Overview week1

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Overview week1

  1. 1. MIKROBIOLOGI03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 1
  2. 2. POKOK BAHASAN1. Pendahuluan : Sejarah mikrobiologi, mikroba menguntungkan dan merugikan, peranan mikroba dalam bidang peternakan.2. Mempelajari organisme yang berukuran sangat kecil (mikroskopik) : bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, virus. Klasifikasi, struktur dan morfologi.4. Metabolisme mikroorganisme : metabolisme energi, protein, lemak, karbohidrat. Metabolisme aerob, anaerob dan fotosintesa5. Reproduksi : Cara reproduksi, kurva pertumbuhan, faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi6. Ekologi mikroorganisme pada lingkungan peternakan : Distribusi di alam, interaksi antar mikroorganisme dan organisme lainnya7. Ekologi mikroorganisme pada industri peternakan : peranan mikroorganisme pada ternak dan produk hasil ternak8. Metoda deteksi dan enumerasi mikroorganisme pada lingkungan dan industri peternakan 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 2
  3. 3. Dosen dan Penilaian• Dosen : 2 orang, kelas paralel• Penilaian : – Quis – Tugas – Praktikum – Ujian : UTS dan UAS 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 3
  4. 4. PUSTAKA• Pelczar, Jr., Chan, E.C.S, Krieg, N.R. 1987. Microbiology. McGrraw-Hill Book Company. New York• Tortora, G.J., Funke, B.R., Case, C.L. 2001.Microbiology an Introduction. Addison Wesley Longman Inc. New York.• Jay, J.M. 2000. Modern Food Microbiology. Chapman & Hall. New York• Jurnal : www.asm.org 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 4
  5. 5. Microorganism & Microbiology Microorganism Microbiology• Living things which individually • Study of microorganisms are too small to be seen with the • Foundation of modern biotechnology naked eye. • Among the many specialized fields of microbiology• All of the following may be -Virology, Mycology, Bacteriology, considered microorganisms: Immunology, Microbial Ecology, Biotechnological – bacteria (eubacteria, Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, archaebacteria) Food Microbiology, Forensic Microbiology, – fungi (yeasts, molds) Molecular Biology – protozoa – microscopic algae – viruses – various parasitic worms 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 5
  6. 6. Microorganism & Microbiology cont’dTwo main themes involved in Microbiology1- Basic- cellular processes2-Applied- concerning agriculture, industry and health 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 6
  7. 7. Themes in Microbiology and its fieldBacteriology Microbial metabolismPhycology Immunology Microbial genetics Environmental Food &Mycology Epidemiology Infection Microbial genetics microbiology beverage techVirology Etiology controlParasitology Pharmaceutical ChemotherapyProtozoalogy microbiology Genetic Engineering 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 7
  8. 8. Microbiology• The branch of biology concerned with the study of microorganisms and their activities 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 8
  9. 9. Microorganisms can be: • unicellular • multicellular • acellular – viruses – viroids – prions-proteinaceous infectious particle 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 9
  10. 10. Microorganism• Too small• Germ-rapidly growing cell• Has habitat• Live in population (not alone)• Communities are either swimming freely or attached to a surface (biofilm)• Interact between communities; may either be - harmful (because of waste product) - beneficial (cooperative feeding efforts- wastenutrient) 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 10
  11. 11. Occurrence of Microorganisms • Air, water. soil • Food • on the human body – Only 1 in 10 cells of the body is human, the rest are microbial – A square centimeter of skin holds about 100,000 microbes – Humans are free of microbes until they pass through the birth canal • environments – extreme03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 11
  12. 12. Activities of microorganisms• Destructive  Beneficial Activities – Disease-EIDs - Foods - SCP (single cell (emerging protein) infectious – C, N, S, P cycles diseases) – Decomposition – Food spoilage – Genetic engineering – Eutrophication (recombinant DNA technology) – Bioremediation 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 12
  13. 13. Microbes in our lives03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 13
  14. 14. Microbes and agriculture• Nitrogen fixation• Rumen microbes help digest grass and hay in cows, sheep etc• Cycles nutrients (C, N and S)• Causes disease to animals and plants 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 14
  15. 15. Microorganism and Food• Microorganism and food 1) Prevent spoilage (tempeh, salted fish) 2) Assist in manufacturing of food• Microorganisms and energy 1) Natural gas (methane) 2) Ethanol (biofuel) 3) Bioremediation• Microbes and the future 1)Genetic engineering 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 15
  16. 16. Microbes and diseases03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 16
  17. 17. A Brief History of Microbiology Development of microscopy•(384-322) Aristotle and others believed that living organisms could developfrom non-living materials.•1590: Hans and Zacharias Janssen (Dutch lens grinders) mounted two lenses ina tube to produce the first compound microscope.•1660: Robert Hooke (1635-1703) published "Micrographia“; drawings anddetailed observations of biological materials made with the best compoundmicroscope and illumination system of the time.•1676: Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) 1st person to observemicroorganisms.•1883: Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe pioneered developments in microscopy (suchas immersion lenses and apochromatic lenses which reduce chromatic aberration)exist until the present day.•1931: Ernst Ruska constructed the 1st electron microscope. 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 17
  18. 18. Van Leeuwenhoek’s description of BacteriaFrom his teeth, he observed(B)& (B)- rod forms(C) & (D)- motion pathway(E)- Spherical form(F)- Longer type of spherical form(H)- Cluster-Royal Society letter (Sept 17th, 1683) The microscope used Simple microscope (one lens) 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 18
  19. 19. Spontaneous generation controversy 1688: Francesco Redi (1626-1678) was an Italian physician who refuted the idea of spontaneous generation by showing that rotting meat carefully kept from flies will not spontaneously produce maggots.1836: Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) helped develop the celltheory of living organisms, namely that that all living organismsare composed of one or more cells and that the cell is the basicfunctional unit of living organisms.1861: Louis Pasteurs (1822-1895) famous experiments with swan-necked flasks finally proved that microorganisms do not arise byspontaneous generation. 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 19
  20. 20. The Golden Age of Microbiology ~1857-1914 (about 50 years)Beginning with Pasteur’s work, discoveries included relationship betweenmicrobes and disease, immunity, and antimicrobial drugsRobert Koch a. Identified a bacterium as cause of anthrax b. Introduced agar, inoculating loop to transfer bacteria and prepare pure cultures. c. Introduced “Koch’s Postulates” and the concept that a disease is caused by a single organism.Joseph Lister (1865) a. Introduced the “antiseptic technique”. b. Use of phenol (carbolic acid) as disinfectant.Martinus Beijerinck (1884 - 85) a. Discovered “viruses” (toxins, poisons). b. Infectious agents in tobacco plant fluids.Paul Ehrlich (1910) a. Introduced concept of chemotherapy. b. Use of salvarsan for the treatment of syphilis.Alexander Fleming (1928) 03/04/12 a. Discovered thePadagaantibiotic - penicillin. Masdiana first Fapet UB 20
  21. 21. Louis Pasteurs (1822-1895)This eventually led to: famous experiments with swan- necked flasks•Development of sterilization•Development of aseptic technique 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 21
  22. 22. Proof that microbes cause disease1546: Hieronymus Fracastorius (Girolamo Fracastoro) wrote "OnContagion", the 1st known discussion of the phenomenon ofcontagious infection.1835: Agostino Bassi de Lodi showed that a disease affectingsilkworms was caused by a fungus - the first microorganism to berecognized as a contagious agent of animal disease.1847: Ignaz Semmelweiss (1818-1865), a Hungarian physician-decided that doctors in Vienna hospitals were spreading childbedfever while delivering babies. He started forcing doctors under hissupervision to wash their hands before touching patients. 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 22
  23. 23. Proof that microbes cause disease1857: Louis Pasteur proposed the “Germ theory of disease”. - Ancients believed that disease was the result of a divinepunishment. Pasteur fought to convince surgeons that germs existed andcarried diseases, and dirty instruments and hands spread germs andtherefore disease. Pasteurs pasteurization process killed germs andprevented the spread of disease.1867: Joseph Lister (1827-1912) introduced antiseptics in surgery. Byspraying carbolic acid on surgical instruments, wounds and dressings, hereduced surgical mortality due to bacterial infection considerably.1876: Robert Koch (1843-1910). German bacteriologist was the first tocultivate anthrax bacteria outside the body using blood serum at bodytemperature. 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 23
  24. 24. Robert Koch demonstratedthe first direct role of a Kochs postulatesbacterium in disease "Kochs postulates" (1884), the critical test for the involvement of a microorganism in a disease: 3.The agent must be present in every case of the disease. 4.The agent must be isolated and cultured in vitro. 5.The disease must be reproduced when a pure culture of the agent is inoculated into a susceptible host. 6.The agent must be recoverable from the experimentally-infected host. This eventually led to: Development of pure culture techniques •Stains, agar, culture media, petri dishes 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 24
  25. 25. Eucaryotes vs Procaryotes 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 25
  26. 26. Eucaryotes• True nucleus – nuclear membrane – more than 1 chromosome – chromosome replicated by mitosis – membrane-bound organelles ex. algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, animals 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 26
  27. 27. Eucaryotic Cell03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 27
  28. 28. Procaryotes• Nuclear area (nucleoid) – no nuclear membrane – 1 chromosome – no mitosis – ribosomes are the only membrane- bound organelles ex. bacteria (rickettsia, blue-green algae), archaea03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 28
  29. 29. Procaryotic Cell03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 29
  30. 30. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells• Prokaryotic cells • Eukaryotic Cells – No Nucleus – Nucleus – No Organelles – Organelles – Cell Wall of – If cell wall, peptidoglycan Cellulose or chitin – Binary Fission – Mitosis – 1 circular – Linear chromosome chromosomes 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 30
  31. 31. Kelompok mikroorganismeKelompok Ukuran Karakteristik spesifikBakteri 0.5-1.5µm x Prokariot, uniseluler, struktur internal 1.0-3.0µm, sederhana, tumbuh pada media buatan, reproduksi aseksual (pembelahan sel)Virus 0.015-1.2µm Sangat kecil (mikr.elktr), tidak tumbuh pada media buatan, obligat parasitYeasts 5.0-10.0µm Eukariot, uniseluler, tumbuh pada media buatan, reproduksi aseksual : pembelahan sel dan budding, seksualMolds 2.0-10.0µm Eukariot, multiseluler dng struktur bervariasi, tumbuh pada media buatan, reproduksi : seksual dan aseksual 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 31
  32. 32. Kelompok mikroorganismeKelompok Ukuran Karakteristik spesifikProtozoa 2.0-200 µm Eukariot, uniseluler, tumbuh pada media buatan, bbrp tumbuh sbg parasit intraseluler, reproduksi seksual dan aseksualAlgae 1.0µm-bbrp feet Eukariot, uniseluler dan multiseluler, umum pd lingk.akuatik, mengandung klorofil, reproduksi :aseksual dan seksual 03/04/12 Masdiana Padaga Fapet UB 32

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