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Veronica Benitez Daisy Gutierrez   Erin Young
ObjectivesStudents will understand LMX theoryClass will identify group and out-group                 dynamics Students ...
What is the LMX theory?    “The LMX theoryconceives leadership as a process that is focused   on the interactions  between...
Traditionally, researchers    thought of leadership as  something that was done at a          group level.    Unlike the...
Theory SignificanceLMX theory challenges the belief that leaders should interrelate with andhave the same association with...
LMX - Roots   Vertical dyad linkage theory- researchers originally focused on vertical          linkages between leaders a...
Relationship Phases Stranger phase: Roles are highly scripted and most exchanges are done  based on organizational rules ...
Task Allocation•   Break down the project into small tasks.•   Rank all tasks based on importance.•   List the competencie...
In-group & Out-group
In-group Privileges Preferential treatment from leaders, upper management, CEO’s, etc Better, higher quality information...
Out-group Realities Lack of access to resources, leadership input, fair feedback. Limited trust and information exchange...
Workplace ScenarioIs the leader-member exchange in-group or out-group?What is the quality of the leader-member exchange?Wh...
Organizational Benefits    Subordinates that are involved in a high-qualityrelationship with their leader “receive disprop...
Strengths Only theory that focuses on the dyadic relationship  between a leader and their subordinate. It is a very desc...
Weaknesses Because this theory divides people into two distinct  groups, there is often a feeling of unfairness. Does no...
Overall LMX challenges leaders to look at their own leadership style from an individual relationship perspective, instead...
LMX 7 Questionnaire
Research
Team Reflection
Questions?
References•   Ballinger, G. A. (2010). Leader-member exchange and turnover before and after succession events.            ...
LMX Presentation
LMX Presentation
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LMX Presentation

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LMX for Leadership in Organizations

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LMX Presentation

  1. 1. Veronica Benitez Daisy Gutierrez Erin Young
  2. 2. ObjectivesStudents will understand LMX theoryClass will identify group and out-group dynamics Students will utilize knowledge to analyze LMX assessment results
  3. 3. What is the LMX theory? “The LMX theoryconceives leadership as a process that is focused on the interactions between a leader andsubordinates” (Northouse, 2010, p. 147).
  4. 4. Traditionally, researchers thought of leadership as something that was done at a group level.  Unlike the trait or skillsapproach, the LMX theory focuseson an interactive relationship; not just on the leader or follower.
  5. 5. Theory SignificanceLMX theory challenges the belief that leaders should interrelate with andhave the same association with every member of their group. This theory addresses the issue that people are vastly different and need to be interacted with as such.
  6. 6. LMX - Roots Vertical dyad linkage theory- researchers originally focused on vertical linkages between leaders and each of their subordinates. Sub SubFurther research into these dyads revealed two distinct types of relationships: INGROUP: special relationship in which more privileges, preference, and access to resources are given in exchange for going “above and beyond” routine duties. OUTGROUP: typically only do the minimum amount of work and in exchange are given low levels of access to resources and decision making.
  7. 7. Relationship Phases Stranger phase: Roles are highly scripted and most exchanges are done based on organizational rules and hierarchal status(es). There is very little trust. The subordinate is self-motivated. Acquaintance phase: Leader offers a subordinate improved benefits, information exchange, etc. She/he is attempting to ‘feel out’ the subordinate and see what they are motivated by. More trust is developed here. Subordinates begin to focus less on self interest and more on group goals. Partnership phase: Mutual and high-quality leader and subordinate exchanges. Favors are done for one another and there is mutual trust. Subordinates may be relied on for extra duties, but are rewarded with praise, information, resources, etc. Subordinate focuses on group goals and moves beyond their own self-interests.
  8. 8. Task Allocation• Break down the project into small tasks.• Rank all tasks based on importance.• List the competencies of each team member.• Match competencies with tasks.
  9. 9. In-group & Out-group
  10. 10. In-group Privileges Preferential treatment from leaders, upper management, CEO’s, etc Better, higher quality information exchange Free access to leadership for feedback, signatures, etc. Better chance to receive higher marks on performance feedbacks Access to resources (paper, money, staffing, etc)
  11. 11. Out-group Realities Lack of access to resources, leadership input, fair feedback. Limited trust and information exchanges with leadership Feelings of neglect and loss of team identity Lower production and morale
  12. 12. Workplace ScenarioIs the leader-member exchange in-group or out-group?What is the quality of the leader-member exchange?Where can the leader-member exchange beimproved, and how?
  13. 13. Organizational Benefits Subordinates that are involved in a high-qualityrelationship with their leader “receive disproportionate attention from managers, higher performance evaluations, report lower turnover rates, and experience greater satisfaction with their managers” (Jones, 2009).
  14. 14. Strengths Only theory that focuses on the dyadic relationship between a leader and their subordinate. It is a very descriptive theory. Emphasizes the significance of communication in the workplace. Serves as a reminder to leaders to be fair in their interactions with subordinates. Research has shown that utilization of the LMX theory creates positive organizational outcomes (Northouse, 2010)
  15. 15. Weaknesses Because this theory divides people into two distinct groups, there is often a feeling of unfairness. Does not address unfairness issue and the subordinates’ perceptions of it. Fails to explain how high-quality relationships are actually created and how one gets into it. Measurement scales of the LMX lack content validity. (Northouse, 2010)
  16. 16. Overall LMX challenges leaders to look at their own leadership style from an individual relationship perspective, instead of focusing on entire groups. All levels of managers can use this theory, from CEOs to factory line supervisors. Understanding the nature of a high-quality relationship and being able to form them will help leaders network with more people to work more efficiently and productively.  LMX theory can be used in many different settings.  Reminds leaders that every member of their team is unique and must be related to in a unique manner.
  17. 17. LMX 7 Questionnaire
  18. 18. Research
  19. 19. Team Reflection
  20. 20. Questions?
  21. 21. References• Ballinger, G. A. (2010). Leader-member exchange and turnover before and after succession events. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 113(1), 23-36.• Credo, K. R., Armenakis, A. A., Field, H. S., Young, R. L. (2010). Organizational ethics, leader-member exchange, and organizational support: Relationships with workplace safety. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(4), 325-334.• Jacques, P. H., Garger, J., Thomas, M., and Vracheva, V. (2012). Effects of early leader-member exchange perceptions on academic outcomes. Learning Environments Research, 15(1), 1-15.• Jones, J. A. (2009). Gender dissimilarity and leader-member exchange: The mediating effect of communication apprehension. Emerging leadership journeys, 2(1), 3-16.• Kreitner R. and Kinicki A. (2004). Organizational Behavior, 6e, p. 617-618. Burr Ridge: IL, McGraw-Hill• Moritz, N. H., Levy, B. L., Travis, P., Quaid, D., Fox, M., Whitaker, F., McGill, B., Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (Firm). (2008). Vantage point. Culver City, Calif: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.• Mueller, B. H., & Lee, J. (2002). Leader-member exchange and organizational communication satisfaction in multiple contexts. Journal Of Business Communication, 39(2), 220-244.• Northouse, P. G. (2010). Leader-member exchange theory. In P. G. Northouse, Leadership theory and practice: fifth edition (pp. 147-170). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

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