CommonKADS context models


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Ch. 3 of the CommonKADS textbook

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CommonKADS context models

  1. 1. CommonKADS Context Models Organization Model Task Model Agent Model
  2. 2. Context models 2 Knowledge always functions within an organizational context ■  Why context modelling? ■  Role of aspect models: organization, task, and agent models ■  Steps and techniques in knowledge-oriented business analysis ■  Illustrations: ice-cream case study, housing case study
  3. 3. Context models 3 Why context modeling? ■  Often difficult to identify profitable use of (knowledge) technology ■  Laboratory is different from the ''real'' world ■  Acceptability to users very important ■  Fielding into ongoing process not self evident ■  Often not clear what additional measures to take
  4. 4. Context models 4 Goals for context modeling ■  Identify problems and opportunities ■  Decide about solutions and their feasibility ■  Improve tasks and task-related knowledge ■  Plan for needed organizational changes
  5. 5. Context models 5 Role of knowledge systems ■  "automation" is not the right way to look at KSs ■  tasks are usually too complex ■  much better view: KS as process-improvement tool ■  typical role of KS: active intelligent assistant
  6. 6. Context models 6 ■  Step 1: Carry out a scoping and feasibility study ➤  Tool: Organization Model (OM) ■  Step 2: Carry out impact and improvement study ➤  Tool: Task and Agent Models (TM, AM) ■  zooming in/refinement of organization model ■  Each study consists of an analysis part and a “constructive” decision-making part Context modelling process
  7. 7. Context models 7 Step 1: scoping and feasibility study ■  Step 1a: analysis ➤  Identify problem/opportunity areas and potential solutions ➤  Put them into a wider organizational perspective. ■  Step 1b: synthesis ➤  Decide about economic, technical and project feasibility ➤  Select the most promising focus area and target solution.
  8. 8. Context models 8 Step 2: impacts and improvements study ■  Step 2a: analysis ➤  study interrelationships between the task, agents involved, and use of knowledge for successful performance ➤  what improvements may be achieved here? ■  Step 2b: synthesis ➤  Decide about organizational measures and task changes, ➤  Ensure organizational acceptance and integration of a knowledge system solution
  9. 9. Context models 9 Three context models ■  scope and feasibility study ➤  organization model (OM) ➤  description and analysis of the broader organizational environment ■  impacts and improvements study ➤  task model (TM) and agent model (AM) ➤  more focused and detailed ➤  zooms in on the relevant part of the organization ➤  TM: tasks plus knowledge directly related to the target problem ➤  AM: agents involved in TM tasks
  10. 10. Context models 10 Worksheets ■  Modeling process supported by worksheets ➤  Organization model: 5 worksheets ➤  Task model: 2 worksheets ➤  Agent model: 1 worksheet ➤  Summary: 1 worksheet ■  Act as checklist and information archive ■  Should be used flexibly
  11. 11. Context models 11 How to analyze a knowledge- intensive organization? ■  describe organization aspects: ➤  opportunity/problems portfolio ➤  business context, goals, strategy ➤  internal organization: –  structure –  processes –  people (staff: functional roles) –  power and culture –  resources (knowledge, support systems, equipment,…) ■  do this for both current and future organization ➤  comparison, and first decisions on where to go
  12. 12. Context models 12 Worksheets Organization Model Org anization  Model P roblems   & Opportunities General Context (Mission, S trategy, E nvironment, CS F's,...) P otential S olutions OM-­‐1 OM-­‐2 Organization Focus  Area Description: S tructure P rocess P eople Culture  &  P ower Resources K nowledge OM-­‐3 OM-­‐4 P rocess Breakdown K nowledge Assets
  13. 13. Context models 13 OM-1: problem /opportunity identification ■  shortlist of perceived problems/opportunities ■  organizational context = invariant part ➤  mission, vision, goals of the organization ➤  important external factors ➤  strategy of the organization, value chain ■  list possible solutions ➤  for the perceived problems and opportunities ➤  compatible with organizational context. ■  techniques: interviews, brainstorming
  14. 14. Context models 14 Case Study: Ice-cream product development ■  Unilever food/personal care industry worldwide ■  First analysis step by worksheet OM-1: ➤  Perceived problem/opportunity issues: –  Speed-up time to market of new ice-cream products –  Leverage best-practice knowledge throughout the company ➤  Vision: P roduct formulation P roduction processes    Manufacturing     P roduct  properties (physical,  sensory) Marketing C onsumer preferences F eedback  learning  loop  
  15. 15. Context models 15 OM-1 for Housing Organization Model Problems and Opportunities Worksheet OM-1 Problems and opportunities assessment takes too much time not sufficient time for urgent cases Organizational context Mission: transparency of procedure, clear applicant responsibility External actors: local council, public opinion, national regulations, … Strategy: broaden scope of market Solutions 1.  Automated assessment system & 2.  Training program for assessors to be come urgency handlers
  16. 16. Context models 16 Case: “Housing” ■  Local government institution is responsible for assignment of rental houses to applicants ■  Transparent assignment procedure ➤  two-weekly magazine with house offers ➤  publication of results ■  Partially automated process ■  Existing databases of applicants and residences
  17. 17. Context models 17 Problem & opportunity ■  Two sides of the same coin ■  Opportunity: ➤  a part of the business process in which it might be useful to introduce knowledge technology ■  Problem: ➤  an opportunity, that is currently being perceived as a problem in the organization
  18. 18. Context models 18 Organization boundary ■  Sometimes difficult to define the scope of what is “the organization” ■  Example in the housing domain: ➤  baseline organization: assignment office ➤  includes applicants? ➤  includes rental agencies? ■  Decide on variant and invariant parts ➤  invariant parts are assumed to be stable from the development point of view
  19. 19. Context models 19 OM-2: variant aspects ■  refers to a single problem-opportunity area of OM-1 ■  describes the subpart of the organization involved ■  describes the aspects that might change or be affected by a knowledge-system solution
  20. 20. Context models 20 Variant aspects OM-2 (1) ■  structure ➤  structure chart of departments, groups, units ■  process ➤  decomposed into tasks plus dependencies ➤  detailed in Worksheet OM-3 ■  people ➤  staff members involved as actors or stakeholders –  decision makers, providers, users, customers ➤  not "actual" people but functional roles
  21. 21. Context models 21 Variant aspects OM-2 (2) ■  resources ➤  information systems ➤  equipment and materials ➤  non-knowledge skills and competencies. ■  knowledge ➤  special resource in this context ➤  detailed in Worksheet OM-4 ■  culture and power ➤  "unwritten rules of the game”, styles of working and communicating, informal relationships
  22. 22. Context models 22 OM-2: ice-cream organization analysis ■  Example part of OM-2 analysis: ➤  Structure General director Technical director Finance director Personnel director Marketing & Sales director Information & IT management Logistics management Technical Dept. management Development Dept. management Manufacturing management Ice Cream development Quality assurance Packaging design Coldstore & Warehouse management
  23. 23. Context models 23 Structure & people “Housing” directorate director deputy  director policy department statistical  analyst staff  member residence   assig nment data  entry assigner computer support D B  administrator system  analyst public service magazine  editor magazine  producer information  officer
  24. 24. Context models 24 Process “Housing” primary proces s s econdary proces s data  entry of  applications magazine production application assessment residence assignment statistical analysis policy information :residence assignments    
  25. 25. Context models 25 Remainder of OM-2 for “Housing” Organization model Variant aspects: Worksheet OM-2 Resources Existing database of applicants and residences Priority calculator for computing a priority list of applicants for a residence. Knowledge Assessment criteria: knowledge for judging correctness of individual applications Assignment rules: knowledge used for selecting an applicant for a particular house. Urgency rules: special rules and regulations for urgent cases (e.g., handicapped people). Culture & power Hierarchical organization Employees view the future with some trepidation Management style: history as civil servant
  26. 26. Context models 26 OM-3: Process Breakdown ■  Key element => described in more detail ■  Fill-in for each task in the Process description ■  OM-3 elements: ➤  Task: name + identifier ➤  Performed by: agent (People or Resource) ➤  Where?: location in Structure ➤  Knowledge required: list of Knowledge assets ➤  Knowledge-intensive?: yes/no ➤  Significance: qualitative value, e.g. five-point scale
  27. 27. Context models 27 OM-3 example: breakdown of ice-cream process ■  In ice-cream product development the main subprocesses are: ➤  product idea generation ➤  feasibility phase ➤  production and sales planning ➤  implementation and role-out ➤  post-launch review ■  All subprocesses are knowledge-intensive, but feasibility and planning phases in particular
  28. 28. Context models 28 Example OM-3 for “Housing” Task Performed by Where Knowledge asset(s) KI? Signifi- cance 1. Magazine production Magazine editor Public service - No 3 2. Data entry applications Data typist / automated telephone Residence assignment - No 2 3. Application assessment Assigner Residence assignment Assessment criteria Yes 5 4. Residence assignment Assigner Residence Assignment Assignment & urgency rules Yes 5
  29. 29. Context models 29 OM-4: Knowledge Assets ■  details the "Knowledge" element of OM-2 ■  coarse-grained description ➤  refined in task model and knowledge model ■  elements: ➤  Knowledge Asset: Name (OM-3) ➤  Possessed by: Agent (OM-3) ➤  Used in: Task ID (OM-3) ➤  Right Form? Right Place? Right Time? Right Quality? –  yes/no + comments
  30. 30. Context models 30 OM-4: knowledge assets for ice-cream business process
  31. 31. Context models 31 Knowledge asset “Housing” ■  Knowledge asset: ➤  “general residence-application norms” ■  right form? ➤  no, should be also in electronic form ■  right place, time, quality? ➤  yes
  32. 32. Context models 32 Feasibility document contents ■  One copy of Worksheet OM-1 ■  For each problem/opportunity area: OM-2 ■  For each task: OM-3 ■  For each knowledge asset: OM-4 ■  For each suggested solution: decision to "automate" yes/no plus reasons ➤  Worksheet OM-5: checklist for this decision ■  Proposed actions
  33. 33. Context models 33 Business Feasibility ■  expected benefits ➤  tangible (economic) and intangible ■  expected added value ■  expected costs ■  comparison to possible alternative solutions ■  organizational changes required ■  economic and business risks and uncertainties
  34. 34. Context models 34 Technical Feasibility ■  complexity of knowledge/reasoning process ➤  availability of state-of-the-art methods ➤  has it been done before? ■  critical aspects involved? ➤  time, quality, needed resources ■  measurable success factors ➤  tests for validity, quality and performance ■  complexity of user/system interaction ➤  availability of state-of-the-art methods
  35. 35. Context models 35 Project Feasibility ■  commitment from the agents and stakeholders ■  availability of resources in terms of time, budget, equipment, staff ■  availablity of required knowledge and other competencies ■  realistic expectations ■  adequate project organization and external communication
  36. 36. Context models 36 Proposed Actions ■  recommended concrete steps for action ➤  List of focus areas ➤  Target solution for focus area ➤  Expected results and benefits ➤  Required project actions ➤  When to reconsider?
  37. 37. Context models 37 OM-5: feasibility decision document for ice-cream example ■  Business, technical and project feasibility ■  Proposed actions for solution direction • Ice-cream case study: • Clarification of knowledge bottlenecks achieved • Different knowledge improvement scenarios outlined • Requirements for technical and project feasibility stated • Proposed actions: • Prioritize knowledge improvement scenarios as next step • ….
  38. 38. Context models 38 Feasibility “Housing” ■  Automation of “application assignment” ➤  feasible from all perspectives ■  Actions ➤  application construction ➤  job changes within assignment department ➤  provide additional training ➤  consider also resource transfer to computer dept.
  39. 39. Context models 39 Case: social security services (SSS) ■  Problem-opportunity-context: see book ■  Problem: laws and regulations are so complex => long time to reach a decision => backlog => social uproar => headlines in the papers ■  Solution (a priori formulated by SSS management): knowledge system stores the legal decision-making knowledge => backlog reduced
  40. 40. Context models 40 SSS scope and feasibility decision making ■  Context analysis: see book ■  Solution: "KS for solving backlog problem" ➤  Business feasibility –  does not solve the problem as main task load is in archiving –  requires organizational changes –  status of people will change ➤  Technical/project feasibility –  state-of-the-art work ➤  Proposed actions –  redirect the project to simplify procedures for archiving and reporting.
  41. 41. Context models 41 Next step of context modelling: zooming in on tasks ■  Task = subpart of a business process ■  goal-oriented value-adding activity ■  handles inputs and delivers desired outputs ➤  in a structured and controlled way ■  consumes resources; ■  requires (and provides) knowledge/skills ■  adheres to quality and performance criteria ■  carried out by responsible and accountable agents
  42. 42. Context models 42 Task Model aspects Knowledge and" Competences" Objects" Structure" (Data)! Time and" Control! Performance" and Quality" Resources" Agents" Goal and" Value" (Sub)Function" and Flow" TASK MODEL! Managerial! View! Information Systems (3D) View!
  43. 43. Context models 43 TM-1: Task Analysis ■  zoom in on a task ➤  more detailed description than OM-3 ■  link to BPR/BPA methods ➤  task is part of business process ■  link to SE analysis model ➤  dependency and flow ➤  data, function, control view on task
  44. 44. Context models 44 Task description: internal ■  data dependency and data flow ➤  preceding task, follow-up tasks ■  objects handled ➤  simple information model ■  timing & control ➤  frequency, duration, when performed ■  constraints: pre- and post-conditions
  45. 45. Context models 45 TM-1: Top-level task model ■  Fill in TM components (see TM Figure) –  Example: task decomposition and flow of feasibility phase –  Gives first-cut version for task layer of knowledge model Marketing brief D evelop product concept P roduct description P roduce product prototypes P roduct prototypes C arry  out prototype  tests D iscuss results  with marketing (Iteratively)  R evise product  description and/or  prototypes F inal product s pecification
  46. 46. Context models 46 Data flow “Housing” applicant rental agency (external) actor data  entry checking assessment assign valid applications assignments database  of residences  & applicants processing function data  store data  flow Legend free  residence relevant applications application data application application assignment
  47. 47. Context models 47 Control flow “Housing” data  entry checking   as s es s ing application  received   before  deadline [data  =  incorrect] [decision  =  eligible] [decision  =  not  eligible] [data  =  correct] garbage  bin further processing
  48. 48. Context models 48 Task description: external ■  goal and value ■  agents involved ■  knowledge: ➤  list of knowledge items further detailed in TM-2 ■  other competencies and skills ■  resources ➤  refinement of OM-2 ■  quality and performance: ➤  yardsticks for measuring task execution
  49. 49. Context models 49 TM-2: knowledge item description ■  Possessed by: Agent ■  Used in:Task ID ■  Domain ➤  specialist field, discipline, branch of science or engineering, professional community ■  Indicate nature, form and availability of knowledge ➤  tick if bottleneck
  50. 50. Context models 50 Characterizations of knowledge items ■  Nature ➤  formal, rigorous; empirical, quantitative; heuristic, rules of thumb, ..... ■  Form ➤  mind, paper, electronic, action skill, ... ■  Availability ➤  limitations in time, space, access, quality, form
  51. 51. Context models 51 TM-2: Detailing of knowledge items & bottlenecks Ice-cream case: ■  Knowledge item: consumer desires ■  Bottlenecks exist in: ➤  Nature: incomplete, tacit, hard to verify ➤  Form: in mind of marketers only ➤  Availability: limitations in space and quality
  52. 52. Context models 52 Agent Model ■  OM and TM => process/task perspective ■  AM: perspective of individual agents ➤  staff, software systems ■  large part: rearrangement of information already in other worksheets ➤  just a single worksheet ■  agent view useful for judging impact ➤  See attitude matrix ■  important input for communication model
  53. 53. Context models 53 Agent Worksheet AM-1: the “assigner” agent Name Assigner Organization Residence-assignment department Involved In 3. Application assessment 4. Residence assignment Communicates with Database Priority calculator Knowledge Assessment criteria Assignment rules Urgency rules Other competencies Ability to handle problematic non-standard cases Responsibilities & constraints Make sure that people are treated equally (no favors). This has been a problem in the past
  54. 54. Context models 54 Final step: impacts and and improvements document ■  checklist in Worksheet OTA-1 ■  measures for improvement accompany development work ■  major issues for decision making: ➤  organizational changes recommended ➤  measures for specific tasks and/or workers ➤  improvements regarding use and availability of knowledge ➤  is the expected result sufficient? ➤  future directions
  55. 55. Context models 55 Impacts and Changes (1): Organization as a whole ■  Structure ■  Process ■  Resources ■  People ■  Knowledge ■  Culture and Power
  56. 56. Context models 56 Impacts and Changes (2): Task/Agent-Specific ■  comparison: future/current models ■  impact and change types: ➤  task lay-out ➤  needed resources ➤  performance and quality criteria ➤  staffing, involved agents ➤  individual positions, responsibilities, authority, constraints in task execution ➤  knowledge and competencies ➤  communication
  57. 57. Context models 57 Proposed Actions ■  improvements/changes in organization ■  accompanying measures ➤  training, facilities ■  further project action ■  when to reconsider
  58. 58. Context models 58 OTA-1: impacts and improvements decisions ■  Ice-cream case: processing scenario ranks best ■  Proposed actions: –  Develop processing KBS module –  Archive past formulations –  Structured knowledge management for knowledge sharing
  59. 59. Context models 59 Stakeholder-driven approach in Unilever PARIS ice-cream project Identify stakeholders and project sponsors Interview the stakeholders Develop factory assessment approach Assess factories System storyboards Follow-up project plan & agreement Feasibility study results
  60. 60. Context models 60 Actors and stakeholders: attitudes and commitments ■  Important guideline: always consider attitudes of actors and stakeholders toward changes ■  Ask yourself: is there a sufficient basis to successfully carry through proposed changes? –  Technique: stakeholder attitude matrix –  (EMS case, IEEE Intell. Syst. 1997) Stakeholder/Solution SQ I II III IV V VI Hospital specialist - + + + + + + General Practitioner o + o - - - - EMS personnel o + + + + - - Consumer - + + + + o + (SQ = status quo)
  61. 61. Context models 61 Attitude matrix: internal Sponsor/Solutions SQ I II III IV V VI Manager - - + o + - - System manager - o o o + o o Dispatcher - - + + o - - Paramedic - o + + + + - Driver - o o o o + + Consumer - + + + + + +
  62. 62. Context models 62 Summary ■  Organizational aspects: critical success factor ■  Envisaged systems must be well-integrated ■  Step 1: portfolio of solutions+ feasibility ➤  organization model ➤  feasibility document ■  Step 2: zoom in and assess changes/measures ➤  task, knowledge item, and agent descriptions ➤  plan for organizational changes ■  Context analysis is wider applicable
  63. 63. Context models 63 Overall process of business analysis in KE&M Refine [If  infeasible] OM-­‐1 worksheet: problems, solutions, context OM-­‐2 worksheet: description  of organization focus  area OM-­‐4 worksheet: knowledge assets OM-­‐3 worksheet: process breakdown OM-­‐5 worksheet: Judge Feasibility (Decision Document) TM-­‐1 worksheet: task analysis TM-­‐2 worksheet: knowledge  item analysis AM-­‐1 worksheet: agent model OTA-­‐1 worksheet: Assess    Impacts  &  Changes (Decision  Document) Refine Integrate Integrate [If  feasible] Integrate, comparing  both  the old  and  new  situations Start Stop Context Analysis Ready
  64. 64. Context models 64 Exercise: knowledge workshop ■  Management group discussions, structured by using worksheets OM1-5, TM1-2, OTA-1, as a self-assessment instrument for management in own area of responsibility ■  Used by, e.g., Unilever and Dutch Tax Authority ■  In particular: ➤  Focus on valuable business area or process, sketch the workflow of this process, and list problem/opportunity portfolio ➤  Identify the knowledge assets of importance to this process ➤  Investigate whether there exists bottlenecks here (OM-4, TM-2) ➤  Devise possible solutions and analyze their feasibility –  Problem/cause/solution QFD-type matrices –  Stakeholder attitude matrices ➤  Take follow-up managerial action