Note Study Guide <ul><li>“Feature” </li></ul><ul><li>(Picture) </li></ul><ul><li>2. “Feature” </li></ul><ul><li>(Picture) </li></ul> Additional Notes: (Examples, How it connects with a civilization, etc.) Additional Notes: (Examples, How it connects with a civilization, etc.)
Cities <ul><li>As farmers settled in fertile river valleys, they began to grow surplus or extra food. </li></ul><ul><li>This extra food increased the population of the settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>In time, the settlements grew into cities, such as Ur in Sumer or Babylon in Mesopotamia. </li></ul>
Agricultural Surplus <ul><li>Producing more food and goods than a society needs. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the most important thing that a civilization can have. Why is this? </li></ul><ul><li>All people need food, and if they don't make enough of it, then they have to go find more of it. If they spend all of their time looking for food, what else do they have time to do? The surplus allowed some people in the group to do other things besides look for food, and then they could become specialized. </li></ul>
Job Specialization <ul><li>Breaking down jobs into simpler tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>As civilizations became more complex, artisans and craftsmen were needed to maintain specific items and tasks. No longer could individuals do all the work. Now some concentrated on teaching, scribing , stonecutting, and so forth. </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans: skilled workers </li></ul>
Artisan in Cameroon Mates in Argentina Sushi in Japan Bread and Sandwiches in New Zealand Why is specialization important to the success of a society? What was American society like when we were first founded? What is American society like now? Do you want to go back to the “good ‘ol days”?
Well-Organized Central Government <ul><li>Why would this help a society? </li></ul><ul><li>As cities developed and expanded, the food supply and irrigation systems needed to be maintained. Governments, such as councils or religious leaders, began to oversee the business and existence of the cities. </li></ul>The Laws of Hammurabi are the longest and best organized of the law collections that survive from ancient Mesopotamia (NOT the oldest). This stela is almost seven-and-a-half feet tall and they were placed in temples throughout the kingdom.
Complex Religion <ul><li>A shared system of complicated rules, beliefs and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious leaders would conduct elaborate ceremonies to appease the gods ( polytheism) and ensure a bountiful harvest. Floods and droughts were blamed on the gods’ anger so rituals were conducted in the temples. </li></ul>These carved stone figures were placed in Mesopotamian temples by worshippers to stand in perpetual prayer on their behalf.
Social Classes <ul><li>Different levels of people who have similar social, economic or educational status. </li></ul><ul><li>As jobs became specialized so did the status and needs of certain individuals. The need for a knowledgeable and educated religious leader was more respected than an unskilled worker. Herders were needed and respected for the food, while masons were needed for building. The slave was on the lowest rung of the social ladder and warriors and kings were on top. </li></ul>
Is this what we mean by social classes developing in early civilizations? Are social classes a good thing for a society? Can we avoid social classes? Should we try to? Why?
Art and Architecture <ul><li>This expressed the beliefs and values of a civilization. Different styles were developed and copied by societies. Often the art was used to impress visitors and people about the beauty and power of a king or a community. </li></ul>
Hanging Gardens of Babylon - 16th century engraving by Dutch artist Martin Heemskerck
Writing <ul><li>Writing was needed because the information became too great. </li></ul><ul><li>Records were needed to keep accounts on trade goods and food storage. In addition, one needed to express more complex ideas such as "belief" and "social order" where pictures and words simply would not suffice. </li></ul>What do you think these symbols might mean?
<ul><li>If you can't communicate, how can you write down your laws? How do you write down any copies of your scientific work? </li></ul><ul><li>While very few manuscripts are available from that time, it would seem to be beneficial to have some sort of record-keeping system so that the people can keep track of what they learn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Texts </li></ul></ul>