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# Site location, map reading and lot plotting,

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Lecture with real estate professionals, board reviewees and other professionals. Ecotech, Sudlon, Lahug Cebu City.

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### Site location, map reading and lot plotting,

1. 1.   August Babula Agosto, EnP, REA, REB Faculty, School of Business and Economics, University of San Carlos
2. 2. To equip future brokers: 1. Basic understanding in reading legal descriptions 1.The methods used to describe real property 2. how to plot a legal description
3. 3. Site Location Map Reading Lot Plotting Workshop
4. 4. Informal – street number and name or the distance from a certain landmark; property boundaries cannot be determined by these methods and the address and physical features may change over the years
5. 5.  METES AND BOUNDS • Metes = defined by distances and direction • Bounds = more general boundary description  PLAT SURVEY METHOD –Subdivision Survey  RECTANGULAR SURVEYS  MONUMENTS
6. 6.  Metes and Bounds . A common method of land description that identifies a property by specifying the shape and boundary dimensions of the parcel, using terminal points and angles.
7. 7. Rectangular Survey System – also called as government survey or geodetic survey system. To better understand this concept, think of a checkerboard. It has an intersecting line that forms a grid of squares. The first set of intersecting lines are called principal meridian which run north and south and base lines which run east and west.
8. 8. Plat survey method – sometimes called the lot-block tract method. This is used in areas where land is subdivided into phase, block and lot and usually recorded in an approved subdivision plan. Lot 2, Block 4, Phase 2 of Corona del Mar Talisay City.
9. 9.  Points of Beginning - must be either (1) at a known point (such as a monument) or (2) at a certain course and distance from such a known point.  Bearing - indicate course or direction  Distances - the description of a property line must show distance (length of line)  Closure - created by erroneous points of beginning, erroneous courses, and erroneous distances  Monuments- are permanent landmarks that indicate boundaries. They may be natural (trees, streams, and lakes) or artificial (fences, walls, stakes, posts, pins, roads, streets, and railroads). o Reference points (Bureau of Lands Location Monument -BLLM, Bureau of Lands Barrio Monuments - BLBM, Tie Point or point of beginning)
10. 10.  Bearings = Bearings are used to indicate angular orientation with respect to the earth  Benchmark = A survey mark made on a monument having a known location and elevation, serving as a reference point for surveying.  Tie Line = A survey line that connects a point to other surveyed lines  Property Line = describes the legal boundary of a parcel of land  BLLM = Bureau of Lands Location Monument
11. 11.  
12. 12.  Direction (Using internet, example: Google earth)  Lot Plan / Vicinity Map / Location Map  Means of Transportation  Access Roads/Routes  Reference Point (adjacent properties / land marks) and Specific Distances, or Time Frame  Land Use  Contact persons
13. 13. DISTANCE = the extent or amount of space between two things, points, lines, etc. DIRECTION = a position on a line extending from a specific point toward a point of the compass. Defined by the number of degrees, minutes and seconds. ELEVATION = height above a fixed reference point
14. 14.  Survey Maps  Vicinity or Location Map  Tax map  Land Title  Sketch Plan  Owner  Owner’s Agent  Internet (ie… Google Map)  Barangay/ Purok Officials  Neighbors
15. 15.  Technical Approach o By relocation Survey  Layman’s Approach o Direction of a knowledgeable person  Semi-Skilled Approach o Sketching/Plotting with the use of: • Compass and Tape • Angular estimate and Pacing o Use of a GPS
16. 16. PACING  Distance = Pace factor × Number of Paces
17. 17. Seatwork: A Real Estate Broker walked along a given straight line in a horizontal ground that was known to be 60 m long, in order to determine her average unit pace. She paced the line five times, recording 78, 76.5, 77, 87, and 76 paces, respectively. a. Determine her average unit pace, or Pace Factor (PF). b. If the said broker then counted an average of 123.5 paces while pacing off the line of unknown distance, what is the distance? Remarks: Pace Factor (PF) = Distance ÷ Average Paces
18. 18.  Taping EquiAMents  clisimeter  Transit, or Level; and stadia  Total Station  EDM  Laser Meter
19. 19. A simple measuring wheel mounted on a rod can be used to determine distances, by pushing the rod and rolling the wheel along the line to be measured. An attached device called an odometer serves to count the number of turns of the wheels From the known circumference of the wheel and the number of revolutions, distances for reconnaissance can be determined with relative accuracy of about 1:200.
20. 20.  Hectare = 10,000 square meters  Kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters  Meter (m) = 100 centimeters  Meridian (or line of longitude) = true north and south line extending from an initial point in both direction
21. 21.  Original Survey = cadastral survey which creates land boundaries and marks them for the first time  Plat = A surveyed map of a town, section, or subdivision indicating the exact locations and boundaries of individual properties, streets, easements, and public recreation areas.  Setback = Zoning restrictions on the amount of bare land required surrounding improvements; the amount of space required between the lot line and the building line  Subdivision = Land that has been divided by the owner into individual parcels or lots which have been grouped into blocks. These lots, together with streets, alleys, parks, schools, planned commercial areas, and public utility easements, are recorded on a plat
22. 22.  Easement = areas of land owned by the property owner, but in which other parties, such as utility companies, may have limited rights granted for a specific purpose.  Right-of-way = a parcel of land granted by deed or easement for construction and maintenance according to a designated use. This may include highways, streets, canals, ditches, or other uses  Latitude = A measure of relative position north or south on the Earth's surface, measured in degrees from the equator, which has a latitude of 0°, with the poles having a latitude of 90° north and south  Longitude = is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface
23. 23.  Prime Meridian = the longitude that passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, establishes the position of zero degrees longitude.  Mean Sea Level = is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface (such as the halfway point between the mean high tide and the mean low tide)  Contour Lines = a line on a map joining points of equal height above or below sea level  Topographic Map = is a type of map characterized by large- scale detail and quantitative representation of relief
24. 24.  TCT = Transfer Certificate of Title  OCT = Original Certificate of Title  Free-Patent = is a legitimate proof of ownership of public land in the Philippines granted by the Philippine government. It is an agreement between the government and the grantee, that he or she is charged of developing the land within a specified period of time.  Cadastral Survey = creates or re-establishes, marks, and defines boundaries of tracts of lands.  Consolidation and Subdivision Survey = land survey of more than two contiguous lots merging to form a single lot, and a single lot subdivided into two or more lots, respectively.
25. 25.  CAD = Cadastral Survey  Csd = subdivision survey of Cadastral Lot  Psd = subdivision survey of a titled properties. All Psd surveys are conducted by a Private Geodetic Engineer  Bsd - Is a subdivision survey on government titled properties conducted by a Government Geodetic Engineer. If a private titled land is being surveyed by a Government Geodetic Engineer thru court order, the resulting survey is a Bsd.  Psu - is a survey on original land (not yet surveyed) by a private Geodetic Engineer. This kind of survey will be used by titling thru judicial proceedings (means thru court order).  FP - Free Patent survey by a Private Geodetic Engineer
26. 26. o Map – it is a flat representation of earth’s surface in paper o Tie point – point one of the lot o Tie Line – imaginary line connecting the known geographic position (say BLLM) to the corner (point 1) of the titled property o Surveying – science of making measurements to determine the relative position of points and lines on the surface of the earth o Relocation Survey – survey intended to verify the boundaries of the property. The purpose of this is to ascertain whether or not there are encroachments.
27. 27. o Subdivision survey – a survey to determine the boundaries of each lot in a subdivision project o Topographic plan – plan showing various elevations of the property o Contour lines – lines in a topographic plan which indicate the elevation of the land at various sections o Subdivision – a tract of land, in general, subdivided into two or more lots
28. 28.  
29. 29.   FOR REAL ESTATE BROKERS
30. 30. o Types of Map o Map symbol o Map Scale o Important information in a map o o Cardinal direction (north, south, east, west) o o Bearings and azimuth (technical description) o o Scale say 1:200
31. 31. MAP SCALE Map Scale = indicates the relationship between a certain distance on the map and the distance on the ground. Often located in the “legend box” Types of Scales: 1. Ratio or Representative Fraction (RF) o Example: 1/100,000 or 1:100,000 2. Word statement o "One centimeter equals ten kilometers.“ 3. Graphic Scale
32. 32. 1. Vicinity Map/Location Map 2. Subdivision Plan 3. Lot Plan 4. Topographic Map 5. Geohazard Map 6. Land use Map
33. 33.  Location of property  Name of owner/declarant  Location of land  Legal reference point  Bearings and distance from tie point to reference point  Bearings and distances from point 1 to the end of the lot  Technical description  Lot drawing or subdivision plan
34. 34.  Area of lot  Boundaries  Date of survey  Date of approval  Name of surveyor
35. 35.  WHAT IS A COMPASS? o is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth o The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) – north, south, east, and west.  Can used for orienting a map  Can be use to find direction  Can be use to find location
36. 36. Orienting, or aligning, the map is really easy with just 3 steps: • Lay your map out on a relatively flat, smooth surface. • Turn your declination-adjusted compass dial so due North is at the index pointer. • Place your compass on your map with the edge of the base plate parallel to the north-south meridians on the map. • Turn the map and compass together until the compass needle is "boxed" in the orienting arrow
37. 37.  Seatwork 1. N30degW 2. S30degE 3. N33degE 4. S33degW 5. N76degE
38. 38.  
39. 39. Lot Plotting – drawing the exact shape (square, rectangle, trapezoid) and measurement of a particular lot from the technical descriptions shown in the title. The boundaries and lot orientation on the north, east,west and south are also attained.
40. 40.  Cul-de-sac – a passageway with only one outlet. A blind alley.  Key lot – exists when a lot has several otherhomes backing onto the side of the home. If you were to walk along the side of a key lot you’d be able to see two or three of the neighbors’ backyards
41. 41. o TCT Serial No. o TCT Number o Page and Book Number o Location of the property (Lot, Block and Survey No.) o Technical description o Tie line o Reference points o Name and address of registered owner o Original registration of OCT o Place, date and time of last registration
42. 42.  Name and signature of register of deeds  o Encumbrances annotated at the back of the title such as: o o Subdivision restriction o o Right-of-way o o Mortgage and other liens (loans, mechanics, tax) o o Lis pendens (property is under litigation) o o Sec. 4 Rule 74 of the Rules of Court o o Writ of attachment and execution o o Lease contract, Contract to sell
43. 43.  Measuring a Bearing .When measuring a quadrant bearing using a protractor, it is important to note that a protractor has a baseline, an origin and a set of graduated scales (outer scale and inner scale) running opposite of each other. One row of numbers begins with 0 and run to 180 with the other running opposite from 180 to 0. With two sets of numbers, it can be confusing at first determining which number to use, but remembering a simple rule will help. The rule is that you always count up from zero. In addition, remembering that each quadrant runs from 0 to 90 degrees will help determine which number to use, meaning that for a quadrant bearing, you will always select the lesser of the two numbers shown on the scales.  Remember that a bearing is always measured toward East or West from North or South and although there are 360 degrees in a complete circle, quadrant bearings or 90 degrees in each quarter-circle are used when plotting legal descriptions. Each degree has 60 minutes and each minute has 60 seconds.
44. 44.  Seatwork  1. N 90 degrees E ___  2. S 45 degrees E ___  3. N 15 degrees E ___  4. S 05 degrees E ___  5. N 40 degrees E ___
45. 45. NORTH
46. 46. NORTH
47. 47. NORTHEAST
48. 48. NORTHWEST
49. 49. SOUTH
50. 50. SOUTH
51. 51. SOUTHEAST
52. 52. SOUTHWEST
53. 53. o Compare lot plan, title and tax declaration whether they are agreeable with each other like name or owner, bearings, boundaries, etc. o Further verification is done by asking the help of the assessor thru its tax mapping division o If it is a subdivision lot, refer to the subdivision developer, homeowners association, owners of adjacent lots as to the correctness of the plan as shown in the TCT o If the lot is not within the subdivision, hire a licensed geodetic engineer especially if the property is rawland. o Verify actual area vs area stated in the title. Check possible encroachments.
54. 54.  Plot the technical description of a property  Use protractor, ruler and Manila Paper  Presentation
55. 55. Legal Description Site Location Map Reading Lot Plotting Questions???
56. 56.   Mobile : 0917 488 5555 Landline: (32) 421 2003 www.appraisalcebu.wordpress.com