‣ Bryman &...
Email	me	your	questions	about	the	lecture!
Hugo Guyader

hugo.guyader@liu.se
Credit	images:	

The	Noun	Project
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Marketing Research Methods

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Slides from my lecture in a Marketing Management course at Linköping University (2nd year students). The course-book was Kotler's Principles of Marketing so I covered the concepts defined in the chapter. Basic facts on qualitative and quantitative research methods were presented: interviews, surveys, ethnography and netnography, case studies, focus groups, and experiments. I also discussed how the Internet and social media have improved the quantity and quality of data available on customer behavior.

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Marketing Research Methods

  1. 1. Marketing Research Lecture 3 Marketing Management [722G86] Hugo Guyader, PhD Candidate in Marketing Department of Management & Engineering (IEI) Division of Business Administration (FEK) 2016-11-05
  2. 2. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Hugo Guyader ๏ PhD student in Marketing since 2013. ๏ Multi-method approach to research: experiments, surveys, interviews, (n)etnography, etc. ๏ Research focus on collaborative consumption and P2P exchanges through online platforms. ๏ Teaching in Marketing, Consumer Behavior, Service Marketing, Advanced Consumer Marketing, Leadership & Strategy. @experienceetc hugo.guyader@liu.se
  3. 3. Applied marketing research The research process Quantitative methods Qualitative methods Today
  4. 4. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Why Marketing Research? • All marketing strategy and tactic decisions require information about customer, markets, competitors, partners, technologies, etc. • The primary goal of gathering, structuring and analysing marketing information is to gain customer insights and improve marketing decisions. • Understanding customers and the marketplace becomes the basis for creating customer value and relationships.
  5. 5. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 The Coca-Cola Company - Year 1985 • Taste was the most important cause of Coca Cola’s decline in market share in the 70’s and early 80’s • Research: blind product taste tests were conducted, and more than 50% participants favoured “New Coke” over both the original formula and Pepsi. • In 1985, Coca Cola introduced “New Coke”: 
 a sweeter beverage than the original-formula, which was withdrawn from the market.
  6. 6. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 https://youtu.be/o4YvmN1hvNA
  7. 7. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Pitfalls Coca Cola lost many many consumers. ‣ First, they assumed that taste was the deciding factor in consumer purchase behavior. But study participants were not told that only one product would be marketed — not asked whether they would give up “Coke Classic”. ‣ Second, they did not realise the symbolic value and emotional involvement consumers had with the original taste, which was reintroduced immediately and boosted sales. ‣ “New Coke” is withdrawn in 2002. Market share went up!
  8. 8. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 The Internet Age Increased Internet access in the last 20 years has made research available at a much lower cost and, therefore, more accessible to organisations of all sizes. As a result, the research field has exploded with new opportunities and methodologies, and organisations have more information at their disposal than ever before. • Social media yields unfiltered feedback • Data collection improvements (e.g. better targeting, engagement measures) • Enhanced data analysis • Creation of new research roles • Big Data informs 
 research
  9. 9. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Marketing Information System (MIS) People and procedures for - assessing information needs, - developing the needed information, and - helping decision makers to use the information to generate and validate actionable customer and market insights. Course book - Figure 4.1
  10. 10. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Customer Relationship Management • CRM systems: capturing and using customer data from all sources to manage customer interactions and build customer relationships. 
 e.g. identifying and managing customer touch points • CRM builds on data from different sources. For instance, ICA’s CRM system is based on information provided when customers purchase and swipe their ICA cards.
 Through this method, loyal card customers get customised offers based on purchase history. • CRM alone can hardly create customer relationships – it’s just one tool that must be integrated in the company’s overall marketing.
  11. 11. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 A man walked into a Target outside Minneapolis and demanded to see the manager. He was clutching coupons that had been sent to his daughter, and he was angry, according to an employee who participated in the conversation. “My daughter got this in the mail!” he said. “She’s still in high school, and you’re sending her coupons for baby clothes and cribs? Are you trying to encourage her to get pregnant?” The manager didn’t have any idea what the man was talking about. He looked at the mailer. Sure enough, it was addressed to the man’s daughter and contained advertisements for maternity clothing, nursery furniture and pictures of smiling infants. The manager apologized and then called a few days later to apologize again. On the phone, though, the father was somewhat abashed. “I had a talk with my daughter,” he said. “It turns out there’s been some activities in my house I haven’t been completely aware of. She’s due in August. I owe you an apology.”
  12. 12. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 “How Target Figured Out A Teen Girl Was Pregnant Before Her Father Did” ๏ Customer Guest ID number tied with a lot of information ๏ Purchase data from ladies who signed-up to Target baby registries (25 products) ๏ pregnant women on the registry buy more unscented lotion around their second trimester; ๏ hand sanitizers and washcloths when close to their delivery date. ๏ Estimate due date to within a small window, and send coupons timed to very specific stages of her pregnancy. Forbes (2012) The New York Times (2012)
  13. 13. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Marketing Research in SMEs and NGOs Need to understand what stakeholders need (i.e. external as well as internal stakeholders, such as staff and volunteers). Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and non- government organisations (NGOs) can use marketing research techniques in a less formal manner and at little expense. Conducting informal surveys using small convenience samples. Students can be hired to keep costs down. A lot of information might be collected on the internet at little or low cost.
  14. 14. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 International Marketing Research Sourcing secondary data may be difficult Cultural differences: watch your language! Varying attitudes towards marketing research Despite the problems, global companies, which are increasing in numbers and range, have little choice but to conduct international marketing research Coca Cola: do you prefer drinking ‘Diet Coke’ or ‘Coke Light’?
  15. 15. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 International marketing gone wrong • "Nothing sucks like an Electrolux." (US) • Proctor & Gamble - Pampers diapers (Japan)
 Image of a stork delivering a baby on the packaging. Customers were concerned and confused by the image of a stork on the packaging, since the stories of storks bringing babies to parents isn't a part of Japanese folklore. There, the story goes that giant floating peaches bring babies to their parents. • Coors beer slogan “Turn it loose” into Spanish was read as “Suffer from diarrhea”.
  16. 16. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 FARTFULL - marketing coup? - Not for sale. - Going, Speed (“Fart”) in Swedish. - Travel (“Fährt”) in German - FARTFULL is being used here to suggest mobility, given the desk's wheels and design. - Good press!
  17. 17. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Research Ethics • Consumer privacy issues • Integrity issues A substantial amount of consumers mistrust marketing research, such as increasing consumer resentment has become a major problem. ➡ Lower survey response rates reduces the power of marketing research, in a time when it’s more important than ever. FOCAL POINTS (Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007): • Informed consent or passive deception • Privacy • Do no harm • Exploitation • Consequences for future research Vetenskapsrådet
  18. 18. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Sources of Marketing Information ✓ Internal data: existing collections of consumer/market information based on internal sources. Cheap, but often old, incomplete, and collected for other purposes. e.g. customer demographics, sales numbers, customer satisfaction ✓ Marketing intelligence: systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about consumers, competitors and developments in the marketplace. e.g. monitoring Internet buzz, snooping on competitors annual reports or press releases, online databases/panels ✓ Marketing research: systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation.
  19. 19. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Pizza Hut - Very Into Pizza (V.I.P.) Internal database on 40 million households Customer retention program 1 free pizza for every two pizzas bought Membership fee: 
 $14.95 Personalised reminders are sent to customers
  20. 20. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Marketing Research Process Define problem and objectives Develop research plan Implement research plan Interpret and report findings ‣ Exploratory research ‣ Descriptive research ‣ Causal research ‣ Primary data sources ‣ Secondary data sources ‣ Sampling ‣ Data collection ‣ Analysis
  21. 21. Exploratory Descriptive Causal • Goal: gather preliminary information, define problem, suggest hypotheses • Usually based on qualitative approach • Example: what kind of services could we provide around our product? • Goal: describing in detail problems, situations, markets, and customers • Both qualitative and quantitative approaches can be used • Example: what age group buys our products? • Goal: test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships • Usually based quantitative survey or experimentation data • Example: how do customers react to change in price? Flexible design Broad scope Fuzzy results Rigid design Narrow scope Clear results Research Design Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  22. 22. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Primary Data Secondary Data • Information collected for a specific purpose / research question • Information already available internally or externally • Collected for another purpose • Costs less! Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  23. 23. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Secondary Data • Nielsen Company • Qualtrics • ClickZ • Ipsos • Forrester • Experian Consumer Research • Symphony IRI Group • IMS Health • Arbitron Radio and Television Reports • J.D. Power and Associates • Erdos & Morgan • Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) • Dun & Bradstreet • comScore • Thomson Dialog • LexisNexis • Mediamark Research • Factive • Audit Bureau of Circulations • Hoover’s • Federal Trade Commission • U.S. Census • U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings External sources
  24. 24. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Secondary Data Internal sources • CRM (Customer Relationship Management) system • ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system • PoS (Point of Sales) data • Loyalty programs (e.g. ICA) • Use data (e.g. mobile operators) • Promotion campaign Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  25. 25. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Secondary Information ✓ Relevant
 -> fits research project needs ✓ Accurate
 -> reliably collected and reported ✓ Current
 -> up-to-date for current decisions ✓ Impartial 
 -> objectively collected and reported Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  26. 26. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Primary Data Collection • Different approaches Observation Survey Experiment • Different methods Mail Telephone Personal Online • Different sampling Sampling unit Sample size Sampling procedure • Different instruments Questionnaire Mechanical Instruments Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  27. 27. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Sampling “a segment of the population selected for marketing 
 research to represent the population as a whole” ¿ Who is to be surveyed?
 sampling unit ¿ How many people should be surveyed?
 sample size ¿ How should the people in the sample be chosen?
 sampling procedure Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  28. 28. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Sampling ✴ Probability sampling - Every member of the population has a known nonzero probability of selection. 
 - Random refers to the procedure for selecting the sample; it does not describe the data in the sample. 
 - Randomness characterises a procedure whose outcome cannot be predicted because it depends on chance. ✴ Non-Probability sampling - Units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience
 - The probability of any particular member of the population being chosen is unknown. Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  29. 29. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Probability Sampling • Simple random sampling: Every member of the population has a known and equal chance of selection. Only one stage of selection. • Systematic sampling: starting point selected by a random process and then every nth number on the list is selected. The problem of periodicity occurs if a list has a systematic pattern (not random). • Stratified sampling: simple random subsamples are drawn from within each stratum of the population. First, a variable is identified for stratification (e.g. age). Second, for each separate subgroup/stratum (e.g. 16-25, 26-40, 41-55), a list of population elements must be obtained. • Cluster (area) sampling: the primary sampling unit is no longer the individual element in the population (e.g. grocery store) but a larger cluster of elements located in proximity to one another (e.g. cities). • Multistage area sampling: a combination of two or more probability sampling techniques. Progressively smaller areas/units are selected in each stage (e.g. City -> Neighbourhood -> Age group -> occupation, …). Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  30. 30. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Non-Probability Sampling • Convenience sampling: people that are most conveniently available (e.g. selecting all visitors to a website). Produces a large number of responses quickly and at a low cost, but induces a self-selection bias. • Judgment (purposive) sampling: based on personal judgment about some appropriate characteristic, to achieve specific objective. • Quote sampling: various population subgroups are represented on pertinent characteristics to the extent that the researcher desires. • Snowball sampling: initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents. Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  31. 31. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Analyse and Report Data seldom speaks for itself. Proper data analysis is needed if a study is to have any value. Analysis techniques vary and their effectiveness depends on the types of information you are collecting, and the type of measurements you are using. Because they are dependent on the data collection, analysis techniques should be decided before this step. Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  32. 32. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Analyse and Report Communicate results effectively 
 (in a way that they can be understood and used). • Reports must tell the user what information is relevant, and how it is relevant to the issues at hand. • The research process culminates with the research report including an accurate description of the research process, the results, conclusions, and recommended courses of action. Define problem 
 and 
 objectives Develop research 
 plan Implement research 
 plan Interpret 
 and report findings
  33. 33. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Qualitative Quantitative Methods vs.
  34. 34. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Qualitative Quantitative • Depends on the research question… –  What do I want to know? –  When? In which historical context? –  Why is it important? –  Who needs this knowledge? - politicians, corporate owners, managers, producers, sales persons, consumers, old people, young women, foreign citizens...etc. 
 • …and on the ontological and epistemological perspectives of the researcher.
  35. 35. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Qualitative Approach Interpretativism • Antipositivists hold that researchers should focus on understanding the interpretations that social actions have for the people being studied. “Social reality has a specific meaning and relevance structure for the beings living, acting, and thinking within it” – Schutz, 1962, p.59 • The meaning of social action • Weber’s Verstehen • The actor’s perspective: subjective reality • The social realm may not be subject to the same methods of investigation as the natural world.
  36. 36. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Quantitative Approach Positivism • Application of natural science methods to social science research: • Empiricist knowledge via the senses • Deductivist theory testing • Inductivist theory building • Objective value-free researcher • Scientific versus normative statements.  • There is a reality out there to be studied, captured, and understood.
  37. 37. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Qualitative Research Quantitative • quality • what, why, how Focus • quantify • how many • hermeneutics Philosophy • positivism • field work • interviews • meaning • subjectivity Key words • surveys • facts • statistics • objectivity • understanding or exploring change Aim • explanation • control • prediction • proof • hypothesis • intuitive
 (researcher as a traveller) How • structured, predetermined (researcher as a miner)
  38. 38. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Qualitative Research Quantitative • Discover ideas • Used in exploratory research with general research objects Purpose • Test hypotheses or specific research questions • Observe & Interprete Approach • Measure & Test • Unstructured • Free-Form Data collection • Structured response categories provided • Intimately involved • Subjective results Researcher independence • Uninvolved • Observer • Objective results • Small samples • Natural settings Samples • Large samples to produce generalisable results • Exploratory research design Most often used • Descriptive research design • Causal research design
  39. 39. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Exploratory research Confirmatory research Qualitative Data ❖ textual ❖ visual ❖ oral ➡ focus on stories, portrayals, meaningful characterisations, interpretations, expressive descriptions Quantitative Data ❖ numbers ➡ focus on assigning numbers to represent phenomena in an ordered manner
  40. 40. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Marketing Research Methods
  41. 41. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Observations • Recorded notes describing observed events • Search for variation & exceptions 
 - What is regular and what is unusual activity? 
 - What happens and why? • Participant observations • Provides — Many different types of, Naturally occurring, In depth, Contextualised data • Facilitates — Preparation of interview or survey studies; Interpretation of results
  42. 42. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Mystery Shopping ‣ Mystery shoppers are sent to make a purchase, and then fill-out a detailed evaluation sheet. ‣ Often used to evaluate staff, in natural settings. ‣ Provides feedback to front-line employees. ‣ Visits can also be video-recorded and used in training. ‣ Mystery shopping may raise ethical issues (staff is unaware that they are being studied)
  43. 43. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Ethnography What is Ethnography?
 Researcher is part of social setting for a prolonged period 
 Content = both method and written product of the research Method
 (participant) Observations, with other methods (Open or Biographical or Focus group interviews, Document analysis) Objective
 Understanding a culture, norms and values, social environment of a group
  44. 44. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Ethnography How meaning is created and ways thinking are conducted How symbols are working in the social and societal context How behaviors emanate and are appearing to be While embarking on an ethnographic study the researcher should be aware of pre-understanding (ontology, epistemology, method, techniques and theory) and how it effects data collection and analysis.
  45. 45. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Ethnography Information is gathered while embedded in the context through observation, field notes, interviews, audiovisual recordings, polls, surveys, tests, experiments.. The ethnographer is a storyteller too — tales of others. The closer, the better a reader of an ethnography understands the “native’s” point of view, the better the story and science can be said to be.
  46. 46. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 The Consumer Odyssey • Founding from the Marketing Science Institute in 1986, to buy for a large van in which The Consumer Odyssey could travel to explore a wide variety of consumer venues from East to West coast. • Russell Belk, Melanie Wallendorf and other social scientists stayed with the project for its duration, whereas the other members joined for different parts of the trip: swap meets, art shows, private homes, hospitals, homeless shelters, hotels, riverboat cruises, and many more. • The researchers entered these environments with open eyes, making the "familiar strange" and employing methods that few researchers had used previously in the discipline.
  47. 47. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Netnography 1 Holistic marketplace descriptions 2 Communicative and cultural comprehension 3 Embedded understanding of consumer choice 4 Naturalistic views of brand meaning 5 Discovery of consumer innovation 6 Mappings of sociocultural online space
  48. 48. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Netnography ➡ 6 steps (Kozinets 2015) 1 Research Planning 2 Entrée 3 Data Collection 4 Interpretation 5 Ensuring ethical standards 6 Research representation
  49. 49. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Interviews “A Conversation with a purpose” Obtain as much, as specific, and as useful information as possible. • Forms of interview: individual, face-to-face, verbal exchange; face-to-face group interchange; mailed questionnaires; self-administered questionnaires; telephone surveys; … ‣ structured, semi-structured or unstructured ‣ a one-time brief event, or multiple lengthy sessions at times spanning days
  50. 50. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Interviews • Interview as a tunnel: focus on events, facts, ideas, emotions, experiences, attitudes, stories and the world of the interviewee; in a way that is as direct, as neutral, as reliable and as valid as possible. • Interview as a topic: focus on observing the interview. Data is used as an indirect source (Interviewee’s talk is analysed as behaviour) and as an interaction (The interview is analysed as a social event). • Active interview = Interview as a tunnel and topic: 
 “Meaning is not constantly formulated anew, but reflects relatively enduring local conditions.”
  51. 51. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Structured Interviews • Formal questionnaire • Ordered questions, asked in a uniform manner • Collect descriptive information • Easy to use • Questions need to be worded properly to get unbiased and complete answers • No room for variation (except if open-ended questions are used, which is rare) • Responses are recorded according to coding scheme
  52. 52. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Unstructured Interviews • Open-ended, informal • No a priori categorisation • Interviewers only have general instructions 
 (only what needs to be gathered, not how) • Collects more exploratory data • Vocabulary is adjusted during the interview • But it needs to be “natural”, which influences the quality (completeness, objectivity, bias) of the data • Coding the transcripts might be challenging
  53. 53. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Semi-structured Interviews • Between structured and unstructured interviews • Open interviews, but around a specific theme • Discussion points/topics of interests are prepared to keep the interview on track, but questions can be different from one respondent to another • List of questions can even be given to respondents before interview
  54. 54. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Amount of Control Type A B C D Interviews Conver- sations Unstruc- tured Semi- structured Structured Topic Question formulation Question Sequence Interviewer -behaviour AMOUNT OF CONTROL free fixed fixed fixed free free free/fixed fixed free free free/fixed fixed free free free/fixed fixed
  55. 55. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Focus Groups Small group interviews/discussions led by a trained moderator, who poses very specific questions about a topic (after having already completed considerable research) ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Can be done quickly • Gain multiple perspectives • Flexibility • Rich, cumulative, and elaborative data • Stimulating respondents (aiding recall) • Results dependent on moderator • No generalisation • Difficult to use for sensitive topics • Emerging group culture may interfere with individual expression, or the group may be dominated by one person • 'groupthink' is a possible outcome
  56. 56. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 ONLINE Focus Groups Advantages 1. Groups can have tremendous geographic diversity. 2. Travel costs can be virtually eliminated. 3. Recruitment is easier because you do not ask a respondent to spend an evening traveling to, sitting in, and returning from a facility. 4. Mixed groups (on any dimension) are not a problem. 5. Bad weather generally has no effect on a group session. 6. The information recorded is clean, concise, and to the point. 7. Overbearing respondents can be “handled” without disrupting the rest of the group. 8. Concept testing is easy.
  57. 57. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Case Studies ✓ Extensive and detailed examination of the unique features of a case (organisation, location, person, event, phenomenon) ➡ idiographic approach ✓ A systematic process of collecting and analysing information from a limited phenomenon ❖ Case studies deal with: • Questions in contemporary settings, What, How and Why • When the investigator has little control over events • Both quantitative and qualitative methods can be used ✓ Qual. & Quant. methods can be combined. 
 qualitative -> inductive approach
 quantitative -> deductive approach
  58. 58. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Case Studies Methods associated: participant observations, unstructured interviews, document analysis, … Generalisability claimed to a certain degree. Types of case • critical: a clearly specified hypothesis is tested • unique and extreme • revelatory: study of a phenomenon previously inaccessible to research • representative or typical • longitudinal: over time changes Multiple case study: extension of the case study design, allowing researchers to compare and contrast the findings from each case. The emphasis is on the unique contexts of the cases.
  59. 59. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Case Studies ‣ Not a methodological choice; but a choice of what is to be studied (interests in individual cases). ‣ Thick description. ‣ Case selection: better study an atypical case for greater opportunities to learn. ‣ A case has a purpose, can be simple or complex, and short or long. ‣ The case is singular, but it as subsections (e.g. production, marketing), groups (e.g. students, parents), occasions (e.g. workdays, holidays), … ‣ The case is a specific, unique "bounded system”: a representation of something. ‣ Both the process of inquiry about the case (the case itself is of interest) and the product of that inquiry (= "case record"). ‣ Issues are complex, situated, problematic relationships. ‣ Storytelling: different presentation styles (realistic, impressionistic, confessional, critical, formal, literary or jointly told). The whole story cannot be told, it exceeds anyone's knowing, anyone's telling. ‣ Triangulation reduces the likelihood of misinterpretation: redundancy of data gathering and challenges to explanations.
  60. 60. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Surveys ➡ A method of collecting primary from a representative sample of individuals. Snapshot at a given point in time. • Used to identify characteristics of target markets, measure customer attitudes, describe consumer purchase patterns, determine an organisation's commitment to the environment, etc. Descriptive research. Quantitative findings. Quick, inexpensive, accurate, flexible.
  61. 61. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Survey examples • MARKET DESCRIPTION: Determine the size and relative market share of the market. Provide key information about market growth, competitive positioning and share of market. • MARKET PROFILING-SEGMENTATION: Identify customers and non-customers, and why they are or are not your customers. Often a descriptive market segmentation and market share analysis. • STAGE IN THE PURCHASE PROCESS / TRACKING: Where is the customer in the adoption process? Shows market Awareness – Knowledge – Intention – Trial – Purchase – Repurchase of the product. • CUSTOMER INTENTION - PURCHASE ANALYSIS: Customer motivation to move from interest in the product to actual purchase. Key to understanding customer conversion, commitment and loyalty. • CUSTOMER ATTITUDES AND EXPECTATIONS: Does the product meet customer expectations? Attitudes formed about the product and/or company. Improve ads, customer conversion, commitment and loyalty. • CUSTOMER TRUST - LOYALTY – RETENTION ANALYSIS: Depth of consumer attitudes formed about the product and/or company. Especially for high priced consumer goods with long decision and purchase processes. • NEW PRODUCT CONCEPT ANALYSIS: Appropriate in the initial screening of new product concepts. Likes and dislikes, acceptability and likelihood of purchase are especially useful measures. • NEW PRODUCT ACCEPTANCE AND DEMAND (CONJOINT ANALYSIS): Estimating demand for new product descriptions, graphics, or prototypes. Yields market share estimates for alternative concept configurations. • HABITS AND USES: Understanding usage situations, including how, when and where the product is used. May include a real or virtual pantry audit. • PRODUCT FULFILMENT: Evaluation of promised attribute and feature benefits (both tangible and intangible). Are expectations produced by advertising, packaging, and product appearance fulfilled? • COMPETITIVE PRODUCT AND MARKET POSITIONING: “Best Practices” study of “How does the market view us relative to the competition?” Compares attributes and benefits of the product. Source: Qualtrics.com
  62. 62. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 • BRAND EQUITY: What is psychological value that a brand holds in the marketplace? A composite of brand awareness, brand quality, brand associations and brand loyalty measures. • ADVERTISING VALUE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS: Mapping the hierarchical attributes, benefits and values associated with and portrayed by an advertisement. Means-end analysis is often part of this type of study. • ADVERTISING MEDIA AND MESSAGE EFFECTIVENESS: Identifies the impressions, feelings, and effectiveness in moving the respondent to a desired goal (increased awareness, product information, trial, repeat purchase). • SALES FORCE EFFECTIVENESS: Sales activities, performance and effectiveness in producing the desired and measurable effect or goal. Often measured in a 360 degree survey completed by the sales person, the client (evaluating the sales call) and the supervisor responsible for evaluating the sales person. • SALES LEAD GENERATION: (1) Timely use and follow-up of sales leads, (2) Qualifying sales leads (thereby saving valuable sales force time) and (3) Providing more effective tracking of sales leads. • CUSTOMER SERVICE: Focus in detail on the actual customer service that was received, the process involved in receiving that service and the evaluation of the participants in the service process. • CUSTOMER SERVICE REPRESENTATIVE (CSR) ATTITUDES: Customer Service Representatives hold attitudes that reflect on their job related activities including (1) the allocation of time; (2) solutions to customer needs; (3) how to improve their job; (4) best practices; (5) how well internal departments help customers. Focuses on reducing costs and increasing the quality of customer relationships. • SALES FORECASTING AND MARKET TRACKING: Expert estimates of the market, judgmental bootstrapping (expert based rules describing how to use available secondary market information), conjoint analysis (estimation of consumer choice preferences), and self-reported intentions to make future purchases. • PRICE SETTING AND ELASTICITY OF DEMAND ANALYSIS: Estimates of demand elasticity, optimal price points, and prices too low or too high. Estimates for different product-service segments, or usage situations. Source: Qualtrics.com Survey examples
  63. 63. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Surveys “Measure what is measurable, 
 and make measurable what is not.” — Galileo • Measurement: the process of describing some property or a phenomenon of interest, usually by assigning numbers in a reliable and valid way. The numbers convey information about the property being measured. All measurements contain errors. Researchers must make sure that the measures used, if not perfect, are accurate enough to yield correct conclusions. • Construct: term used to refer to concepts measured with multiple variables. • Scales: a device providing a range of values that correspond to different values in a concept being measured.
  64. 64. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Surveys • Nominal scales: values are assigned to an object for identification or classification purposes only (e.g. gender). • Ordinal scales: rank order allowing things to be arranged based on how much of some concept they possess (grade). • Interval scales: capture info about differences in quantities of a concept form one observation to the next (IQ). • Ratio scales: represent absolute quantities; characterized by a meaningful absolute zero (age).
  65. 65. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Surveys • Reliability: indicator of a measure's internal consistency. Different attempts at measuring something should converge on the same result. • Validity: the accuracy of a measure of the extent to which a score truthfully represents a concept. Basically how a measure assesses the intended concept. • Face validity: a scale's content logically appears to reflect what was intended to be measured (according to 'experts'). • Content validity: a measure covers the breadth of the domain of interest. • Criterion validity: the ability of a measure to correlate with other standard measures of similar constructs or established criteria. • Construct validity: exists when a measure truthfully represents a unique concept. • Convergent validity: concepts that should be related to one another are in fact related. • Discriminant validity: uniqueness or distinctiveness of a measure. A scale should not correlate too highly with a measure of a different construct.
  66. 66. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Surveys Reliability Validity
  67. 67. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Survey Errors Random sampling error: statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variation in the elements selected for a sample. Unavoidable without very large population (> 400). Non-sampling error or bias: caused by the research design, when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate from the true value of the population parameter. A. Respondent error: sample bias resulting from some respondents’ action or inaction. • Nonresponse error: difference between a survey that includes only those who responded, and a perfect survey that would also include those who failed to respond; such as the self-selection bias (only people who are interested by a subject will respond). • Response bias: respondents (un)consciously answer questions with a certain slant that misrepresents the truth. - Acquiescence bias: (dis)agreeing with questions - Extremity bias: choose only 1 or 10 on a 10-point scale - Interviewer bias: respondents influenced by interviewer's presence - Social desirability bias: caused by respondents' desire to gain prestige or appear in a different social role
  68. 68. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Survey Errors B. Administrative error: error caused by the improper administration or execution of the research task (e.g. confusion, carelessness, neglect, omission). • data-processing error: incorrect data entry or computer programming, or other procedural errors during the data analysis. • sample selection error: failure to select a representative sample caused by improper sample design or sampling procedure execution. • interview error: failures (by interviewers) to record responses correctly. • interviewer cheating (“curb-stoning"): falsification of questionnaires. ❖ Mere-measurement effect: answering a question about intentions will increase the likelihood of the underlying behavior—if the behavior is seen as socially desirable (if not: answering the question will decrease the likelihood of the behavior).
  69. 69. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Survey studies A cross-sectional study samples and collect data from various segments of a population at a single moment in time. Allows investigation of relationships among variables by cross-tabulation. A longitudinal study surveys respondents at multiple points in time to examine continuity of response and to observe changes that occur over time (like a movie). A tracking study uses successive samples to compare trends and identify changes in variables (e.g. consumer satisfaction, brand image). A consumer panel is a survey of the same sample of individuals to record their attitudes, behavior of purchasing habits over time. Total Quality Management (TQM): business philosophy that emphasises market-driven quality as a top organisational priority. Quality conforms to consumers' requirements (not the organisation's).
  70. 70. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Door-to-Door & Mall Intercept Telephone Mail Internet Speed Fast Very fast Slow Instantaneous Data quantity Excellent Moderate Good Good Flexibility Excellent Moderate Poor Good Respondent cooperation Moderate to Excellent Good Moderate 
 (low if poor design) High (for panels) Length Long Moderate Varies (depending on incentive) Moderate (customized based on answers) Non-response rate Low Medium High Can be none. Possibility of mis- understanding Low Average High (no interviewer present for clarification) High Interviewer’s influence High Moderate None None Anonymity Low Moderate High Either or Follow-up Difficult Easy Easy (but timely) Difficult (unless email known) Cost Highest Moderate Low Lowest Special features Visual materials can be shown or products tested; extended probing possible Fieldwork simplified; adaptable to computer technology Respondents answer at own convenience 
 ( = time to reflect) Possible to show media; use of graphics and animations
  71. 71. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Facebook • cheap! • W.E.I.R.D. • younger and more educated than general population • snowball sampling can reach many respondents • profile data can be captured
  72. 72. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Experiments ๏ Natural: only intervene to measure results 
 – keep it as organic as possible. ๏ Controlled: manipulate at least one causal variable, and randomly assign subjects to control groups and experimental groups to measure the effects of the manipulation. – Laboratory experiment: greater influence over arrangements; more straightforward to replicate (less difficult to reproduce specific settings); but external and ecological validity are difficult to establish. – Quasi-experiments: certain characteristics of experimental designs but do not fulfil all internal validity requirements; no control group; no artificial interventions in social life; strong ecological validity. Online • Enhancing survey content: graphics, audio, video and interactive experiences • Dynamic questions through “piping”, skip logic, branching, looping, control, etc.
  73. 73. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Experiments Research question: not exploratory.
 Clear, simple, few hypotheses.
 Few variables involved in each hypothesis. • Independent Variables (or factors, conditions, treatments)
 Manipulated and administered to participants (categorical) Measured (continuous)—correlational studies or quasi- experiments • Dependent Variables (or response variables) 
 Measure participants’ responses after the treatment administration (categorical, continuous, thought-protocols, behavioural, physiological) • Extraneous Variables (or undesirable variables) 
 Not manipulated in the study, but can still have an effect.
  74. 74. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Experiments - Internal validity: the control group eliminates threats of testing (the 'experimenter effect'), history (control of occurring events), maturation (people's change), selection (random process: no difference between groups), and ambiguity about the direction of causal influence. - Threats to external validity are the interactions of selection (social and psychological groups) and treatment (e.g. men and leadership); setting and treatment (e.g. geographical settings); history and treatment (past and future generalisation); interaction effects of pre- testing (sensitiveness to the exp. treatment); and reactive effects of experimental arrangements (awareness of being part of an experiment). -   Environmental validity is better ensured when conducting field experiments (compared with lab. exp.). -   Replicability threats lay in the data collection procedure and the methods of analysis.
  75. 75. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 You can't buy what you can't see: Retailer practices to increase the green premium Hugo Guyader n , Mikael Ottosson, Lars Witell Division of Business Administration, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 16 November 2014 Received in revised form 16 October 2015 Accepted 10 May 2016 Keywords: Eye-tracking Green marketing In-store marketing Shopping behavior Visual attention a b s t r a c t Retailers are the gatekeepers between consumers and eco-friendly products. As such, they can influence green shopping behavior. The results of an eye-tracking experiment show that retailers can attract consumers’ visual attention and increase the green premium through various practices such as providing relevant information, orienting consumers inside the store, and offering an eco-friendly product as- sortment. Managerial implications are to use green-colored price tags to signal eco-friendly products, while avoiding greenwashing practices that can distract consumers from finding the eco-friendly pro- ducts they look for. & 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Today, a growing share of consumers wish to reward businesses that are sustainable (Goldstein et al., 2008; Griskevicius et al., 2010; Tsarenko et al., 2013). These consumers are conscious of the consequences of their consumption, and if they can, they will buy eco-friendly or fair-trade groceries. That is, consumers signal and demonstrate green attitudes through their shopping behavior: They are willing to pay more for eco-friendly products (Kotler, 2011; Laroche et al., 2001; Nielsen, 2011). These eco-friendly products may be organic or manufactured from fewer natural re- sources and with social and ethical respect towards the labor force, requiring less energy during usage, and may be recycled. As a re- sult, eco-friendly products are often more expensive for con- sumers. But from a value-based pricing perspective, such products also can be premium-priced “[…] because they have added value by being green, that is, it is not simply the added costs” (Simms, 1992, p. 39). The “green premium,” the price difference between classic and eco-friendly products, represents potential revenue for retailers (Luehr, 1992), and 77 percent of consumers state they are willing to pay such a premium (European Commission, 2013). However, eco-friendly products account for less than 4 percent of market share worldwide, especially in food retailing (Chkanikova et al., 2013). Indeed, consumers perceive eco-friendly products as ineffective (Luchs et al., 2010), judge the environmental attributes as not central to the product function (Gershoff and Frels, 2015), or simply place a stronger emphasis on the product price than on sustainability (Meise et al., 2014). Some consumers also do not trust these environmental attributes to be true (Gleim et al., 2013). Retailers play a key role in sustainability initiatives because of their proximity to the consumers, who make 82 percent of their purchase decisions inside the store (POPAI, 2014). Retailers act as gatekeepers who have power to introduce sustainability into the value chain (Chkanikova et al., 2013). Since Walmart introduced its sustainability index throughout its supply chain in 2008, other retailers have adopted some of its best practices. For instance, retailers can add brands that are eco-friendly to the product as- sortment. By increasing the market share of eco-friendly products, retailers can achieve significant economies of scale and leverage incremental profits (RILA, 2012). Consumers generally trust the performance of well-known brands, which is why such brands can be used to successfully introduce eco-friendly products (Pickett- Baker and Ozaki, 2008). Research also has shown that retailers can influence consumers' green shopping behavior by informing con- sumers inside the store through point-of-purchase (PoP) in- formation displays and other components in the physical store environment (Gleim et al., 2013; Laroche et al., 2001; Lin and Huang, 2012; Litvine and Wüstenhagen, 2011; Mejri et al., 2012; Meise et al., 2014; Tsarenko et al., 2013). In this paper, we argue Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jretconser Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jretconser.2016.07.008 Guyader, Ottosson,
 & Witell 
 (JRCS 2016)
  76. 76. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Eye Tracking Experiment Convenience supermarket mock-up. 5 shelves: tomato sauce, kidney beans, coffee and softeners. 3 product alternatives: classic, ecological, or fair-trade. Different variables: brand, price, packaging colors, labels, information displays, décor, etc.
  77. 77. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Purpose Study the impact of in-store information, green price tags and greenwashing product assortment on the shopping behaviour of supermarket customers. Objective: offer a normal shopping experience, but with a green servicescape (= items evoking countryside/agriculture were displayed around the shelves). 2 experimental conditions: 
 - control group (46%)
 - treatment group (54%) — “The person you do the shopping for is actually sustainable-oriented and prefer to eat organic food” (= representative of “deep green” consumers who genuinely search for green products).
  78. 78. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3
  79. 79. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3
  80. 80. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 http://youtu.be/Mm0g8mVHffE
  81. 81. control group primed group Fixation Time Average [ms] 0 20001000 Heat Maps Results - Green Price Tags
  82. 82. control group primed group Fixation Time Average [ms] 0 20001000 Results - Greenwashing Heat Maps
  83. 83. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 Findings ✓ Retailers are the gatekeepers between consumers and eco- friendly products. They can influence green consumer behavior. ➡ Retailers can attract consumers’ visual attention and increase the sales of eco-friendly products through various practices: ✤ influencing consumers’ intentions to make green purchases, ✤ providing relevant information, ✤ orienting consumers inside the store, and ✤ offering an eco-friendly product assortment. Managerial implications: ✤ use green price tags to signal eco-friendly products to consumers, ✤ avoid greenwashing practices (such as display of products with misleading packaging) that can distract consumers from finding the eco-friendly products they look for.
  84. 84. Hugo Guyader — 722G86 Lecture 3 References ‣ Belk: Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing — 2007 ‣ Bryman & Bell: Business Research Methods — 2015 ‣ Dillman, Smyth & Christian: The Tailored Design Method — 2014 ‣ Hair, Anderson, & Black: Multivariate Data Analysis — 2013 ‣ Huberman & Miles: Qualitative Data Analysis — 1994 ‣ Huberman & Miles: The Qualitative Researcher's Companion — 2002 ‣ Kotler, Armstrong, & Parment: Principles of Marketing (Scandinavian Edition) — 2016 ‣ Kozinets: Nenography Redefined — 2015 ‣ Rubin & Rubin: Qualitative Interviewing. The Art of Hearing Data — 2005 ‣ Van Maanen: Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography — 2011 ‣ Yin: Case Study Research Design and Methods — 2013 ‣ Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin: Business Research Methods — 2013
  85. 85. Email me your questions about the lecture! Hugo Guyader
 hugo.guyader@liu.se Credit images: 
 The Noun Project
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Slides from my lecture in a Marketing Management course at Linköping University (2nd year students). The course-book was Kotler's Principles of Marketing so I covered the concepts defined in the chapter. Basic facts on qualitative and quantitative research methods were presented: interviews, surveys, ethnography and netnography, case studies, focus groups, and experiments. I also discussed how the Internet and social media have improved the quantity and quality of data available on customer behavior.

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